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# Topic: Fair coin

 Fair (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fairness measure, a mathematical measure used in computer networking. Fair ball, a baseball term used to describe certain batted balls Fairing, a structure whose primary function is to produce a smooth outline and reduce drag en.wikipedia.org /wiki/FAIR   (215 words)

 [No title] If either weighing balances, we know the two coins involved are fair and the third coin is false, and because the third coin participates in the other weighing with a fair coin (as we now know), we can tell whether it is light or heavy. The 12-coin solution works even if all coins are fair, so if the put-aside coin was the false coin, we will detect that the other 12 are fair and correctly finger the 13th (although we won't know its weight), and if one if the 12 is false, we will detect it and its weight. For example, 11 coins in three weighings can be solved in almost the same way as the 12-coin problem, because in the 12-coin solution there is one coin (in the minor group) that is not used in the first two weighings. www.mathnerds.com /mathnerds/best/TwelveCoins/solution.aspx   (2282 words)

 The Coin DOC's Answer Archive #30 The "A" represents that the coin was struck at the Berlin Mint. Coins are issued by governments of countries and usually show a denomination or value. Coins struck with loose collars show "shelf doubling" caused by "chatter" when the coin is struck. www.coinsite.com /content/cdanswers/cdarchive30.asp   (3387 words)

 Coin FAQ 1 A coin that is corroded, scratched, holed (drilled through so that it can be hung on a chain), altered, artificially toned, "dinged" on the edge, or simply unattractive for the grade is less desirable than a problem free specimen. These coins are popular with collectors and, unless damaged or severely worn, can usually be sold for more than their silver value. If you have a coin like one described in the previous paragraph or cannot find a seam even under magnification, a coin collector or dealer in your area may be able to assist you in determining if it's genuine. www.coinresource.com /guide/faq1.htm   (1745 words)

 Fair Coin Tosses and Die Rolls   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) Blum, in the article, "Coin Flipping By Telephone: A Protocol for Solving Impossible Problems", in the proceedings of the 24th IEEE computer conference, published in 1982, presented a simple protocol for coin flips. Now Alice flips her coin and adds the message to it, forming a message like "My cointoss returned heads." Call this message A. Now she makes up a key at random, calculates B by encrypting A using that key, and transmits B to Bob. Fair coin tosses, die rolls, and card draws have much more application than just in playing monopoly, though; they sometimes play a crucial part in getting other cryptographic protocols to work, just as Bit Commitment had a crucial part in getting them to work. www.disappearing-inc.com /F/faircointoss.html   (589 words)

 More Notes on Probability If the coin really is fair, we should expect to get results at least as extreme as 7 heads in 10 flips about 33.5% of the time. In a sense, it is an abstract object, It is the population of all possible coin tosses for a fair coin. Thus, for a fair coin, the SD is the square root of (5 x.5), which is.5. brindedcow.umd.edu /308x/probnotes3x.html   (3994 words)

 Toss Out the Toss-Up: Bias in heads-or-tails: Science News Online, Feb. 28, 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) In 1986, mathematician Joseph Keller, now an emeritus professor at Stanford, proved that one fair way to toss a coin is to throw it so that it spins perfectly around a horizontal axis through the coin's center. Since the coin never actually flips, it is guaranteed to land on the same face that it started out on. Keller observes, "Some people can throw the coin up so that it just wobbles but looks to the observer as if it is turning over." To see whether the predicted bias shows up in actual coin tosses, the team made movies of tossed coins and then calculated the axes of spin. www.sciencenews.org /articles/20040228/fob2.asp   (772 words)

 Data Session 8, Part B: Mathematical Probability Since there are two possible outcomes, tossing a fair coin a large number of times would ultimately generate heads for half (or 50%) of the outcomes and tails for half of the outcomes. So if you roll a fair die a large number of times, you would expect a three for about one-sixth of the outcomes, a five for one-sixth of the outcomes, and so forth. Toss a coin twice, and record the two outcomes in order (for example, "HT" would mean that the first coin came up heads, and the second coin came up tails). www.learner.org /channel/courses/learningmath/data/session8/part_b   (481 words)

 No Title I believe that the coin is fair, that is, that each of toss of the coin is as likely to be heads as tails. I may decide that the coin is not fair, and it is fair. so we would be surprised if the coin is fair that in 100 tosses we had a total number of heads which was much different than 50. www.uwm.edu /~ericskey/361material/361F98/L22/index.html   (782 words)

 deseretnews.com | Impossible to get a 'fair' coin toss Because you'd have to flip coins about 10,000 times — and record the data VERY carefully — to achieve statistical significance and become relatively certain of the finding. Here he is careful to make the coin appear to turn over many times, but it really doesn't. The fact is, says Diaconis, that even when the coin is flipped with the intent of unloosing a "fair" toss, this is not humanly possible. deseretnews.com /dn/view/0,1249,595098035,00.html   (741 words)

 Fair Elections:    (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) Fair Elections is a non-profit, non-partisan organization that is working to eliminate the influence of wealthy interests from our election system. Fair Elections unites two movements, the two sides of the "fair elections coin"--the movement to replace our corrupt campaign finance system with a fair one, and the movement to insure that our voting mechanisms are secure against political manipulation by special interests. Fair Elections was started by Gary Krane, a lifelong activist, teacher, and former investigative documentary producer with numerous PBS credits, with the help of family and friends. www.fairelections.us /article.php?id=28   (510 words)

 Checking if a coin is fair - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sometimes when choosing a coin (particularly for a coin flip), it may be desirable to determine if the coin is fair – that is, if the probability of obtaining a given side (commonly heads or tails) in the toss is 50%. The method requires the probability density function (PDF) of the true value of obtaining a particular side be derived and the probability of a "fair coin" be obtained by integrating the PDF by the relevant interval. The confidence level which is denoted by confidence interval (Z) The maximum (acceptable) error (E) The confidence level is denoted by Z and is given by the Z-value of a standard normal distribution. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Checking_if_a_coin_is_fair   (1147 words)

 What Was To Come-Toy Fair Coin Displays   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) As Toy Fair is intended to sell concepts and ideas for products to potential distributers, one can imagine that a lot of ingenuity goes into many of the displays that are put on at the annual convention, and Toy Fair 1985 was no exception. This Boba Fett coin display is huge, as shown by the yardstick to the right of the display itself. Instead, the Vader is a fully three dimensional representation of the POTF coin right down to the chrome paint. www.toysrgus.com /images-speci/potf/toyfair/tfc_displays.html   (180 words)

 NTTI Lessons - Fair Games Pause it after the game show host says, "I have a fair coin." Discuss with the students what it means to have a fair coin and how this connects to the concept of probability. Remind the students that the reason the coin used in the video was a fair coin was because each side had an equal chance of turning up when the coin was flipped. Students can create their own games describing the rules for play and explaining why the game is fair and then present the game to the class. www.wgby.org /edu/lessonplans/ntti/archive/fairgame.html   (1039 words)

 Coin Fair Kookaburra Coins The Perth Mint Privy Mark 2oz Kookaburra coins began in 1992 with the NAA Privy mark. The series has been very popular with coin collectors attending coin fairs over the year, with many queuing up over night to secure a coin from the fair. All coins come in their original box with a numbered Certificate of Authenticity. www.prospectstampsandcoins.com.au /web/perth_mint/coin_fair_kooka   (161 words)

 London Coin Fair The fair is held in the Academy Conference suite of the Holiday Inn (follow the signs left from the foyer to the bourse reception) and is on two floors, with all sorts of exhibitors mixed together. The London Coin Fair is the largest collector fair of its type in the UK. Coins ancient and modern, British and foreign, plus tokens, commemorative medals, some war medals, banknotes, tokens, books and accessories for the hobby are all to be found at the fair. www.simmonsgallery.co.uk /2001site/LCF/lcf.html   (561 words)

 Unique Gold Coin To be Offered In eBay/Heritage Internet Auction During the 1800s, virtually all proof coins - proofs being special mirror-like presentation pieces minted by polished dies striking a polished coin blank - were produced at the Philadelphia Mint. This is one of a mere handful of proofs produced in New Orleans during the early years of the branch Mint's existence, and it's unique as a proof. In these earlier auctions, it was often described as a 'perfect proof;' the coin has now been certified by Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, a leading independent third-party authentication and grading service, as a Proof-64, which places it among the finest specimens known for the date, even if it were not a proof. coins.heritageauctions.com /common/info/press/default.php?ReleaseID=22   (624 words)

 Dr. Dobb's | Apr02: Algorithm Alley | April 15, 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) Unfortunately, the coin may be dented or weighted in some way you do not know, so it might be that it comes up heads with some probability p that does not equal 1/2. Whenever a pair of flips is heads-tails or tails-heads, you generate a fair bit using von Neumann's approach. While this is an improvement for fair coins over the initial scheme, you are still far from the optimal of one fair bit per coin flip when the coin is fair. www.ddj.com /184405028   (2261 words)

 Biased Coin -> Fair Coin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) However, you are concerned that it may not be a fair coin, i.e., it may be a biased coin where "heads" and "tails" are not equally likely. However, a natural question is whether one can do better, i.e., not flip the coin as often (on average) to get a result. In this paper we give new algorithms for simulating a flip of an unbiased coin by flipping a coin of unknown bias. www.eecs.umich.edu /~qstout/abs/AnnProb84.html   (499 words)

 Community: Library One of the coins offered on eBay during the show in a 201 coin lot consigned to Heritage Numismatic Auctions is this unique 1844-O \$10 Proof gold coin. The coin is pedigreed to two of the finest coin collections ever assembled. In these earlier auctions, it was often described as 'perfect proof;' the coin has now been certified by Numismatic Guaranty, a leading independent third-party authentication and grading service, as a Proof-64, which places it among the finest specimens known for the date, even if it were not a proof. pages.ebay.com /community/library/coins-electronic.html   (356 words)

 : Class Coin Flip the coin and return the state the side that is facing up. The coin will be heads side up by default. the side of the coin that is facing up after it is flipped. www.dickinson.edu /~braught/courses/cs132f01/classes/code/Coin.html   (105 words)

 1892 Chicago World's Fair Coin Puzzle Box It appears to be a stack of 10 brass coins and we think it is a souvenir of the Columbian Exposition - the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. The bottom 9 coins seem to be one piece. It was sold as a pin box, but I suppose it could be almost anything - a pill box, a coin holder, etc. Should sell for about \$50 - \$100. www.dakotamainstreet.com /puzzlebox.html   (922 words)

 Coin Toss   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) Normally a fair coin is used for Toss. However in this problem we will deal with a fair coin and n times tossing of such a coin. As the coin is fair we can consider that the probability of each outcome is also equal. acm.uva.es /p/v103/10328.html   (250 words)

 Australian Silver Proof Dollars Since the \$1 coin came into being in 1984 the Royal Australian Mint has made many collector versions of this coin. There is some debate over the first silver proof coin issued, as some regard the silver proof \$1 in the 1988 Masterpieces in Silver as the first one, whereas others regard the 1992 issue of just the \$1 coin as the first. The Australian Silver proof \$1 collection is an interesting series for the collector which can prove to be both challenging and affordable. www.cruzis-coins.com /silverdollars/index.html   (150 words)

 Using RND to Simulate Simple Probability Experiments with Visual Basic - R. Berman Example 1a: Simulate a single toss of a fair coin. Simulate a single toss of a coin having probability p of heads, where p is any number between 0 and 1. Simulate a single throw of a fair die giving as output the number that is showing on the face of the die. www.math.wayne.edu /~rberman/syllabi/ex_1.htm   (435 words)

 CoinResource - Rare Coin Dealer and Coin Store, Prices, Articles, Supplies More than 100 coins set auction records in the Bowers and Merena official auction of the 2006 Denver ANA convention including this 1911-D Indian Head gold \$5 Half Eagle, graded PCGS MS-65, that brought \$241,500. Teletrade auctions: Responding to the increasing demand for higher-value coins, Teletrade® has announced its Premier Plus program, an ongoing series of auctions by Internet and telephone every two months that offer certified coins with a retail value each of \$1,000 or more. The "King of Southern Gold Coins" - a tiny, 1849-C "Open Wreath" gold dollar - is returning to Charlotte, North Carolina - the "Queen City" - for the American Numismatic Association's (ANA) National Money Show™, March 21-23. www.coinresource.com   (846 words)

 Science Fair Projects - Coin French coin, "corner", "die for stamping", "wedge", confer English "quoin ". Science kits, science lessons, science toys, maths toys, hobby kits, science games and books - these are some of many products that can help give your kid an edge in their science fair projects, and develop a tremendous interest in the study of science. Science Fair Projects for students of all ages www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_project_dictionary/Coin   (290 words)

 Son of Devil's Advocate The coin landed on its edge in the muddy turf. The Law of Large Numbers posits that, given a "fair" coin and a sequence of independent "fair" tosses, the ratio of heads-to- tails converges "in the long run" to the limit 0.5. You may rule out the obvious "double-headed" scam and rule out conjuring palming-tricks, but your 501st spin is, paradoxically, given a really fair "fair" coin and fair "fair" toss, equally likely to be yet another damned head as not. www.sarcheck.com /skb/soda0404.htm   (3871 words)

 Monte Carlo Simulation Tutorial Now suppose you want to generate a Monte Carlo Simulation of a fair coin with probability about 0.5 to get head and 0.5 to get tail, you can use the one of following formulas Worksheet companion of this fair coins tutorial can be downloaded here. The sample worksheet uses the two methods above to compute fair coins. people.revoledu.com /kardi/tutorial/Simulation/Fair-Coin.html   (325 words)

 Clackamas County Fairgrounds - Homepage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) Congratulations to the 2006 Fair & Rodeo Court Queen Teri Rush and Princess Jackie Gibson When people think of the Clackamas County Fair & Rodeo, they think of the best old fashioned fair in Oregon filled with Funtastic Rides, livestock exhibits, great entertainers and 5 days of Down and Dirty PRCA rodeo. We hope you enjoy your visit and please feel free to call our office for any additional information you may need or to reserve one of our facilities for your special occasion. www.co.clackamas.or.us /fair   (196 words)

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