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Topic: FOXP2

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  The FOXP2 story
The trail to the new gene, known as FOXP2, began in 1996 when Professor Monaco was approached by clinicians working at the Institute of Child Health in London who had been treating a unique family with a severe speech and language disorder (the 'KE' family).
The mutation found in FOXP2 in the KE family lies in a critical region of the encoded protein, leaving the cell reliant on just one copy of the normal gene.
The estimate of when the human-specific form of FOXP2 became established in the population is intriguing as it is around the time of a population growth of modern humans believed to be driven by the appearance of a more proficient spoken language, probably some 50 000 years ago.
www.wellcome.ac.uk /doc_WTD004683.html   (0 words)

  FOX P2: a Human Language Gene
The gene was localized to the seventh chromosome and subsequently identified as the FOXP2 gene.
FOXP2 is one of a family of proteins containing the "forkhead" homeobox sequence, a broadly conserved DNA binding domain.
In mice, the FOXP2 gene is active during the development of the cerebral cortex; presumably the action is similar in humans.
www.whozoo.org /mac/Music/foxp2.htm   (359 words)

FOXP2 ("forkhead box P2") is a gene that is implicated in the development of language skills, including grammatical competence.
There are several reasons for believing that the linguistic impairments associated with a mutation of the FOXP2 gene are not simply the result of a fundamental deficit in motor control.
Although FOXP2 exists in many animals, the modern human form of FOXP2 appears to have evolved in Homo sapiens some time in the last 200,000 years.
www.1bx.com /en/FOXP2.htm   (375 words)

 The Scientist : Molecular evolution of language
FOXP2, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, was the first gene associated with the development of speech and language in humans.
A point mutation in FOXP2 is associated with a severe speech and language disorder in a family in which half the members are affected.
This FOXP2 variant was probably fixed in the human population during the past 200,000 years and may have enabled humans to control orofacial movements and therefore the development of speech.
www.the-scientist.com /news/20020815/02   (251 words)

 Language Log: The continuing misrepresentation of FOXP2 effects
FOXP2 is not the mythical grammar gene, no matter what you may have read about it in popular accounts, especially those favoring the view that language is a genetically inherited attribute of our species.
FOXP2 relates to motor routines of various sorts including some of those that are involved in speaking.
My personal view is that the breaking of FOXP2 in the KE family is more likely to have caused a cognitive deficiency during development in those affected rather than a purely physical deficiency in oro-facial motor skills, and that these motor deficiencies are a secondary phenomenon, perhaps caused by lack of use.
itre.cis.upenn.edu /~myl/languagelog/archives/002456.html   (1405 words)

 Is there a language gene?
For example, the FOXP2 protein has been isolated in the mouse, and it was determined that the related protein varied from that of its human counterpart by only three amino acids.
A number of advancements, which utimately led to the discovery of the FOXP2 gene, were largely due to the study of a family referred to as KE in which several generations of people all displayed an extreme speech and language disorder.
In the middle portion of the article, Weiss explained that this discovery is an important spring board for the study of language in humans on the genetic level and for a better understanding of the reasons for the lack of a comparable language level in other animal species.
www.bio.davidson.edu /courses/genomics/2003/cheuy/FOXP2.html   (1110 words)

 Protein Spotlight Issue 51: Talking heads
FOXP2 appears pretty early in foetal development where it is found in the brain.
FOXP2 is a transcription factor, and it is probably at the top of a genetic cascade which ultimately has an effect on brain development, and more specifically on parts of the brain involved in language.
FOXP2 and the KE family have certainly shed a different light on the theory of the origin and development of language in humans, as well as inflictions related to language.
www.expasy.org /spotlight/back_issues/sptlt051.shtml   (1275 words)

 FOXP2 and the Evolution of Language
They report that: 'Disruption of both copies of the Foxp2 gene caused severe motor impairment, premature death, and an absence of ultrasonic vocalizations that are elicited when pups are removed from their mothers.
We have already seen that in all cases, in all species investigated, the amino acid mutated in the KE family is identical.
The mutation that affects half the members of the KE family is known to cause the problems with speech, but it is in an entirely different part of the gene from the changes that have occurred in the human lineage.
www.evolutionpages.com /FOXP2_language.htm   (0 words)

 The Loom: From Genes to Words
FOXP2 belongs to a family of genes found in animals and fungi.
By comparing the minor differences in FOXP2 carried by different people, the scientists were able to estimate when that natural selection took place--roughly 100,000 years ago.
In the spring of this year there was an article on FoxP2 in birds that learn their languages, as opposed to birds who have an innate language.
www.corante.com /loom/archives/000811.html   (0 words)

 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft - Presseinformation
Neurobiologen konnten nun zeigen, dass auch beim Gesangslernen von Vögeln FoxP2 eine Schlüsselrolle spielt.
Entwicklungsabhängige Expression von FoxP2 beim Zebrafinken: Der Zeitbalken in der Mitte gibt die Zeitspanne (in Tagen) vom Schlüpfen bis zum Erwachsenenalter an.
Versuche, FoxP2 gentechnisch zu verändern und die möglichen Auswirkungen auf den Vogelgesang zu studieren, stehen daher ganz oben auf ihrem Arbeitsprogramm.
www.mpg.de /bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/pressemitteilungen/2004/pressemitteilung20040330/index.html   (711 words)

 FOXP2 - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This has provided some support for speculation about a link between the evolution of the modern human form of FOXP2 with the advent of modern human creativity and culture.
Lai CSL, Fisher SE, Hurst JA, et al.: A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder.
Enard W, Przeworski M, Fisher SE, et al.: Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/FOXP2   (218 words)

 Absence of causative mutations and presence of autism-related allele in FOXP2 in Japanese autistic patients.
Absence of causative mutations and presence of autism-related allele in FOXP2 in Japanese autistic patients.
FOXP2 was reported to be mutated in patients with a severe speech and language disorder.
FOXP2 was located on chromosome 7q31, which is one of the loci involved in autism.
www.galenicom.com /medline/article/15737702/au:Momoi+MY   (301 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
В прошлом году ученые идентифицировали первый ген (FOXP2), связанный с человеческой речью.
FOXP2 человека содержит два ключевых отличия от генов других животных [2].
A forehead-domain gene is mutated in severe speech and language disorder.
www.scientific.ru /journal/news/0902/n230902.html   (156 words)

 [No title]
FOXP2 is expressed widely in cells distributed throughout the brain, which is consistent with the cognitive, language, speech, prosody and other challenges observed in children with suspected CAS.
Moreover, findings indicating that FOXP2 is expressed in both sides of the brain, rather than in just one hemisphere, are consistent with the severity and persistence of CAS during and often beyond the developmental period.
Recent studies of several species of songbirds (Teramitsu et al., 2004) indicate that FOXP2 is especially active during the periods in which young birds learn their specific calls, providing an attractive animal model for studying comparable processes in children learning the speech and prosodic patterns of their language and local dialect.
www.apraxia-kids.org /site/apps/nl/content3.asp?c=chKMI0PIIsE&b=787891&ct=910957&printmode=1   (1040 words)

 Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example.
FOXP2 is a transcription factor involved in speech and language development.
A survey of a diverse group of placental mammals reveals the uniqueness of the human FOXP2 sequence and a population genetic analysis indicates possible adaptive selection behind the accelerated evolution.
Taken together, our results suggest an important role that FOXP2 may have played in the origin of human speech and demonstrate a strategy for identifying candidate genes underlying the emergences of human-specific features.
www.ihop-net.org /UniPub/iHOP/gp/9602566.html   (200 words)

 Infotrieve Online
FoxP2 expression in avian vocal learners and non-learners.
To test whether the expression pattern of FOXP2 is consistent with a role in learned vocal communication, we cloned zebra finch FoxP2 and its close relative FoxP1 and compared mRNA and protein distribution in developing and adult brains of a variety of avian vocal learners and non-learners, and a crocodile.
In the avian and crocodilian forebrain, FoxP2 was expressed predominantly in the striatum, a basal ganglia brain region affected in patients with FOXP2 mutations.
www4.infotrieve.com /newmedline/detail.asp?NameID=15056696&Session=&searchQuery=Haesler&count=51   (313 words)

 The FOXP2 story: A tale of genes, language and human origins
His research revolves around a key discovery made in the laboratory of Professor Tony Monaco, director of the centre in Oxford – that of the first gene shown to be necessary for the acquisition of spoken language.
But there turned out to be a precedence for mutations in the family of genes to which FOXP2 belongs – the 'forkhead' family of transcription factors.
FOXP2 appears to have been selected during recent human evolution – sometime within the last 200 000 years.
genome.wellcome.ac.uk /doc_wtd020797.html   (1306 words)

 Revista de Neurología - Visualización del resumen   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Cloning FOXP2, the first gene linked to a hereditary variant of specific language impairment (SLI), has allowed researchers to conduct more precise studies into the nature and developmental path of the molecular bases governing the organisation and functioning of the neuron centres responsible for language processing.
The FOXP2 gene codes for a transcriptional repressor that regulates the proliferation and/or migration of certain neuronal populations in the basal ganglia, cortex, cerebellum and thalamus, and presumably plays a part in the organisation and/or functioning of the fronto-thalamic-striatal system.
Moreover, the analysis of the developmental history of the gene suggests that the transcriptional factor FOXP2, although it is quite old, has undergone certain modifications in its secondary structure and has acquired a potential site for phosphorylation for protein kinase C during the recent developmental history of the human species.
www.neurologia.com /veureResum.asp?i=i&P=&idPer=&curso=&aof=00442775507226669823&Par1=ind.asp&Par2=41&Par3=01   (212 words)

 The Scientist : The Flap about FoxP2   (Site not responding. Last check: )
FoxP2 belongs to a large family of transcription factors that sport a characteristic DNA-binding domain called a forkhead or winged helix.
In the embryonic brain, FoxP2 expression is associated with the development of neural circuitry "that ultimately develops to have speech and language mapped onto it," said Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, head of the Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Unit at the Institute of Child Health, University College London, and a codiscoverer of the proposed FoxP2-language link.
FOXP2 may not be the language gene, Fisher says, but "it's like a little window into these processes." It provides ample room for exploration precisely because it's a transcription factor, which can lead naturally to discoveries of related genes, he adds.
www.the-scientist.com /2005/10/24/14/1   (1478 words)

 Foxp2 gene plays an essential role in the development of social communication
The Foxp2 gene plays an essential role in the development of social communication, according to a study led by researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Disruption of Foxp2 affected the ability of infant rodents to emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when separated from their mother and littermates, according to the study leader, Joseph D. Buxbaum, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, of Neuroscience, and of Geriatrics and Adult Development at Mount Sinai.
While Foxp2 disruption affected USVs, it did not appear to influence the structure and neural control of the vocal tract.
www.news-medical.net /?id=11258   (634 words)

 The Daily Bruin - Humans, birds share vocal learning genes
FoxP2 is expressed in different tissues besides the brain and, in the past, has been studied for a suspected role in lung development.
FoxP1 and FoxP2 are both part of a family of genes called transcription factors, which regulate other genes.
The mutation of the FoxP2 gene is of interest to scientists because it is the first case where a mutation of a single gene gives rise to a speech disorder, White said.
www.dailybruin.ucla.edu /news/printable.asp?id=28320&date=4/13/2004   (664 words)

 Scientists Identify a Language Gene
The gene, called FOXP2, was identified through studies of a severe speech and language disorder that affects almost half the members of a large family, identified only as "KE." Individuals with the disorder are unable to select and produce the fine movements with the tongue and lips that are necessary to speak clearly.
FOXP2 is responsible for the rare disorder seen in the KE family that is a unique mixture of motor and language impediments, said Monaco.
But, Monaco cautioned, "FOXP2 is unlikely to be the cause of less severe language deficits that affect approximately 4 percent of schoolchildren.
news.nationalgeographic.com /news/2001/10/1004_TVlanguagegene.html   (0 words)

To test whether FoxP2 expression is essential for vocal learning in zebra finches, we will manipulate FoxP2 gene expression in the brain region that mediates vocal learning, i.e.
In previous studies we determined that FoxP2 is expressed early during avian embryogenesis in the region that gives rise to the striatum.
To address whether FoxP2 expression influences neuronal migration during brain development, we will use local injections of RNA interference in chicken embryos and examine the migration of the striatal projection neurons from their site or origin toward their site of incorporation.
www.charite.de /sfb665/A4_project_summary.html   (383 words)

 Research, scholars, scientists, fellowships, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation - Germany - Research, scholars, ...
Furthermore, the ability to develop articulate speech relies on capabilities, such as fine motoric control of the larynx and mouth, which are absent in chimpanzees and other great apes.
A point mutation in FOXP2 cosegregates with a disorder in a large family in which half of the members have severe articulation difficulties, accompanied by linguistic and grammatical impairment.
Thus, two functional copies of FOXP2 appear to be required for acquisition of normal spoken language.
www.humboldt-foundation.de:8002 /en/netzwerk/frontiers/archiv/gafos_2004/abstracts/enard.htm   (311 words)

 BioBeat Online Magazine
The gene is called FOXP2 and it was identified in 2001 by a research team led by Professor Anthony Monaco [link a, link b, link c], director of the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics in the UK, and head of the Centre's Neurodevelopmental group (3) [see related review (4)].
Monaco and his colleagues identified the FOXP2 gene on chromosome 7 in their genetic analysis of a unique three-generation family (called the KE family) in which many family members had inherited a characteristic pattern of problems in their ability to speak.
They had noted that, to their knowledge, FOXP2 was the first gene to have been implicated in such pathways, and that its identification promised to offer the basis for insights into the molecular processes mediating language.
www.appliedbiosystems.com /biobeat/index.jsp?articleId=b44a532d-fd3b-cf48-9ceed1c5a940f80d&type=0   (2051 words)

 FOXP2 and the non-evolution of human language
Transcription factors such as FOXP2 typically bind to specific short sequences of DNA in order to regulate which genes are turned on and which are turned off.
Although the exact target genes controlled by FOXP2 are unknown, scientists believe that the protein serves as an upstream regulator of development of certain neurons and other tissues.
However, FOXP2 is not sufficient for language, otherwise we should expect a mouse or a chimpanzee genetically engineered with human FOXP2 to use human language.
www.answersingenesis.org /docs2006/0503human-language.asp   (1441 words)

 The Individualist: FOXP2 (forkhead box P2)
FOXP2 ("forkhead box P2") is a gene that is implicated in the development of language skills, including grammatical competence.
FOXP2 codes for a CNS transcriptional repressor, expressed in the basal ganglia, cortex, cerebellum and the thalamus, involved in thalamic-cortical-striatal circuits for motor planning and learning.
Truncation of FOXP2 is the cause of developmental speech and language deficits.
www.dadamo.com /wiki/wiki.pl/FOXP2_(forkhead_box_P2)   (666 words)

 MemeStreams | MemeStreams Discussion
FOXP2 is the first gene relevant to the human ability to develop language.
A point mutation in FOXP2 co-segregates with a disorder in a family in which half of the members have severe articulation difficulties accompanied by linguistic and grammatical impairment.
Thus, two functional copies of FOXP2 seem to be required for acquisition of normal spoken language.
www.memestreams.net /thread/bid209   (525 words)

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