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Topic: Fall of the Ottoman Empire

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  Ottoman Empire - MSN Encarta
Ottoman Empire, dynastic state centered in what is now Turkey, founded in the late 13th century and dismantled in the early 20th century.
After his death the empire experienced severe internal crises, including disorder in the provinces, unrest in the military as serious inflation caused soldiers to be underpaid or not paid at all, and succession issues due to the lack of candidates who were of age to assume the sultanate.
To be an Ottoman one had to serve the state and the religion and know the “Ottoman way.” Serving the state meant having a position within the military, the bureaucracy, or the religious establishment that carried with it the coveted askeri status and tax exemption.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553949/Ottoman_Empire.html   (6103 words)

 The Ottomans and their dynasty - All About Turkey
Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks must, therefore, be considered in any study of Europe in the late Middle Ages.
Gallipoli was conquered in 1354 and a vast crusading army was crushed at the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.
Some historians consider that this policy of imprisonment contributed to the decline of the Ottoman Empire as mentally unstable and politically inexperienced sultans were rescued from prison and placed upon the throne.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman.htm   (1765 words)

 Ottoman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish state in the Middle East that comprised Anatolia part of Southwest Asia North Africa and south-eastern Europe in the 14th to 20th centuries established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia.
The Ottoman Empire was among the most powerful political entities in the 16th and 17th centuries when the nations of Europe felt by its steady advance through the Balkans.
The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north.
www.freeglossary.com /Ottoman_Empire   (1236 words)

 Royalty.nu - Sultans of the Ottoman Empire - History of Turkey
The Ottoman Empire arose from a Turkish principality founded in Anatolia (Asia Minor) at the end of the 13th century, when the empire of the Seljuk Turks had collapsed and the Byzantine Empire was crumbling.
The modernization of the empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the spread of nationalism, the empire's demise, and the rise of the Republic of Turkey.
Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest edited by Pal Fodor and Geza David.
www.royalty.nu /history/empires/Ottoman/index.html   (2556 words)

The decline of the Ottoman empire was not abrupt and resulted because of many factors.One of the major things that led to this decline were the rulers that ruled.
To total the fall of the trade economy, in 1838, there was a commercial agreement with England which established an example of a Capitulation that was aimed at colonizing and controlling the Ottoman economy (The Fall of the Ottoman Empire 6).
In the Ottoman Empire, there were two fronts, one in the east and another in the west, with Istanbul in the center.
www.geocities.com /islamicwayz/Ottoman_Empire.htm   (2905 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Ottoman defeat at the naval Battle of Lepanto (1571) weakened their grip on the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, and was considered by earlier historians to mark the beginning of Ottoman decline.
According to Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims and to ensure security and harmony within its borders within the overarching context of orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty.
Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire's relatively high degree of tolerance for ethnic differences proved to be one of its greatest strengths in integrating the new regions until the rise of nationalism (this non-assimilative policy became a weakness during the dissolution of the empire that neither the first or second parliaments could successfully address).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_Empire   (8732 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Russo-Turkish Wars, series of conflicts between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, which was centered in what is now Turkey, during the 17th, 18th, and...
The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانيه Devlet-i Āliye-yi Omāniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State), also known in the West as the Turkish Empire, existed from...
The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks.
encarta.msn.com /Ottoman_Empire.html   (267 words)

 The Decline of the Ottoman Empire
The demise of the Ottoman Empire was caused by a combination of internal degeneration and external pressures.
One of the primary causes blamed for the fall of the Ottoman Empire was the decline of the Sultanate.
Spirfire IV, “Decline of the Ottoman Sultanate,” The Ottoman Empire, 2002, (26 March 2004).
www.hyperhistory.net /apwh/essays/cot/t1w26ottomandecline.htm   (986 words)

 Islamic History: The Ottoman Empire - ReligionFacts
The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north.
Orhan died in 1360 and left a growing empire to his son and successor, Murad I. Murad advanced the reformation of the state and founded such entities as the divan (the government and advisors), the beylerbey (great chief), the kaziasker (military judge) and the defterdar (financial minister).
The Empire had suffered hard from the Interregnum; the Mongols were still at large in the east, even though Timur Lenk had died in 1405; many of the Christian kingdoms of the Balkans had broken free of Ottoman control; and the land, especially Anatolia, had suffered hard from the war.
www.religionfacts.com /islam/history/ottoman.htm   (7072 words)

 Ottoman Empire: Rise and Fall: Explanations
While it is difficult to find exact reasons for the rise of the Ottoman empire, except that there must have been skilled leaders, sufficient economic backing and probably weaknesses among the enemies; it is much easier to point at when the fall of the empire commenced, and its causes.
The actual rise of the empire was gradual, and for half a century their own forces were enough to gain more land and then keep it.
The Ottoman Empire tried to correct all the weaknesses, but it proved to be too late.
i-cias.com /e.o/ottomans_3.htm   (325 words)

 Fall of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fall of the Ottoman Empire summarize the reasons why it could not revert the path that ended with its dissolution.
The fall of the Ottoman state is often attributed to the failure of its economic structure.
In the early part of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire was allied with France, and thus it was to them that the Sultan turned for aid in rebuilding his military might.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fall_of_the_Ottoman_Empire   (2477 words)

 History of the Ottoman Empire - Decline and Fall
The heavy tax burden was responsible in part for revolts in Anatolia, abandonment of farm lands, and depopulation of villages; thus the empire experienced a decline in tax revenues despite higher taxes.
In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism.
With even the heartlands of the Empire partitioned and Istanbul occupied by the victorious allies, the Turks of Anatolia under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) rejected the terms of the dictated Treaty of Sevres.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman3.html   (1403 words)

 The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire - Global Issues
The Romans extended their empire around the entire Mediterranean Sea and part of the Bible is the record of battles resisting subjugation in the peripheral province of Israel.
This was the Islamic/Ottoman (Turkish) empire, which reached its zenith under the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1550 A.D. By the eighth century, just one hundred years after the death of Mohammed, the Arabs had converted most of North Africa to the Muslim faith, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, and overrun Spain.
The former Byzantine empire was the eastern half of the Holy Roman Empire.
www.globalissues.org /Geopolitics/MiddleEast/1300/Ottoman.asp   (1016 words)

 Education World® - *History : By Region : Middle East : Turkey : Ottoman Empire : General Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire - Republic of Turkey Chronicles the policies of European powers and the condition of the Armenians after the decline of the Ottoman empire.
Fall of Constantinople 1453 when, at the age of twenty-one, Mehmed II (1451-1481) sat on the throne of the Ottoman Sultans his first thoughts turned to Constantinople.
Fall of the Ottoman Empire Detailed essay by Mohamed AlMuhairi chronicles the decline and fall of the Ottoman empire.
db.education-world.com /perl/browse?cat_id=2679   (644 words)

 History of THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Ottoman army is allowed three days of pillage (a depressing convention of medieval warfare), but Mehmed keeps it under tolerable control.
But in the early years of the 17th century the Ottoman empire stretches from Buda in the west to the Caspian in the east (with the client states of Walachia and Moldavia bringing the Turkish domain up round the Black Sea as far as the Crimea).
The Ottoman governor of Egypt and his unruly Mameluke forces are ill-prepared to cope with such an invasion, though the condition of Napoleon's army does much to level the odds - after being shipped from France and marching south through the desert, from Alexandria to Cairo, in the midsummer heat.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab37   (1683 words)

 Ottoman Ghosts
The Ottomans were powerless to stop Portuguese ships from invading the Indian Ocean, virtually their own backyard, and thanks to a Habsburg-Venetian naval victory at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, they were also losing their grip on the eastern Mediterranean.
Although their origins are obscure, the Ottomans appear to have begun as a Turkic tribe that, by the late thirteenth century, had gained a foothold in northwest Anatolia, cheek by jowl with the shrunken remnants of the once-mighty Byzantine Empire.
The pages of Ottoman history are filled with accounts of expropriations and executions of high-ranking officials...summarily punished at the whim of the sultan and often at the instigation of rivals for power; victims were frequently led to believe they had attracted the lesser punishment of exile only to find the executioner in hot pursuit.
www.thenation.com /doc/20060925/lazare   (1279 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Ottoman Empire, Turkish empire which endured from c.
Osman (1258-1326), Turkish leader, considered the founder of the Ottoman Empire.
Holy Roman Empire, political entity of lands in Western and Central Europe, founded by Charlemagne, king of the Franks, in ad 800, and dissolved by...
uk.encarta.msn.com /Ottoman_Empire.html   (133 words)

 The Ottoman Sultans of Turkey & Successors in Romania
This was a thinly populated backwater for the Turks, noteworthy mainly for Roman ruins and piracy (with U.S. Marines landing at Tripoli in 1801).
Against the Ottomans alone, the Greeks could well have been successful, but the Sultan called in Muh.ammad 'Alî, who had modernized the Eyptian army enough that the rebellion was being suppressed.
As the Ottoman Empire declined in strength, and Christians in the Balkans found European allies who favored their independence, like Britain for Greece and Russia for Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria, the Balkans became the scene of one conflict after another.
www.friesian.com /turkia.htm   (12517 words)

 Ottoman Empire - MavicaNET
In addition, the Ottoman Sultans had been Caliph of the Islamic world for 407 years; from 1516 when Selim Khan obtained the title, to 1924 when that dignity was abrogated.
The great eastward expansion of Russia in the 16th and 17th cent., during the decline of the Ottoman Empire, nevertheless left the shores of the Black Sea in the hands of the Ottoman sultans and their vassals, the khans of Crimea.
The western artistic effects were influential on the Ottoman artistic style after the seventeenth century, until which the incessant wars and military campaigns together with the religious effects were the main elements of art.
www.mavicanet.com /directory/eng/24541.html   (894 words)

 KnowledgeNews - How Iraq Got Stuck with Saddam
The Ottomans had ruled Iraq, along with most of the Middle East, since the 16th century, yet prior to the arrival of the British, "Iraq" was not a single political unit.
While the term had been used since the Middle Ages to refer to the area, the Ottomans had treated the region as five provinces approximating linguistic and religious divisions.
The insurrections reflect two critical problems for the Iraqi government: the questionable legitimacy of a political system largely imposed from outside and the country's ethnic and religious diversity (only 20 percent of Iraqis are both Arab and Sunni Muslim, though this group dominates government).
knowledgenews.net /history/iraq.htm   (2217 words)

 Who was behind the fall of the OTTOMAN Empire? - Page 4 - Pakistani Forces Forum
The fall of the Ottoman Empire was because of the muslims who lost intensity of love for Allah.
The fall of Ottoman Empire gave Jews the hope they were looking for to pave way for creation of Jewish State but they were not responsible for the fall of Ottoman Empire.
In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism.
pakistaniforces.com /forums/showthread.php?p=26672#post26672   (2751 words)

 Teaching Heritage . Lesson Plans . Islam and Judaism: From Muhammad to the Ottoman Empire | Thirteen / WNET
Islam and Judaism: From Muhammad to the Ottoman Empire
Ask students to return to questions on the Ottoman Empire (PDF) handout, and have them modify their answers based on what they have learned.
Finally, make sure to point out that with the decline of the Ottoman Empire in 1925 and the rise of Western national influence, the unique, and relatively positive, relationship between the ruling Muslims and the Jews came to an end.
www.thirteen.org /edonline/teachingheritage/lessons/lp5/learning3.html   (886 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Armeniapedia.org
A weakened Ottoman Empire did abolish the jizya in 1856 under pressure from European nations, but observers continued to remark the downtrodden status of non-Muslims, and European pressure was not sufficient to prevent the Ottoman massacres of Lebanese Christians in 1840-60, and of Armenian Christians in 1894-6 and in 1915-17.
The myth of a tolerant Ottoman empire dates to the 19th century and was a European creation, designed to prevent Russia from expanding southwards under the pretext of protecting the Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire.
Financial crisis contributed greatly to the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
www.armeniapedia.org /index.php?title=Ottoman_Empire   (183 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East: ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East, 1789-1923 by Efraim Karsh
The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire by Patrick Balfour Kinross
Written from a British perspective, it covers the crucial years of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, to include Lawrence of Arabia, the Balfour Declaration and the birth of modern Turkey.
www.amazon.co.uk /Peace-End-All-Ottoman-Creation/dp/1842120433   (1559 words)

 Ottoman Empire: History
The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of
The Activities of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine in the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The desperate Ottoman: Enver Pasa and the German Empire.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0860176.html   (1031 words)

 Ottoman Empire Map 1914 : Coffee Tables and Ottomans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
in the age of empires II the age of kings - consequence to the awarded age of empires - you are 1000 years old to lead to your people with the average ages to the greatness.
Citizenship And The Nation-State In Greece And Turkey Of all the successor states of the Ottoman Empire, Greece and Turkey have moved the farthest in the direction of coping with the challenges relating to the transition of...
Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two uprisings in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867.
www.solidgroundcoffee.com /492-Ottoman-Empire-Map-1914.html   (988 words)

 Culture of the Ottoman Empire
If someone from the Ottoman Empire were to come back to their home, they would be suprised how the people now dress very differently.
After the fall of the Ottoman Empire wanted people to modernize their ways and one way of doing this would be to make the people dress like westerners(1).
Turkey was the center of the Ottoman Empire, where the sultan resided, and where all the laws passed.
sun.menloschool.org /~sportman/westernstudies/first/1718/2000/cblock/ottoman/social.html   (597 words)

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