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Topic: Extrapolation

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In the News (Sat 25 Nov 17)

  Propaganda Critic: Logical fallacies > Extrapolation
Driven to the defensive, he finds it hard to disprove something which has not yet happened.
Extrapolation is what scientists call such predictions, with the warning that they must be used with caution.
A homely illustration is the driver who found three gas stations per mile along a stretch of the Montreal highway in Vermont, and concluded that there must be plenty of gas all the way to the North Pole.
www.propagandacritic.com /articles/lf.extrapolation.html   (313 words)

  Extrapolation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of constructing new data points outside a discrete set of known data points.
Polynomial extrapolation is typically done by means of Lagrange interpolation or using Newton's method of finite differences to create a Newton series that fits the data.
The extent to which an extrapolation is accurate is known as the "prediction confidence interval," and is usually expressed as an upper and lower boundary within which the prediction is expected to be accurate 19 times out of 20 (a 95% confidence interval).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Extrapolation   (1082 words)

 Motion-Induced Perceptual Extrapolation of Blurred Visual Targets -- Fu et al. 21 (20): 172 -- Journal of Neuroscience
Note that the scale of the y-axis in D is different from that in B and in Figure 1D-F, indicating that the perceptual extrapolation for orientation-defined moving target is qualitatively but not quantitatively similar to that for luminance- or contrast-defined targets.
Brenner E, Smeets JB (2000) Motion extrapolation is not responsible for the flash-lag effect.
Whitney D, Murakami I, Cavanagh P (2000) Illusory spatial offset of a flash relative to a moving stimulus is caused by differential latencies for moving and flashed stimuli.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/21/20/RC172   (4014 words)

 Geographic interpolation and extrapolation by means of neural networks
The goal is to interpolate and extrapolate a studied phenomenon considered as a scalar or vector field from a given set of data (source points with fixed attribute values).
Extrapolation must be clearly defined, according to statistical data at the edges of the studied space.
Extrapolation is considered as an extension of the same principles.
libraries.maine.edu /Spatial/gisweb/spatdb/egis/eg94078.html   (3515 words)

 Retrograde Extrapolation in Los Angeles DUI Cases
Retrograde extrapolation is the process whereby the result of a blood alcohol test taken sometime after an incident is used to determine the blood alcohol concentration at the time of the incident.
In order for retrograde extrapolation to be made, it is important to know that the individual has essentially absorbed all the alcohol he consumed, and his blood alcohol is now decreasing.
One variable in extrapolating blood-alcohol levels in a Los Angeles DUI case, the rate of absorption of alcohol, may be affected by a number of factors, such as the presence or absence of ingested food - and may vary further in relation to the amount and type of food consumed and when it was consumed.
www.drunkdriving-california.net /retrograde_extrapolation.html   (668 words)

 Extrapolation Woes   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Extrapolation is based upon an assumption of consistency.
The theory of plate tectonics, in essence, looks at the current micro-slow movement of plates and is compelled to assume, based on the prior assumption of consistency, that creeping has always been the case.
Millimeters and centimeters of movement are extrapolated from.
www.poleshift.org /Extrapolation_Woes.html   (332 words)

 What's the point? Interpolation and extrapolation with a regular grid DEM
Extrapolation is an extension of interpolation to locations outside the current spatial domain.
One can think of extrapolation as "standing in the terrain and given my field of view, what is my elevation at a location one step backwards?" This approach to elevation prediction is at the heart of many new techniques of data compression that are applied to DEMs.
Extrapolation is currently a hot topic of research within the fields of data and image compression.
www.geovista.psu.edu /sites/geocomp99/Gc99/082/gc_082.htm   (6132 words)

 Chapter 3
Since minimum energy extrapolation methods assume that the known samples are taken at places of maximum energy, Potter and Arun [16] developed an extrapolation algorithm that includes weights based on energy distribution.
Minimum energy extrapolation methods assume that the known data is taken at positions of maximum energy and that the signal is a narrow band signal.
Energy concentration extrapolation methods weigh the signal based on its energy distribution thus eliminating the assumption of where the known data is taken.
www.music.miami.edu /PROGRAMS/mue/mue2003/research/asouppa/chapter3.htm   (1623 words)

This new data set takes the name of the current attribute (the result selected for extrapolation), unless this attribute name already exists for element results, in which case the user is then prompted for a new attribute name.
The extrapolated results will be valid only if the gauss point coordinates are given in their undeformed state.
When the Gauss Points coordinates are unknown (set to zero in FEMVIEW), extrapolation is performed by calculating the average of the results at all the element Gauss Points and allocating this averaged value to each of the element nodes.
www.princeton.edu /~dynaflow/femgv/manuals/userman/node283.htm   (282 words)

Thus far from overestimating the deaths caused elsewhere by extrapolating them from those clustered in Fallujah, as the PMOS suggests, in fact the figure of 100,000 deaths does not take into account the exceptionally high mortality probably caused in the area of the most intensive bombing, namely Fallujah.
Almost all surveys except censuses involve 'extrapolation techniques' (using a sample rather than the entire population), since it is simply impossible to survey every member of a country's population.
Extrapolation is a universally recognised method that governments and academics use to obtain data, and it is remarkable to see a government spokesperson rejecting it outright.
www.casi.org.uk /briefing/041101lancetpmos.html   (1577 words)

 Visual extrapolation of contour geometry -- Singh and Fulvio 102 (3): 939 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
to a circular extrapolation of estimated inducer curvature.
Because its decrease in curvature is linear, the Euler
a linear increase in extrapolation curvature with inducer curvature,
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/102/3/939   (3869 words)

 Projections of the Number of Persons Living Alone by Sex
This equation is not good for extrapolation because the numbers of women that live alone keep getting higher.
Both the logarithmic and power equations are good for extrapolation because they show a slow growth over a period of time.
This equation is not good for extrapolation unless the number of the male population grows exponentially to the female population.
www.ac.cc.md.us /~marks/gender.htm   (1170 words)

 Extrapolation Techniques Page
Extrapolation Techniques are "curve fitting" techniques in which the analyst plots total population data from past years, chooses a best-fitting curve for that data, and then extends that curve to project future values.
Extrapolation Techniques have very low data requirements, in the form of an area's total population figures for a number of past years, and therefore are preferred because of this.
Therefore, extrapolation techniques should be used carefully and with a full understanding of their limitations.
garnet.acns.fsu.edu /~tchapin/urp5261/topics/demog/extrap.htm   (722 words)

 Numerical Analysis Vol. II: Interpolation and extrapolation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Extrapolation is used in numerical analysis to improve the accuracy of a process depending of
The most well-known extrapolation processes are certainly Romberg's method for improving the convergence of the trapezoidal rule for the computation of a de nite integral and Aitken's process which can be found in any textbook of numerical analysis.
The theory of extrapolation methods lays on the solution of the system of linear equations corresponding to the interpolation conditions.
www.edaboard.com /ftopic77192.html   (596 words)

Measured behaviour of processes are usually interpolated between points of information, and extrapolated to the area beyond known points with due caution and reservations.
The legitimate extrapolation extends a short and reasonable distance to the unknown field.
Extrapolation beyond the measured ranges is a scientific speculation, a way to make a hypothesis to work towards.
agricola2000.tripod.com /Adventures_into_the_Unknown.htm   (441 words)

 Kamvar, Sepandar; Haveliwala, Taher; Manning, Chris; Golub, Gene: Extrapolation Methods for Accelerating PageRank ...
The algorithm presented here, called Quadratic Extrapolation, accelerates the convergence of the Power Method by periodically subtracting off estimates of the nonprincipal eigenvectors from the current iterate of the Power Method.
In Quadratic Extrapolation, we take advantage of the fact that the first eigenvalue of a Markov matrix is known to be 1 to compute the nonprincipal eigenvectors using successive iterates of the Power Method.
Our contribution is useful to the PageRank community and the numerical linear algebra community in general, as it is a fast method for determining the dominant eigenvector of a matrix that is too large for standard fast methods to be practical.
dbpubs.stanford.edu:8090 /pub/2003-16   (474 words)

 Image Processing By Interp and Extrapolation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Extrapolation is particularly useful if a degenerate version of the image is used as the image to get "away from." Extrapolating away from a fl-and-white image increases saturation.
Interpolation and extrapolation of images can be a unifying approach, providing a single function that supports many common image processing operations.
Since a degenerate image is sometimes easier to calculate, extrapolation may offer a more efficient method to achieve effects such as sharpening or saturation.
netpbm.sourceforge.net /doc/extendedopacity.html   (782 words)

 Track Extrapolation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The macro for matching muons to extrapolated tracks in releases p11 onward or monte carlo is here, with instructions here.
The extrapolation code then tries to extrapolate to each surface in turn until the correct one is found.
The actual extrapolation is quite CPU intensive (due to the magnetic field and MC calculations) so really we want to do as few as possible.
www-d0.fnal.gov /~ghesketh/tracking/index.html   (1182 words)

 Extrapolation : application to evolutionary thought
Charles Darwin also used extrapolation to come to his conclusion of the evolutionary origin of species.
So micro-evolution means that if a long beak is needed for survival, then those with naturally long beaks will live and pass on this trait to their offspring.
Darwin was not careful with his scientific extrapolation, and therefore came to erroneous conclusions.
www.eadshome.com /extrapolation.htm   (442 words)

 Extrapolation Using a Difference Table   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A very old technique for extrapolating a sequence of values is based on the use of a difference table.
To extrapolate using a difference table we assume the n-1st differences are constant (since we have no additional informafion to refute that assumption).
The last item in the input for each extrapolation request is k, the number of extrapolation operations to perform; it will always be at least 1.
acm.uva.es /p/v3/326.html   (534 words)

 [No title]
Extrapolation is used to determine the behavior for a channel before the first or after the last keyframe.
Extrapolation is useful when you want to create a cyclical effect, such as a shutter flicker (as you would find in an old-time movie clip).
Cycles the animation as it appears between the first and last keyframe, similarly to Loop extrapolation, but with a relative offset based on the channel value at the last keyframe.
web.tiscali.it /olgab/09_Keyanim31.html   (309 words)

 Extrapolation Methods for Accelerating PageRank Computations
In Quadratic Extrapolation, we take advantage of the fact that the first eigenvalue of a Markov matrix is known to be 1 to compute estimates of the nonprincipal eigenvectors using successive iterates of the Power Method.
The operation count of one extrapolation step is less than the operation count of a single iteration of the Power Method, and since Aitken Extrapolation may be applied only periodically, we say that Aitken Extrapolation has minimal overhead.
Since the extrapolation step is on the order of a single iteration of the Power Method, and since Quadratic Extrapolation is applied only periodically during the Power Method, we say that Quadratic Extrapolation has minimal overhead.
www2003.org /cdrom/papers/refereed/p270/kamvar-270-xhtml/index.html   (5040 words)

 Richardson extrapolation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In numerical analysis, Richardson extrapolation is a method to improve an approximation that depends on a step size.
A well-known practical use of Richardson extrapolation is Romberg integration, which applies Richardson extrapolation to the trapezium rule.
It should be noted that the Richardson extrapolation can be considered as a linear sequence transformation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Richardson_extrapolation   (323 words)

 Pages of Fire: Discography: Extrapolation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Extrapolation was McLaughlin's first album release as a leader and sounds as fresh today as it did way back in 1969.
Extrapolation features the great John Surman on sax, Tony Oxley on drums and last minute replacement for Dave Holland who had just left for America for the sudden opportunity to play with Miles, Brian Odges on bass.
Extrapolation is a must CD for any McLaughlin fan.
www.cs.cf.ac.uk /Dave/mclaughlin/disc/full/6.html   (203 words)

 Extrapolation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
PROC EXPAND normally avoids extrapolation of values beyond the time range of the nonmissing input data for a series, unless the EXTRAPOLATE option is used.
This extrapolation is made only to the extent needed to complete the terminal output intervals that overlap the endpoints of the input series and is limited to no more than the width of one FROM= interval or one TO= interval, whichever is less.
For the SPLINE method, extrapolation is performed by a linear projection of the trend of the cubic spline curve fit to the input data, not by extrapolation of the first and last cubic segments.
www.asu.edu /it/fyi/dst/helpdocs/statistics/sas/sasdoc/sashtml/ets/chap11/sect23.htm   (346 words)

 An Optimal Statistical Model for Extrapolation of the Maryland Child Support Guidelines by Hans Dutt
The objective of this analysis is not theoretical academic work, but to provide extrapolation of the child support tables which would likely reflect the intent of the legislators when developing the guidelines.
The most important contribution of this work is not the fact that extrapolation tables are provided, but extrapolation tables are provided that are objective and whose accuracy is quantifiable.
Examination of the extrapolated tables from this model successfully predicts what Maryland would award as the basic child support obligation within a couple of dollars for under $10,000 in combined gross income.
www.deltabravo.net /custody/dutt-study2.php   (1591 words)

 6.4 Finite size correction and extrapolation formulae
The extrapolation procedure is costly because it involves more calculations and is prone to inaccuracy because one has to perform a fit with only a few data points.
The LDA gives the XC energy for the infinite system irrespective of the size of the simulation cell, but the XC energy obtained from a many-body simulation using the Hamiltonian of equation 6.1 with the Ewald interaction gives an XC energy which depends on the size and shape of the simulation cell.
Consequently, evaluating the correction term in equation 6.4 within the LDA does not give a good approximation to the finite size correction in the many-body simulation and a significant extrapolation term remains.
www.physics.uc.edu /~pkent/thesis/pkthnode48.html   (818 words)

 DUI Blood Extrapolation 1 800 Dial DUI Inc. Attorneys Wheaton Illinois
Jones is pragmatic in his approach to the subject of retrograde extrapolation.
of Dubowski's proclamation that retrograde extrapolation is not forensically feasible, he does call the endeavor a "dubious" practice.
and that as a scientific principle retrograde extrapolation is accepted by the scientific community.
www.1-800-dial-dui-detroit-michigan.com /retrograde_extrapolation.shtml   (1888 words)

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