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Topic: Facial expressions

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  Sociable machines - Facial expressions
Facial gestures can communicate information on their own, such as a facial shrug to express "I don't know" to another's query.
The basis set of facial postures has been designed so that a specific location in affect space specifies the relative contributions of the prototype postures in order to produce a net facial expression that faithfully corresponds to the active "emotion".
Second, it lends clarity to the facial expression since the robot can only be in a single affective state at a time (by our choice), and hence can only express a single state at a time.
www.ai.mit.edu /projects/sociable/facial-expression.html   (830 words)

 Facial Expressions are Contagious
If human facial expressions are generated by biologically given "affect programs", one would expect these programs to operate automatically by eliciting facial muscle reactions spontaneously and independently of any conscious process.
In a study conducted on 120 students, Dimberg and his research team measured the facial muscle activity in the zogomatic major (involved in smiling) and the corrugator supercilii (moves the eye brows when frowning) muscles, while the audience was exposed to pictures of happy and angry faces.
The study demonstrated that distinct positive and negative facial emotional response patterns could be spontaneously evoked without the awareness of the positive or negative stimuli.
www.scienceagogo.com /news/20000304055250data_trunc_sys.shtml   (807 words)

 Facial expressions are inherited
The facial expressions that we exhibit when we are happy, sad or angry are actually inherited, says a new study.
They also analysed expressions when they were in deep concentration and shocked them to witness their expressions of surprise.
This could have an impact on autism research, where facial expressions are central to the disorder, she added.
news.webindia123.com /news/Articles/Health/20061018/483008.html   (189 words)

 IMSC [USC Integrated Media Systems Center]
Analysis and synthesis of facial expression are central to the goal of responsive and empathetic human-computer interfaces.
Expression Cloning adapts animated facial expressions to different computer face models, allowing reuse of manually created animation with characters of different proportions.
Expression cloning is part of a general IMSC effort towards expressive human interaction in virtual and augmented reality environments.
imsc.usc.edu /research/project/facialexp   (507 words)

Facial expressions are used in conjunction with word signs and fingerspelling to communicate specific vocabulary, questions, intensity, and subtleties of meaning [4].
In order to make a facial expression, there are 17 pairs of muscles in the face that change position beneath the skin, which causes a change in the surface of the skin [10].
Attaching the surface of the facial skin to these muscles causes the skin to form various expressions as the muscles are moved.
www.brock.craft.org /hci/aslmodelling.htm   (2143 words)

 Physical Therapy for Facial Nerve Disorders
During rehabilitation, the physical therapist asseses the patient's facial movement, function in usual activities involving the face, and the impact of the facial movement disorder on the patient's quality of life.
Facial symmetry is important both when the patient's face is at rest and when facial expressions are being performed.
To achieve symmetry of expression, the patient must achieve the appropriate timing and extent of muscle contraction to match the expression of the unaffected side of the face.
www.upmc.edu /FacialNerve/rehab.htm   (542 words)

After 30 years of renewed interest in facial expression as a key clue to human emotions, frowns are appearing on critics' faces.
The use of facial expression for measuring people's emotions has dominated psychology since the late 1960s when Paul Ekman, PhD, of the University of California, San Francisco and Carroll Izard, PhD, of the University of Delaware, reawakened the study of emotion by linking expressions to a group of basic emotions.
Facial expressions evolved in humans as signals to others about how they feel, says Ekman.
www.apa.org /monitor/jan00/sc1.html   (1343 words)

 The Inner and Outer Meanings of Facial Expressions
For example, different expressions which are judged as one emotion may be perceived as genuine, as an attempt to deceive, as artificial, or as a word-like symbol for an emotion.
Facial expressions may be biologically tied to certain events or situations which, in turn, have a high probability of eliciting particular cognitions about emotion.
Ekman noted that the expressions which were judged as more intense on the left were not genuine emotional expressions, but rather were deliberately produced movements, carefully directed by the photographer, who gave instructions to move particular muscles, such as "raise your upper lip." Sackeim et al.
face-and-emotion.com /dataface/misctext/inner_outer.html   (8439 words)

 Facial Expressions Analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Facial expression communicates information about emotions, regulates interpersonal behavior and person perception, indexes physiologic functioning, and is essential to evaluating preverbal infants.
Current human-observer methods of facial expression analysis are labor intensive and difficult to standardize across laboratories and over time.
To make feasible more rigorous, quantitative measurement of facial expression in diverse applications, our interdisciplinary research group, with expertise in facial expression and computerized image processing, is developing automated methods of facial expression analysis.
www-2.cs.cmu.edu /afs/cs/user/ytw/www/facial.html   (296 words)

 LD OnLine :: Facial Expressions and NLD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The ability to identify facial expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust was studied in 48 nondisabled children and 76 children with learning disabilities aged 9 through 12.
The present research studied the ability to interpret facial expressions of affect (one very important aspect of nonverbal social perception) in differentiated subgroups of children with LD and their nondisabled peers.
In order not to confound the ability to interpret facial expressions with poor reading and test-taking skills, the participants' responses were recorded by the examiner, and the PFA multiple-choice answer sheets were not used.
www.ldonline.org /article/6284   (4243 words)

 Facial Expressions May Be Inherited
The re­search­ers noted that oth­er com­po­nents of ex­pres­sion such as tim­ing and in­ten­si­ty were not ex­am­ined, but said their re­sults show re­lat­ed in­di­vid­u­als may each share a fa­mil­ial fa­cial ex­pres­sion sig­na­ture.
The facial expressions of the blind subjects were more similar to family members than strangers, especially for the negative emotions that require more detailed muscle movements.
The researchers note other components of expression such as timing and intensity were not examined, but their results provide some proof that related individuals may each share a familial facial expression signature.
www.world-science.net /othernews/061016_expressions.htm   (458 words)

Some scientists believe many facial expressions, such a smiling, laughing, and crying are almost universal among cultures and have a genetic bias.
The found that when a person was in a fearful situation but displayed a facial expression of anger, subjects identified the emotion as fear.
The suggest that changes in facial expression influence the blood vessels of the brain that regulate brain temperature.
www.fvcc.edu /academics/dept_pages/social.sciences/psych/emotion2.htm   (1516 words)

 BBC NEWS | Health | Facial expressions 'hereditary'
In his famous work, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, he suggested facial expressions were innate.
To test this, University of Haifa researchers analysed the facial expressions of 21 volunteers who had been blind from birth along with those of their relatives.
She said her results suggested that facial expressions were inherited and therefore had an evolutionary basis.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/health/6055430.stm   (449 words)

 facialx   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In the sneer, buccinator muscles (innervated by lower buccal branches of the facial nerve) contract to draw the lip corners sideward to produce a sneering "dimple" in the cheeks (the sneer may also be accompanied by a scornful, upward eye-roll).
Darwin concluded that many expressions and their meanings (e.g., for astonishment, shame, fear, horror, pride, hatred, wrath, love, joy, guilt, anxiety, shyness, and modesty) are universal: "I have endeavoured to show in considerable detail that all the chief expressions exhibited by man are the same throughout the world" (Darwin 1872:355).
Studies indicate that the facial expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and interest are universal across cultures (Ekman and Friesen 1971).
members.aol.com /nonverbal3/facialx.htm   (1378 words)

 Facial expression - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal communication.
It can be nearly impossible to avoid expressions for certain emotions, even when it would be strongly desirable to do so; a person who is trying to avoid insult to an individual he or she finds highly unattractive might nevertheless show a brief expression of disgust before being able to reassume a neutral expression.
The study concluded that certain facial expressions correspond to particular emotions, regardless of cultural background, and regardless of whether or not the culture has been isolated or exposed the mainstream.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Facial_expression   (610 words)

 Facial expressions run in families
The team have discovered that facial expressions among family members are strikingly similar and they say the expressions on our faces when we are happy, sad or angry may be passed from generation to generation.
It was Charles Darwin in 1872 who first suggested that facial expressions were innate and the research team from the University of Haifa were eager to test the theory.
The recorded visuals showed significant similarities in the facial expressions among the blind participants and their sighted relatives, a "signature" effect, especially of negative emotions like anger.
www.news-medical.net /?id=20608   (328 words)

 DataFace: Facial Expressions, Emotion Expressions, Nonverbal Communication
The facial expression of another person is often the basis on which we form significant impressions of such characteristics as friendliness, trustworthiness, and status.
The overall expression of the face is a composite of signs from many sources, such as the bony structure, shapes and positions of features, and color and texture of the skin.
Facial expressions created by muscular actions have their roots in the earliest ancestors of the human species, but these expressions continually evolve and propagate via both biological and cultural mechanisms.
face-and-emotion.com /dataface/general/homepage.jsp   (761 words)

 nvc: facial expressions
Facial expressions are essential to the establishment of relationships with others, as was demonstrated by Izard in an infamous experiment in which he severed the facial muscles of a newly born monkey, as a result of which it failed to establish a relationship with its mother.
They demonstrated that those peoples were able to recognize the facial expressions of Berkely university students accurately and, conversely, that their facial expressions were recognized by Westerners.
What's interesting about this last report, as with the evidence that some facial expressions cross cultural divides, is the suggestion that conceivably there is rather more in our interpretation of faces that is hard-wired than we generally like to think.
www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk /MUHome/cshtml/nvc/nvc3a.html   (2614 words)

 Family Heirloom: Facial Expressions
The researchers interviewed participants and 30 of their relatives to provoke facial expressions of sadness, anger, and joy.
An analysis of videotaped interviews showed similar facial expressions among the blind participants and their sighted relatives.
Since the blind people couldn't have learned those expressions by watching their relatives' faces, genetics might explain the family facial patterns, the researchers note.
foxnews.webmd.com /content/article/128/117127   (306 words)

 Computer facial animation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Computer facial animation is primarily an area of computer graphics that encapsulates models and techniques for generating and animating images of the human head and face.
The latter group of parameters (expression) are facial actions that can be performed on face such as stretching lips or closing eyes.
Facial motion capture was used extensively in Polar Express where hundreds of motion points were captured.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Computer_facial_animation   (1666 words)

 gladwell dot com - the naked face
He assembled a videotape library of people's facial expressions, which soon filled three rooms in his lab, and studied them to the point where he could look at a face and pick up a flicker of emotion that might last no more than a fraction of a second.
It is a strangely riveting document, full of details like the possible movements of the lips (elongate, de-elongate, narrow, widen, flatten, protrude, tighten and stretch); the four different changes of the skin between the eyes and the cheeks (bulges, bags, pouches, and lines); or the critical distinctions between infraorbital furrows and the nasolabial furrow.
Perhaps the most famous involuntary expression is what Ekman has dubbed the Duchenne smile, in honor of the nineteenth-century French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne, who first attempted to document the workings of the muscles of the face with the camera.
www.gladwell.com /2002/2002_08_05_a_face.htm   (7710 words)

 Study finds facial expressions are inherited
Much information can be communicated through a person’s facial expressions, and the scientists also wonder about their evolutionary significance.
"Facial expressions are important in inter-individual and hierarchical interactions of people within our own species; between different human races; between different tribes; and in animals between different species.
Likewise, facial expressions should be of great importance as pre-mating isolating mechanisms between species.
physorg.com /news82125637.html   (859 words)

 Carnegie Mellon study finds that facial expressions reveal how the body reacts to stress
Darwin first proposed that facial expressions of emotion signal biological responses to challenges and opportunities.
Analyses of facial expressions revealed that the more fear individuals displayed in response to the stressors, the higher their biological responses to stress.
Because facial expressions can be assessed from the first moments to the last moments of life, across cultures, across social contexts and even across species, these results open up new opportunities for tracking developmental trajectories in stress responses, for assessing culture-specific appraisal patterns, and for assessing stress responses in naturalistic work and family settings.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-10/cmu-cms102005.php   (806 words)

 Facial Expressions
A good speaker realizes that appropriate facial expressions are an important part of effective communication.
In fact, facial expressions are often the key determinant of the meaning behind the message.
For example, just because your favorite professional speaker starts his or her presentations by telling a story using exaggerated facial expressions doesn't mean it will work for you.
www.ljlseminars.com /facial.htm   (419 words)

 Facial Expressions
The expression "poker face" is used to describe people who can maintain the same expression throughout a game of poker regardless of how good or bad the hand may be.
This is seen as a challenge as there are a significant number of human facial muscles that are capable of a large amount of expressions.
The researchers concluded that just by manipulating facial muscles, one can affect the mood of subject (or at least their ratings of cartoons) and that facial movement that simulates a smile resulted increased funniness ratings.
library.thinkquest.org /25500/emotions/facialexpressions.shtml   (537 words)

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