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Topic: Fast breeder reactor

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  Fast breeder reactor Summary
The FBR is one possible type of breeder reactor.
Surrounding the reactor core is a blanket of tubes containing non-fissile uranium-238 which, by capturing fast neutrons from the reaction in the core, is partially converted to fissile plutonium 239 (as is some of the uranium in the core), which can then be reprocessed for use as nuclear fuel.
Fast reactors typically use liquid metal as the primary coolant, to cool the core and heat the water used to power the electricity generating turbines.
www.bookrags.com /Fast_breeder_reactor   (2733 words)

 Fast breeder reactor Totally Explained
In many FBR designs, the reactor core is surrounded in a blanket of tubes containing non-fissile uranium-238 which, by capturing fast neutrons from the reaction in the core, is partially converted to fissile plutonium 239 (as is some of the uranium in the core), which can then be reprocessed for use as nuclear fuel.
While fast neutrons are less likely to be absorbed by uranium-235 or plutonium-239 than thermal neutrons, the highly enriched fuel used in fast breeder reactors allows for a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
Fission of the nuclear fuel in any reactor produces neutron-absorbing fission products, and because of this it's necessary to reprocess the fuel and breeder blanket from a breeder reactor if one is to fully utilise its ability to breed more fuel than it consumes.
fast_breeder_reactor.totallyexplained.com   (2736 words)

 Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor constructions - Patent 4294661
A nuclear reactor construction according to claim 2 wherein the upper edges of the upwardly extending vertical legs and the lower edges of the downwardly extending inclined legs of the arcuate segments of the yoke are crenellated and the ends of the tie straps are butt welded to the merlons thereof.
A nuclear reactor construction according to claim 3 wherein the upwardly extending vertical legs and the downwardly extending inclined legs of the arcuate segments are relieved against abutment with the corresponding legs of abutting segments.
A liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor construction of the pool kind comprises a nuclear fuel assembly submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant in a primary vessel which is suspended from the roof structure of a containment vault.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4294661.html   (1394 words)

 Breeder Reactors
It is possible to build breeder reactors which can be fueled with a fissile material and operated to produce electric power as in any conventional reactor; at the end of the operating cycle, the reactor fuel will contain more fissile material than it had when initially started.
This is a satisfactory and efficient way to treat water moderated thermal reactors, but it is not at all desirable for use with fast breeders, since the latter are specifically designed to prevent neutron moderation and to maintain the hardest possible energy spectrum.
A fast breeder has an active core, which is loaded with fuel containing both fissile and fertile isotopes, and blankets, which are loaded with depleted uranium.
members.cox.net /sidelock/pages/breederreactors.html   (2501 words)

 Fast Breeder Reactors
In the breeding of plutonium fuel in breeder reactors, an important concept is the breeding ratio, the amount of fissile plutonium-239 produced compared to the amount of fissionable fuel (like U-235) used to produced it.
A reactor could use the heat of the reaction to produce energy for 10 years, and at the end of that time have enough fuel to fuel another reactor for 10 years.
The plutonium-239 breeder reactor is commonly called a fast breeder reactor, and the cooling and heat transfer is done by a liquid metal.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/nucene/fasbre.html   (744 words)

 Fast breeder
The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor designed primarily for the purpose of producing ("breeding") plutonium for use in nuclear weapons or for refueling of the reactor.
Being a "breeder" it was designed to be fueled ONCE, then produce all its own fuel during operation.
As of 2001, two fast breeders remained in operation worldwide, neither of which was in the United States.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/fa/Fast_breeder.html   (229 words)

 Breeder reactor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel.
Use of a breeder reactor assumes nuclear reprocessing of the breeder blanket at least, without which the concept is meaningless.
Breeder reactors incorporating such technology would most likely be designed with breeding ratios very close to 1.00, so that after an initial loading of enriched uranium and/or plutonium fuel, the reactor would then be refueled only with small deliveries of natural uranium metal.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Breeder_reactor   (1348 words)

Boiling water reactor (BWR): A common type of light water reactor (LWR), where water is allowed to boil in the core thus generating steam directly in the reactor vessel.
Fast breeder reactor (FBR): A fast neutron reactor (qv) configured to produce more fissile material than it consumes, using fertile material such as depleted uranium in a blanket around the core.
Thermal reactor: A reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained primarily by slow neutrons, and hence requiring a moderator (as distinct from Fast Neutron Reactor).
www.world-nuclear.org /info/inf51.html   (2742 words)

 Permanent Shutdown Ordered for Fast Flux Reactor
Many nations, including the U.S., have canceled their breeder reactor programs due to problems with their operation and concerns that their plutonium byproducts could be stolen and turned into weapons.
Hastings led efforts to have the reactor reopened as a potential source for radioactive isotopes which are used in research and medical treatments.
Under a 1995 agreement, the reactor was to be permanently closed, and the funds saved were to be devoted to cleaning up the Hanford site, where dozens of aging, corroding tanks hold millions of gallons of radioactive wastes.
www.ens-newswire.com /ens/dec2001/2001-12-20-06.asp   (997 words)

 India's First Fast Breeder Reactor To Operate Soon
Bhoje said that though India has the technology for constructing fast breeder reactors, the memorandum of understanding was signed with Russia for the Koodankulam plant using light water as both moderator and coolant after several considerations.
The reactors are now functioning at a lower power factor of 170 MW each instead of the original 220 MW, he added.
The reactors, however, will get back to generating 220 MW from March next year after the exercise to replace all "coolant channels" in the power station's second unit is over, he said.
www.rense.com /general28/egj.htm   (494 words)

 Fast neutron reactors (FBR) - Encyclopedia of Earth
Fast neutron reactors have a high power density and are normally cooled by liquid metal such as sodium, lead, or lead-bismuth, with high conductivity and boiling point and no moderating effect.
Cooling of the fast reactor core requires a heat transfer medium which has minimal moderation of the neutrons, and hence liquid metals are used, typically sodium or a mixture of sodium and potassium.
Fast neutron reactors may be designed as breeders to yield more fissile material than they consume or to be plutonium burners to dispose of excess plutonium.
www.eoearth.org /article/Fast_neutron_reactors_(FBR)   (5137 words)

 The Breeder Reactor
Current commercial power reactors have achieved breeding ratios of roughly 0.55, and next-generation designs like the AP-1000 and EPR should have breeding ratios of 0.7 to 0.8, meaning that they produce 70 to 80 percent as much fuel as they consume, improving their fuel economy by roughly 15 percent compared to current high-burnup reactors.
Use of a breeder reactor assumes nuclear reprocessing of the breeder blanket at least, without which the concept is meaningless.
Breeder reactors incorporating such technology would most likely be designed with breeding ratios very close to 1.00, so that after an initial loading of enriched uranium and/or plutonium fuel, the reactor would then be refueled only with small deliveries of natural uranium metal.
www.3rd1000.com /nuclear/nuke101g.htm   (2244 words)

 FAST BREEDER TEST REACTOR (FBTR) -Components   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The reactor is closed at the top by Large and Small Rotatable Plugs, which serve as top shields and also enable access to the core locations for fuel handling.
The reactor is closed at the top by the Anti-Explosion Floor, which is bolted to tie-rods anchored on the structural concrete the reactor building.
The annular gap between the Reactor Vessel and its Double Envelope is used for emergency cooling of the core during the very-low-probability incident of simultaneous rupture of coolant boundary and its Double Envelope outside the reactor.
www.igcar.ernet.in /igc2004/romg/fbtrcomp.htm   (1504 words)

 Japan puts reactor program on back burner   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Japan's continued allegiance to the fast- breeder reactor technology has flown in the face of global trends to abandon the program.
The state-owned Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC), the operator of Japan's fault-prone prototype fast- breeder reactor Monju, also came under criticism in the report for accidents and cover-ups.
Two more experimental fast- breeder reactors were initially planned for construction in the next century after Monju.
dieoff.org /page155.htm   (497 words)

 Reactor types
In such a reactor one can achieve that more fissile plutonium nuclei be produced in a unit time than the number of fissile nuclei which undergo fission (hence the name "breeder").
In the French Phénix breeder reactor it was determined that for 100 fission reactions there are 115 newly produced fissile nuclei.
Obvously, in a fast reactor there must not be any moderator, which implies that water is not at all suitable as coolant.
www.npp.hu /mukodes/tipusok/gyorsreak-e.htm   (451 words)

 The Hindu : Fast breeder reactor: Is advanced fuel necessary?
Breeder technology works on the principle of self-sustenance and ability to produce more plutonium than it actually consumes to produce power.
Hence the doubling time (surplus plutonium produced to start a new reactor) is short in the case of metallic, carbide and nitride fuels compared to oxide fuel.
Similar will be the situation with breeder reactors where more plutonium will be produced using advanced fuel than will be utilized.
www.hindu.com /thehindu/seta/2002/10/10/stories/2002101000030200.htm   (1483 words)

 Existing and Planned Breeder Reactors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Kazakhstan’s one unit, a small fast breeder reactor, was shut down in April 1999.
Existing reactors are likely to remain in use, but there are no major breeder reactor projects underway.
Breeder reactors are essential stages of India's nuclear development.
www.ews.uiuc.edu /~comberia/future.html   (248 words)

 How a plant has stalled India-US N-deal
The fast breeder reactor was once considered the best energy source to meet growing electricity demands and to help conserve uranium resources.
The Japanese fast breeder reactors are subject to full-time advanced verification systems such as neutron coincidence counters, radiation monitoring systems and fuel flow monitors, in addition to video surveillance by the IAEA.
The fast breeder reactor is a cheif source of nuclear fuel, which is needed to replinsh the decay in nuclear material.
www.rediff.com /news/2006/feb/27bush10.htm   (1072 words)

 Strategic Affairs - Technology
INDIA'S Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, was synchronized with the state power grid and generated nearly 7.4 lakh units of electricity for 53 days in continuous operation.
FBTR has provided valuable experience with liquid metal Fast Breeder Reactor Technology and the confidence to embark upon the design of a 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor [PFBR], planned to be constructed at Kalpakkam.
The technology development for all major components for this reactor is in an advanced stage and the construction is expected to start in the next few years.
www.stratmag.com /issueApr-15/page03.htm   (1187 words)

 WMD Insights
In a breeder reactor, fuel containing a substantial proportion of fissile material, such as plutonium, is used to sustain a chain reaction.
The bred fissile material is used as a portion of a subsequent breeder core, until enough bred fissile material is obtained to allow new cores to be made solely from bred material, and the cycle becomes self-sustaining.
Thus India’s three-stage breeder program begins with the conventional CANDU-style reactors (Stage 1), whose plutonium is used in the first generation of breeder reactors (Stage 2), until enough thorium has been transmuted into uranium-233 to be used in the core of a second generation of breeders designed to use this type of fuel (Stage 3).
www.wmdinsights.com /Old_SouthAsia/April06/I4_SA2_BreederReactors.htm   (1981 words)

 ArmsControlWonk: Safeguarding Breeder Reactors
In fast breeder reactors and advanced thermal reactors, there exist difficult-to-access areas where direct verification of the inventory of fuel in the reactor core is impossible.
At the heart of the U.S. insistence on safeguarding the fast breeders is its reluctance to accept India as a nuclear weapons state, scientists familiar with the programme’s potential weapons application say.
Reactor design (PHWR, FBR, etc.) doesn’t change the fact that a growing amount of Pu-239 will accept a neutron to produce Pu-240 instead of fissioning the logner the fuel is irradiated in the reactor.
www.armscontrolwonk.com /955/safeguarding-breeder-reactors   (3892 words)

 Nuclear Power Technology
The purpose of the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor Project at MIT is to develop a sufficient technical and economic basis for the modular pebble bed reactor plant to determine whether it can compete with natural gas and still meet safety, proliferation resistance and waste disposal concerns.
It is possible to use the plentiful, nonfissile uranium-238 isotope as a reactor fuel by "breeding" fissile plutonium-239 from it by bombardment with neutrons.
The Fast Breeder uses liquid metal sodium instead of water to heat up pipes in the reactor, but it uses water to turn the turbine, which needs to spin.
www.nuclearnow.org /nuclear-energy-power-technology.shtml   (1894 words)

 Daily Excelsior...Business
The design of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), using a mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide fuel has been optimised, S M Lee, Director of Safety, Health Physics, Instrumentation and Computer Group at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) at Kalpakkam, said.
Dispelling doubts expresed by some scientists that fast breeder reactor technology will not be economically feasible for India, lee asserted, we need a national policy for national energy needs.
FBRs are expected to play a crucial role in meeting Indias energy needs in the next century.
www.dailyexcelsior.com /99jan13/busi.htm   (3905 words)

 [No title]
Breeder Reactors are capable of satisfying the electrical energy needs of the world for thousands of years.
The fundamental principle behind the fast breeder reactor concept were discovered before the end of World War II, and the potential impact of breeder reactors on future energy supplies was immediately recognized.
The reactor is fueled with bred isotopes of plutonium in the core, and the blanket is natural or depleted uranium.
www.nuc.berkeley.edu /thyd/ne161/shir/project5.html   (1465 words)

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