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Topic: Extremes of Altitude

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In the extreme west are the very narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, which are backed by the Serranía de Baudó, the lowest and narrowest of Colombia's mountain ranges.
The tierra templada (temperate land), extending from an altitude of 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m), is the zone of coffee and maize.
Treeless pastures dominate the páramos, or alpine grasslands, at altitudes of 12,800 to 15,100 ft (3,900 to 4,600 m).
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Colombia   (4537 words)

  Altitude: Acclimatization To Intermediate Altitudes
As extremes of altitude are reached, the normal lung faces additional impediments in transferring oxygen to the blood.
At extreme altitudes (over 5,000 meters) there is a progressive decrease in muscle fiber size and oxidative enzyme activity.
While they may be used by the uninformed altitude traveler to improve the poor quality of sleep that is commonly experienced, the consequence of their ingestion is the further reduction in arterial oxygen saturation during sleep cycling.
www.sportsci.org /encyc/altitaccl/altitaccl.html   (1967 words)

 [No title]
Altitudes above 14,000 ft produce hemoglobin saturations that are on the “steep” portion of the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve where a small decrease in oxygen tension results in a relatively large drop in hemoglobin saturation.
However, at extreme altitudes the effect of the severe respiratory alkalosis predominates, and the curve is shifted to the left.
Altitude Acclimatization and Physiology Banderet, L.E., and R.L. Burse.
www.usariem.army.mil /download/worddocs/highmountain.doc   (14362 words)

 Stones of Wonder - how to use the site description pages
The advantage of observing the full moons in preference to other moons is the same now as it was in the prehistoric past - we always know when the full moons will rise and set.
The figures given above can be compared with the values from the site surveys to determine whether the sun or the moon is the likely target, and at which point of the year or cycle.
The present-day values of the solar and lunar extreme positions have changed slightly over the centuries since the monuments were erected, because of the precession of the equinoxes - the 'wobble' of the earth as it spins on its axis.
www.stonesofwonder.com /using.htm   (1014 words)

 Federal Aviation Administration - Airman Education Programs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This training is extremely important due to the large number of general aviation pilots who are unaware of the physiological problems that can affect their safety during flight.
Participating in an altitude chamber flight would give you the opportunity to experience hypoxia first hand; you would be able to experience your own symptoms, and would be able to observe the signs of hypoxia in the other class participants.
The key, then, to flying safely at altitude is to be able to: identify the flight condition in which you may become hypoxic, recognize your personal hypoxia symptoms, and to recover from hypoxia before you have gone beyond your ability or desire to help yourself.
www.faa.gov /pilots/training/airman_education/topics_of_interest/hypoxia/rem_hypoxia/index.cfm   (1728 words)

 Nepal Trekking Trip Grades, Trekking Grades, Rafting Grades, Expedition Grades, Trekking Gradations, Nepal Grip ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Some walking at higher altitude and the occasional longer or more difficult day may be involved, but generally conditions underfoot will be fair.
At this level we recommend previous experience of trekking, preferably at altitude, and you need complete confidence in your physical condition and your ability to trek for many days without a break and be able to cope with difficult underfoot terrain such as scree, snow or difficult paths on steep mountainsides.
Extremes of altitude and weather may also be encountered, and on some treks it may be necessary to use ice axe and crampons.
www.nepalholiday.com /nepal/about_us/trip_grades.htm   (574 words)

 The Geostationary Orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Satellites in low orbits, altitudes of a few hundred to a thousand kilometers, have orbital periods less than two hours; in contrast, the moon, at an altitude of about 380,000 kilometers, has an orbital period of about 27 days.
Between these two extremes is an altitude that corresponds to an orbital period of one day.
This altitude is 35,787 kilometers, and the orbit is called a synchronous or geosynchronous orbit.
www.aero.org /publications/crosslink/winter2002/01_sidebar1.html   (346 words)

 Rock Climbing.com View topic - La Sportiva Nepal Top Extremes for High Altitude (20k feet)?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
I defenitely agree with punk on this one.
The Nepal Extreme is a bit narrow for a lot of people, which leads to less than perfect circulation, which leads to cold feet.
New Nepal EVO Extremes and the new Tran...
www.rockclimbing.com /topic/31127   (1403 words)

 Human Biological Adaptability: Adapting to High Altitude
First, there are the alternating daily extremes of climate that often range from hot, sunburning days to freezing nights.
However, the air pressure is 30% lower at the higher altitude due to the fact that the atmosphere is less dense--that is, the air molecules are farther apart.
The implication is that natural selection over thousands of years results in some populations being genetically more suited to the stresses at high altitude.
anthro.palomar.edu /adapt/adapt_3.htm   (859 words)

 [No title]
Physiologic effects of altitude acclimatization and exercise Heart Studies have been conflicting regarding the impact of increasing altitude on cardiac output and contractility.
Lungs An individual's initial response to the lowered oxygen tension at altitude is to increase ventilation, by increasing the rate and volume of breaths.
Muscle Conditioning at intermediate altitudes results in increased buffering capacity of muscle, increased capillary supply to muscle, and a substantial improvement in aerobic capacity.
www.sportsci.org /encyc/drafts/Altitude_acclimatization/altitaccled.doc   (2002 words)

 Conformity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Under NEBS test, more extreme conditions are applied to the equipment in their non-operational transportation and storage configurations – but generally these are of less concern because the products are rarely physically damaged by the extremes applied.
Altitude is investigated from Death Valley at 60m below sea level to the continental divide at 4000m.
At the lower temperature and altitude combinations the products adequate performance is a requirement, but at higher combinations it is considered an objective as laid out in Table 2.
www.conformity.com /A06/A06_F23.html   (1342 words)

Pakistan is mostly a dry region characterized by great extremes of altitude and temperature.
Dense forests of spruce, evergreen oak, chir or cheer pine, and a cedar known as the deodar are found at lower altitudes.
The ethnological background of the population of Pakistan is extremely varied, largely because the country lies in an area that was invaded and occupied repeatedly during its long history.
www.history.com /encyclopedia.do?vendorId=FWNE.fw..pa004300.a#FWNE.fw..pa004300.a   (6386 words)

 High Altitude Physiology
Upon arrival at altitude, oxygen delivery – ml O2/min to tissues - is maintained by increasing:
Those who were successful at higher altitudes have a greater capacity to hyperventilate.
High altitude climbers also battle against dehydration (high respiratory water loss, loss with bicarb excretion, loss with vomiting), anorexia, and loss of muscle mass which may compromise exercise performance independent of O
jan.ucc.nau.edu /pe/exs336web/336altitude.htm   (398 words)

 Altitude fuel control valve - Patent 4154782
Consequently, the rate of metered fuel flow at such respective extremes of altitude is significantly effected because of the relative change in atmospheric pressure which is employed as the reference pressure in determining the effective available metering pressure.
Similarly, the rate of metered main fuel flow is primarily dependent upon the magnitude of the said pressure differential across the fuel within the main fuel metering system and the effective metering or flow area of main fuel metering restriction means such as at 62 and/or 62a.
In this condition of operation (a relatively high altitude operation where less dense air exists) the only path for fuel to flow into the main wells is through respective main fuel metering restrictions 62 and 62a.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4154782.html   (2685 words)

 Altitude Exposure After Diving
It is generally recognized that altitude exposure after diving poses some increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS).
The state of the body that describes the probability of dissolved nitrogen coming out of solution to produce DCS is referred to as "decompression stress." It is thought by many researchers that disordering of the microcirculation can occur in some situations such as multiple or deep dives, thus interfering with predictable off-gassing of nitrogen.
These guidelines are an attempt to introduce a surface interval prior to altitude exposure in order to minimize decompression stress without an unnecessary delay in travel.
faculty.washington.edu /ekay/altitude.html   (745 words)

 Idaho Mountain Express: Frostnip, frostbite and the extremities of cold
The pain of excessive cold, like the pain of extreme heat, is the body’s early warning system to whoever is in charge that the body is in danger of incurring damage.
The variables of those conditions--temperature, humidity, wind, altitude, clothing, fatigue, tightness of glove and boots, individual metabolism, personal history with cold weather, time of exposure, etc. --are so complex that there is no pat formula to describe it.
Most instances of frostbite are completely preventable, even at extremes of altitude, temperature and fatigue.
www.mtexpress.com /1998/12-30-98/frost.htm   (938 words)

 world's best responsible/ecotourism holidays
Although these trips are not at higher altitudes, and will have time for rest, remember that the walks will not be flat and that you'll enjoy them even more if you've built up a little stamina!
Extremes of altitude and weather may also be encountered and walking days can be from 6 to 9 hours.
As you will be at altitude you will need to be in good health, and have good stamina and fitness for those uphill days.
www.responsibletravel.com /Copy/Copy102360.htm   (547 words)

The country has climatic and ecological extremes with altitude varying from sea level to over 5000 m in the highlands.
Other humid areas with an altitude less than 1500 m (humid lowlands) have sandy soils which are well drained and are of loamy, sandy clay texture e.g., along the Kenyan coast.
This region lies within an altitude range of 1800 to 2400 m and is characterized by high rainfall of over 1000 mm p.a.
www.fao.org /ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/Kenya.htm   (6206 words)

 Pararescuemen Chance the Extremes
- From an altitude of 3,500 feet, Air Force pararescue jumpers, or PJs, leap from a C-130 Hercules in an effort to rescue three victims from the frigid waters of the Kachemak Bay in Alaska.
Each of these events focused on the recovery and medical treatment of servicemembers in simulated combat environments, such as a fighter pilot who ejected from a burning aircraft.
For each scenario, PJs chanced the extremes, jumping out of planes, fast-roping from helicopters and ice-climbing through the glaciers of Alaska, to practice saving people’s lives.
www.military.com /features/0,15240,101528,00.html   (453 words)

 Bhutan Trip Grades
Altitude, climate and remoteness play a part in the grading.
Accommodations on some days will be extremely basic with shared ‘pit’ variety toilets and no washing facilities.
The koras (circumambulation) of Mount Kailash and/or Lake Manasarovar are challenging due to the altitude, but generally achievable by anyone in good health.
www.royal-mt-trek.com /bhutan/trip_grades.php   (467 words)

 PECAD—Commodity Intelligence Report
Bolivia lies between 10-23 degrees south of the equator and has a highly variable climate owing to its location in the tropics and the extremes of altitude that exist in the country.
Crop yields are generally low in the highlands and eastern valleys owing to extremely low levels of fertilizer/manure usage, lack of improved crop varieties, and irrigation.
Barley is an important cash and fodder crop for the country’s indigenous farm population, with cultivation centered in the high altitude “altiplano” region and in the eastern valleys.
www.fas.usda.gov /pecad/highlights/2005/10/bolivia_12oct2005   (3802 words)

 Altitudes in the County range from 4,000 above sea level in the high desert at the southern end of the county to ...
Altitudes in the County range from 4,000 above sea level in the high desert at the southern end of the county to mountains touching 10,000 feet in the north.
And although we're part of the sunny southwest, there is just enough of a Fall and Winter to assure us four gentle seasons, with blazing fall foliage and — at least occasionally — a little snow to frame our spectacular views.
Silver City, Bayard, Hurley and the central part of the county are just under 6,000 feet above sea level.
www.silvercity.org /altitude.shtml   (643 words)

 Monograph V
In addition, to the extremely accurate account of the end game, reasonably precise trajectory data on both missile and drone were required throughout the flight.
To what extent unexpected phenomena might be encountered at extremes of altitude or other parameters remained to be experienced or explored on future occasions.
On the other hand, at the long-range moderate end of a coasting flight, previous tests had already shown the missile to be controllable in the transonic and subsonic areas down to much lower speeds than had been assumed at the time of the AAGM report.
ed-thelen.org /mono-5.html   (3928 words)

 Content Page
The team will make the climb during the pre-monsoon season of 2004 and will be attempting to reach the summit without the use of bottled oxygen and with minimal Sherpa support.
Starting at the airstrip altitude of 483m the trail follows the Arun River until breaking away from the river to enter the National Park at Sedua.
In addition to coping with the extremes of altitude and weather the team will have to overcome the major rock obstacle known as the "Black Gendarme", which guards the ridge at 7400m.
www.makalu2004.com /makalu.asp   (346 words)

 NOVA Online | Teachers | Program Overview | Everest—The Death Zone | PBS
In this environment, climbers confront an atmosphere of one-third less oxygen than at sea level and life-threatening, frigid temperatures.
This episode of NOVA follows a doctor at Everest's Base Camp who tracks and analyzes the effects of this harsh environment on climbers' bodies and cognitive functions.
The data reveal to what extent these climbers' bodies can adapt and survive at high altitudes.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/teachers/programs/2506_everest.html   (132 words)

 2000 Cadillac Catera   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The first half is paved, and the last fourteen miles are a hard packed dirt track that is the site of one of the most famous races in the world.
Starting at well over 8,000 feet and climbing up to 12,000 it is not only a test of a driver's skill, but a measure of a car's ability to handle difficult roads as well as extremes of altitude.
There were four of us in Cadillac's new Catera Sport, and being under some time constraints, we were trying to cover about half of the hill climb route to give the area newcomers a sense of this fabled roadway.
www.cartrackers.com /am/showarticle.php?id=5970   (1546 words)

 Mountain dwellers live longer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Recently scientists have been trying to isolate the cultural and genetic factors behind the ability to adapt and to survive extremes of altitude and cold, of which Tibetans have a legendary reputation conditioned by the extreme environment of the Tibetan plateau and they have discovered a gene which improves oxygen saturation in hemoglobin.
The conclusion reached was that other 'protective factors' must be in action as blood lipids and blood pressure were higher among the mountain residents.
It appears that living at moderately high altitude produces long term physiological changes in the body enabling it to cope with lower levels of oxygen, and this, along with the exertion required to walk uphill regularly on rugged terrain, could give the heart a better work-out.
www.news-medical.net /?id=8467   (567 words)

 PWT Website
There are 3 bright Iridium flares this week: On 13th at 22.56.07, 17 degrees altitude WSW, on 14th at 22.50.13 at 18 degrees altitude WSW and on 17th at 22.41.31 at 17 deg.
On 11th Febraury (Saturday) at 18.52.26 at 46 degrees altitude, direction SSE we are almost directly under the reflected sunlight beam from Iridium satellite Iridium 4.
altitude in N and on Wednesday at 20.42.45 at 25 deg.
www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk /~ceb/pwt/whatsup.shtml   (17819 words)

 CPD; Central America regional overview
Natural richness is evident considering that this small tropical region has 20 life zones ranging from semi-desert to cloud forest, with 8% of the world's known plant species and 10% of its vertebrates.
Central America "is a delicate strip of land, a region of extremes.
It has a distinct, heterogeneous nature with extremely steep terrains, ample variety of climate and perhaps a higher propensity for natural disasters than any other territory on the planet" (Leonard 1987).
www.nmnh.si.edu /botany/projects/cpd/ma/macentral.htm   (8395 words)

 New Directions International   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
As is always the case on these mission trips, we will experience the spiritual extremes between those who have come to know Christ, and those who are still living in the “kingdom of darkness” (Col. 1:13), because they are in bondage to the evil one (Acts 26:17-18; II Tim.
The first physical extreme begins with the usual challenge of “jet lag.” After we begin our first flight this Thursday, we will basically fly for 24 hours from Raleigh to Bombay/Mumbai via Amsterdam, with only brief plane changes at various airports.
Obviously all of these extremes we will briefly experience on this trip are nothing when compared to the extreme pain and extreme shame that Christ faced on the cross for you and me! Also, the extremes that we will face for a couple of weeks are only temporal and temporary.
www.newdirections.org /news.php?page=3&id=395   (1711 words)

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