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Topic: Fallacy

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In the News (Mon 16 Jul 18)

  Fallacy - LoveToKnow 1911
This fallacy has been illustrated by ethical or theological arguments wherein the fear of punishment is subtly substituted for abstract right as the sanction of moral obligation.
The purely Logical or Formal fallacies consist in the violation of the formal rules of the Syllogism.
Of other classifications of Fallacies in general the most famous are those of Francis Bacon and J. Mill.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Fallacy   (1131 words)

 Naturalistic Fallacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Naturalistic fallacy — when what ‘ought to be’ is derived from what ‘is’; also known as a perspective which reduces the question of values to that of facts; logically classified as a fallacy of definition, diversion or irrelevance.
Naturalistic fallacies may therefore be seen as a legacy of Enlightenment thinking, as far as they perpetuate the myth that Reason, Science and Progress are sole referents to meaning, value and order in human life.
It is thus a naturalistic fallacy to insist an explosion ought to happen gradually by a natural process of species variation and differentiation enacted through random mutations.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Naturalistic_Fallacy   (1301 words)

 Atheism: Logic & Fallacies
This fallacy is the reverse of the Fallacy of Accident.
This is the converse of the fallacy of Affirmation of the Consequent.
The fallacy of division is the opposite of the Fallacy of Composition.
www.infidels.org /library/modern/mathew/logic.html   (5866 words)

 Fallacy - Uncyclopedia
Nevertheless one philosophical school, founded in the early twentieth century mainly by dumb people, protested that there is circularity in using logic to ascertain what is a correct argument, and at the same time using correct arguments as the basis for logic.
However, as the young Gödel argued, the notion of fallacy depends on logic, and therefore not only is the concept of fallacy fallacious, but the entire preceding discussion as well.
For example, by the modus ponens fallacy, from the true propositions "the letter A shot the letter B with an arrow" and "the letter A" you would be able to deduce the incorrect proposition "the letter B".
uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Fallacy   (690 words)

 Logical fallacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which has a valid logical form, but is false due to one or more of its premises being false.
The term fallacy is often used more generally to mean an argument which is problematic for any reason, whether it be a formal or an informal fallacy.
Recognizing fallacies in everyday arguments may be difficult since arguments are often embedded in rhetorical patterns that obscure the logical connections between statements.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logical_fallacy   (679 words)

 Substantive errors regarding the Church
This is the fallacy of presuming the existence of the land called "Christendom," a collection of physical nations with defined borders on a map in the present world within which all of the residents are Christian simply by virtue of their residence there.
Because this fallacy started with the mass "conversions" of the Third through Fifth Centuries, in which whole tribes or nations (and even one Empire) of pagans became "Christian" members of a single church organization through the conversion of their rulers, this fallacy is always accompanied by the Political Fallacy.
This fallacy holds that all of the members in good standing of a denominational group, or of a local congregation belonging to that group, receive or are assured of their salvation through their membership and/or continued participation in the group.
www.angelfire.com /ks2/fallacies/fallchur.htm   (1390 words)

 Logical Fallacies Handlist   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
This practice is fallacious because the personal character of an individual is logically irrelevant to the truth or falseness of the argument itself.
Composition: This fallacy is a result of reasoning from the properties of the parts of the whole to the properties of the whole itself--it is an inductive error.
Division: This fallacy is the reverse of composition.
web.cn.edu /kwheeler/fallacies_list.html   (4845 words)

 Logical Fallacies and the Art of Debate
This is the fallacy of assuming that something is false simply because a proof or argument that someone has offered for it is invalid; this reasoning is fallacious because there may be another proof or argument that successfully supports the proposition.
The fallacy comes in when other aspects of the proposed solution (such as whether it is possible, how much it costs, who else might be harmed by adopting the policy) are ignored or responded to only with more impassioned pleas.
In addition, it is not fallacious at all to point out that certain advantages or disadvantages may apply equally to both positions presented in a debate, and therefore they cannot provide a reason for favoring one position over the other (such disadvantages are referred to as "non-unique").
www.csun.edu /~dgw61315/fallacies.html   (5262 words)

 Logical Fallacy: Fallacy Fallacy
Like anything else, the concept of logical fallacy can be misunderstood and misused, and can even become a source of fallacious reasoning.
To say that an argument is fallacious is to claim that there is no sufficiently strong logical connection between the premisses and the conclusion.
Rather, the fallacy is committed when you jump to the conclusion that just because one argument for it is fallacious, no cogent argument for it can exist.
www.fallacyfiles.org /fallfall.html   (242 words)

 The Taxonomy of Logical Fallacies
Red Herring is itself a subfallacy of Informal Fallacy, which is a subfallacy of the most general logical fallacy of all: Logical Fallacy.
Logical Fallacy is not shown in the Taxonomy, though it has an entry in the files, but every fallacy in the Taxonomy is a subfallacy of it.
To understand an individual fallacy, it may be helpful to move upward in the Taxonomy via the "Type" link, in order to understand the more general fallacy of which it is a subfallacy.
www.fallacyfiles.org /taxonomy.html   (534 words)

 Errors arising from ignoring context or assigning an incorrect context
This is the fallacy of stating, on the basis of a mere assumption or of insufficient or erroneous grounds, that "A is B," and then building an argument based on that erroneous equation.
This fallacy is generally a contextual fallacy — that is, it arises from the context of the discussion rather than the logical forms themselves.
Rather, the fallacy is in building arguments based on the presumed value of the ambiguous referent as if that presumed value had been explicitly stated and there had been no ambiguity in the first place.
www.angelfire.com /ks2/fallacies/fallcont.htm   (1315 words)

 The fallacy of contextualism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The fallacy of contextualism is a fallacy of self-referential incoherence.
The fallacy of contextualism is frequently tied to a faulty view of language.
Nevertheless, the persistence with which this fallacy rears its head, and the multiplicity of guises which it assumes should lead us to ponder why it is that this fallacy keeps being reincarnated.
www.leaderu.com /offices/dembski/docs/bd-contexism.html   (5436 words)

 South African Free and Critical Thinkers Association
Each of these fallacies is characterized by the illegitimate use of a logical operator in order to distract the reader from the apparent falsity of a certain proposition.
This fallacy is sometimes also called the "Appeal to Emotion" because emotional appeals often sway the population as a whole.
A variation of the fallacious appeal to authority is hearsay.
www.geocities.com /safacta/fallacies.html   (2766 words)

 Conjunction Fallacy
Commentary on Wolford, Taylor, and Beck: The conjunction fallacy.
A Violation Of The Monotonicity Axiom: Experimental Evidence On The Conjunction Fallacy.
The dependence of the conjunction fallacy on subtle linguistic factors.
conjunction-fallacy.behaviouralfinance.net   (631 words)

 Gambler's Fallacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
This fallacy includes supposing that a random event is more likely to occur because it has not happened for a long time, or less likely to occur because it recently happened, or less likely to occur because it has not happened for a long time, or more likely to occur because it recently happened.
An alternative version of the fallacy (sometimes called the Lottery Fallacy) is to say that a past event must have been highly probably (or even inevitable) merely because it did in fact occur.
A second form that the Gambler's Fallacy may take is the Lottery Fallacy, which is the fallacy of trying to explain a highly improbable event when any event that might have occurred in its place would have been seen as equally improbable.
www.cuyamaca.net /bruce.thompson/Fallacies/gamblers.asp   (767 words)

 Naturalistic Fallacy - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Creationists often apply the naturalistic fallacy to natural selection ("survival of the fittest"), as part of their continuing campaign of anti-evolutionary propaganda.
The naturalistic fallacy is often coupled with genetic determinism when applied to sociobiology, and even scientists like Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin can run afoul of it.
The naturalistic fallacy is also used in arguments against genetic engineering, pro-organic/natural foods (which are actually unnatural, having been subject to artificial selection) and in argument for many pseudosciences especially alternative medicine.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Naturalistic_Fallacy   (309 words)

 Informal Logical Fallacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
An informal fallacy is one that is not formal, that is, it is a type of fallacy in which the content of the argument is relevant to its fallaciousness, or which is fallacious for epistemological, dialectical, or pragmatic reasons.
Also, because content is important in informal fallacies, there are arguments with the form of the fallacy which are cogent.
For this reason, when forms for informal fallacies are given, this is for identification purposes only, that is, one cannot tell from the form alone that an instance is fallacious.
www.fallacyfiles.org /inforfal.html   (129 words)

 Introduction to Fallacies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The fallacies that were well-known to the ancient Greeks and Romans were the fallacies used by politicians and orators.
FALLACIES themselves are organized according to their classification.
Click on each fallacy to see an explanation of that fallacy, a couple pithy examples, a discussion of why we sometimes find that fallacy to be persuasive, and in most cases a source indicating who first described and/or named the fallacy.
www.cuyamaca.net /bruce.thompson/Fallacies/intro_fallacies.asp   (852 words)

 Fallacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A fallacy is a component of an argument that is demonstrably flawed in its logic or form, thus rendering the argument invalid in whole, except in the case of begging the question, a false analogy and other informal fallacies.
A similar approach to understanding and classifying fallacies is provided by argumentation theory, discussed in brief in the last paragraph of this section.
In philosophy, the term logical fallacy properly refers to a formal fallacy : a flaw in the structure of a deductive argument which renders the argument invalid.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fallacy   (2724 words)

 Logical fallacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
A logical fallacy is an error in logical argument which is independent of the truth of the premises.
When there is a fallacy in an argument it is said to be invalid.
Recognizing fallacies in practical arguments may be difficult since arguments are often structured using rhetorical patterns that obscure the Logical connections between assertions.
logical-fallacy.iqnaut.net   (1934 words)

 Fallacy - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Many arguments even contain several fallacies in a row, so that even if you overlook one of them, the rest is still invalid.
The final, and by far most common, fallacy is to claim that the sheer magnitude of 'slightly' fallacious arguments is proof of the validity of the proposition as a whole.
Some of them (such as this one) promote a particular agenda, citing the fallacies as "fallacies used against..." but most fallacies listed in them are real and present in arguments everyday.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Fallacy   (1100 words)

 Fallacy List
The difference between the two fallacies is that appealing to extremes does not necessarily involve a sequence of causal connections.
A red herring fallacy is thus a diversionary tactic or an attempt to confuse or fog the issue being debated.
The name of the fallacy comes from the days of fox hunting, when a herring was dragged across the trail of a fox in order to throw the dogs off the scent.
commfaculty.fullerton.edu /rgass/fallacy3211.htm   (1943 words)

In order to understand what a fallacy is, one must understand what an argument is. Very briefly, an argument consists of one or more premises and one conclusion.
To be more specific, a fallacy is an "argument" in which the premises given for the conclusion do not provide the needed degree of support.
A deductive fallacy is a deductive argument that is invalid (it is such that it could have all true premises and still have a false conclusion).
www.nizkor.org /features/fallacies   (524 words)

 Material Fallacies 3
The fallacy is committed by combining two or more questions which cannot be answered together (hence the name "compound questions"), or more often, by asking a question implying that a previous question has already been asked and answered in a particular way.
In its standard form, this fallacy occurs when the initially stated point to be proved (the thesis or assertion) is later used in the argument as an already accepted fact, to support some new point at issue which must be established to prove the initial point.
Another form of this fallacy, known as a question-begging definition, defines a term or phrase in such a way that, when used in an assertion, it proves the assertion true by the very way the term is defined.
www.virtualsalt.com /think/matfall3.htm   (4023 words)

 The Fallacy Detective
A fallacy is an error in logic –; a place where someone has made a mistake in his thinking.
We are LOVING Fallacy Detective as a family, and my son is wondering if the boys will be writing a "sequel" or "volume 2" of it.
For those of you in the same boat, a fallacy is an error in logic, a place where someone has made a mistake in their thinking.
www.christianlogic.com /catalog/the_fallacy_detective.htm   (3484 words)

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