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Topic: Fatty acid

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  Fatty acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Long carboxy acids as short as butyric acid (4 carbons) are considered to be fatty acids, while fatty acids derived from natural fats and oils may be assumed to have at least 8 carbon atoms, e.g.
Industrially, fatty acids are produced by the hydrolysis of the ester linkages in a fat or biological oil (both of which are triglycerides), with the removal of glycerol.
Linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are omega-6 fatty acids.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fatty_acid   (1676 words)

 Essential fatty acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fatty acids are straight chain hydrocarbons possessing a carboxyl (COOH) group at one end (α) and (usually) a methyl group at the other (ω) end.
Some of the food sources of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are fish and shellfish, flaxseed (linseed), soya oil, canola (rapeseed) oil, hemp oil, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, leafy vegetables, and walnuts.
Essential fatty acids play a part in many metabolic processes, and there is evidence to suggest that low levels of essential fatty acids, or the wrong balance of types among the essential fatty acids, may be a factor in a number of illnesses.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Essential_fatty_acid   (874 words)

 Fatty Acid Oxidation
The free fatty acids are then absorbed by the cells and the glycerol is returned via the blood to the liver (and kidneys).
The final fatty acid is released from monoacylglycerols through the action of monoacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme active in the absence of hormonal stimulation.
Oxidation of fatty acids occurs in the mitochondria.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/fatty-acid-oxidation.html#regulation   (2774 words)

 Fatty acid - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Some fatty acids are saturated, i.e., each carbon atom is connected to its carbon atom neighbors by single bonds; and some fatty acids are unsaturated, i.e., contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond (see chemical bond).
Depending on the context, fatty acids may be assumed to have at least 8 carbon atoms, e.g., caprylic acid (octanoic acid).
Essential fatty acids are the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, which are the parent compounds of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid series respectively.
fattyacid.quickseek.com   (1448 words)

 fatty acid structure
Fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters are known to be present in the plasma of patient with liver dysfunction following ethanol ingestion (Aleryani SL et al., Cliln Chim Acta 2005, 359, 141).
Fatty acids with 4 to 12 carbon atoms are found mainly in milk fats (mainly butyric acid in cow and decanoic acid in sheep) but those with 10 and 12 carbon atoms are found also in certain seed oils such as coconut and other kernel fats of the palm family.
The presence of a particular branched fatty acid with unexpected optical activity (dextrorotatory) was detected as early as 1929 in lipid extracts of tubercle bacteria (Anderson RJ, J Biol Chem 1929, 83, 169).
www.cyberlipid.org /fa/acid0001.htm   (5161 words)

 Fats, Oils, Fatty Acids, Triglycerides - Chemical Structure (Page 1 of 3)
Butyric acid (butanoic acid) is one of the saturated short-chain fatty acids responsible for the characteristic flavor of butter.
Thus, "9,12-octadecadienoic acid" indicates that there is an 18-carbon chain (octa deca) with two double bonds (di en) located at carbons 9 and 12, with carbon 1 constituting a carboxyl group (oic acid).
For arachidonic acid, we subtract 14 from 20 to obtain 6; therefore, it is an omega-6 fatty acid.
www.scientificpsychic.com /fitness/fattyacids.html   (889 words)

 Fatty acid
Most of the natural fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms, because they are made up of acetate which has two carbon atoms.
Butyric: CH Lauric (dodecanoic acid): CH Myristic (tetradecanoic acid): CH Palmitic (hexadecanoic acid): CH Stearic (octadecanoic acid): CH Arachidic (eicosanoic acid): CH Unsaturated fatty acids
Linoleic acid: CH Arachidonic acid CH Oleic acid: CH Erucic acid: CH Linolenic, docosahexaenoic, and eicosapentaenoic acids are examples of omega-3 fatty acids.
www.mrsci.com /Nutrition/Fatty_acid.php   (843 words)

 Fatty acid definition - Cholesterol: health and medical information about high cholesterol and heart disease
Fatty acid: One of many molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid found in fats and oils and in cell membranes as a component of phospholipids and glycolipids.
Essential fatty acid: An essential fatty acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid needed by the body that is synthesized by plants but not by the human body and is therefore a dietary requirement.
Omega-3 fatty acids: Omega-3 fatty acids are a class of fatty acids found in fish oils, especially in salmon and other cold-water fish, that lowers the levels of cholesterol and LDL (low-density lipoproteins) in the blood.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=15385   (409 words)

 Fatty Acids: Overview | Metametrix Clinical Laboratory
Fatty acids are also the principal components of triglycerides, which act as the body’s long-term energy reservoir.
Unsaturated fatty acids are the predominant building blocks of phospholipids, which are the structural components of nerves and cell membranes, as well as the precursors of a special class of hormones called eicosanoid hormones.
Dietary fatty acids influence the level of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins in the serum, impacting the risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
www.metametrix.com /TestServ/?PageID=11   (494 words)

 fatty acid analysis
Fatty acids may be found in scarce amounts in free form but, in general they are combined in more complex molecules through ester or amide bonds.
Fatty acids may be weighed, titrated to determine their neutralization equivalent or converted to methyl esters before fractionation or GLC analysis..
On a large scale, fatty acid methyl esters, used as a substitute of diesel fuel (Biodiesel), are prepared by transesterification of vegetal oils with sodium methylate, NaOH or KOH in dry medium.
www.cyberlipid.org /fattyt/fatt0001.htm   (3537 words)

 The chemical logic behind... fatty acid metabolism
Fatty acids diffuse freely into the peroxisome: they do not need to be transported by carnitine.
Fatty acid synthesis happens in the cytoplasm, but acetyl-CoA is produced in the mitochondrion.
The remainder of the NADPH needed for fatty acid synthesis must be produced by the pentose phosphate pathway.
www2.ufp.pt /~pedros/bq/fatty.htm   (1144 words)

 Lipid Metabolism
The pathway for fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas, oxidation occurs in the mitochondria.
The primary fatty acid synthesized by FAS is palmitate.
Fatty acids are stored for future use as triacylglycerols in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue.
www.med.unibs.it /~marchesi/lipsynth.html   (1724 words)

 Fatty Acid Metabolism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl CoA.
Fatty acids are taken up from the blood stream by the cells in the liver and is then activated to form an acyl-CoA.
The longer chain fatty acids cannot diffuse across the mitochondrial membrane but must be transported with the aid of a carrier protein known as carnitine.
www.np.edu.sg /~dept-bio/biochemistry/aab/topics/aab_lipid.htm   (881 words)

 Fatty Acid Metabolism
Fatty acids mobilized from triacylglycerols are oxidized to meet the energy needs of a cell or organism.
Fatty acid degradation and synthesis are relatively simple processes that are essentially the reverse of each other.
An activated fatty acid is oxidized to introduce a double bond; the double bond is hydrated to introduce an oxygen; the alcohol is oxidized to a ketone; and, finally, the four carbon fragment is cleaved by coenzyme A to yield acetyl CoA and a fatty acid chain two carbons shorter.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?rid=stryer.chapter.3038   (434 words)

 Essential fatty acid.
Research suggests that a lack of essential fatty acids, ordinarily found abundantly in flaxseed oil and other unrefined polyunsaturated vegetable oils, plays a significant role in the development of such chronic degenerative diseases as heart disease, cancer, and stroke.
The term trans literally means that the formerly C shaped (cis) polyunsaturated fatty acid is (trans)formed to an unnatural straight-shaped fatty acid molecule.
The signs and symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency may be overt or chronically nagging, ranging from mild fatigue to a fatal heart attack.
www.herbs2000.com /h_menu/1_efa.htm   (1138 words)

 Fatty Acid Reactions
Fatty acids in the cytoplasm must cross the mitachondria membrane before the oxidations begin.
The activated long chain fatty acid is carried across the mitochondria membrane by an organic compound called carnitine.
Since the fatty acid cycles have a definite beginning and end, it is better to refer to them as the Fatty Acid Spiral.
www.elmhurst.edu /~chm/vchembook/621fattyacidrx.html   (849 words)

 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Animals
LA is one of the major fatty acids found in vegetable oils such as corn, sunflower and safflower oils.
Animal studies indicate that essential fatty acids of both the omega-3 and omega-6 series, and their eicosanoid metabolites, play important and modifiable roles in gestational duration and parturition, and omega-3 fatty acid intake during pregnancy may be inadequate.
Supplementation with long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid may be useful in prolonging the duration of gestation in some high-risk pregnancies.
www.urbancarnivore.com /uc_online/pages.cfm?ID=60   (2261 words)

 Fatty Acids and Diet: Omega Fatty Acids, You and Your Pets.
Fatty Acids (there are over 70 of them!) are important for a wide array of cell structure components and for many chemical reactions in the body including hormonal and energy activities.
Fatty Acids play a vital role in establishing a healthy lipid barrier in the skin to block irritants and infections.
Saturated Fatty Acids are those that have no chemical bonds left unattended, that is, they have no “double bonds”; between their carbon backbone waiting to trap such atoms as hydrogen.
www.thepetcenter.com /gen/fa.html   (1926 words)

 Oilfield Glossary: Term 'fatty acid'
Fatty acids are the raw materials used in the manufacture of many drilling-fluid additives, such as emulsifiers, oil-wetting agents and lubricants.
Tall-oil fatty acids are distilled from conifer trees.
Fatty acids from animals are mostly saturated acids, having single bonds between carbon atoms.
www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com /Display.cfm?Term=fatty+acid   (133 words)

 Lipid Metabolism
The increased fatty acid availability in response to glucagon or epinephrine is assured of being completely oxidized since both PKA and AMPK also phosphorylate (and as a result inhibits) ACC, thus inhibiting fatty acid synthesis.
As we shall encounter later, arachindonate is a precursor for the eicosanoids (the prostaglandins and thromboxanes).
The fatty acid distribution at the C-1 and C-2 positions of glycerol within phospholipids is continually in flux, owing to phospholipid degradation and the continuous phospholipid remodeling that occurs while these molecules are in membranes.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/lipid-synthesis.html   (4721 words)

 Fatty Acid Synthesis
The CO is lost later during condensation with the growing fatty acid.
When the fatty acid is 16 carbon atoms long, a Thioesterase domain catalyzes hydrolysis of the thioester linking the fatty acid to phosphopantetheine.
In the transfer step (labeled 7 above) the growing fatty acid is preferentially passed from the ACP phosphopantetheine thiol of one subunit to the Condensing Enzyme cysteine thiol of the other subunit of the dimer.
www.rpi.edu /dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb2/part1/fasynthesis.htm   (1024 words)

 Fatty Acid Deficiencies and ADD
The most important problem is an excess of Omega-6 fatty acids in the bloodstream, which use the same enzymes for a similar type of conversion.
If you have a lot of Omega-6 fatty acids in your blood stream and only a small amount of Omega-3 fatty acids, the enzymes will probably be used up by the Omega-6 fatty acids, and you will be unable to manufacture DHA out of ALA.
Omega-6 fatty acids are broken down into substances which promote inflammation and other problems while Omega-3 fatty acids are broken down into substances that reduce inflammation.
borntoexplore.org /omega.htm   (2584 words)

 Fatty acid oxidation and ketone bodies
Because phytanic acid is methylated, it cannot act as a substrate for the first enzyme of the
Deficiencies in carnitine lead to an inability to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation.
, results from a reduced supply of glucose (due to a significant decline in circulating insulin) and a concomitant increase in fatty acid oxidation (due to a concomitant increase in circulating glucagon).
www.med.unibs.it /~marchesi/fatox.html   (2711 words)

 DHA Essential Fatty Acid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid found in marine oils and
Acid), also an omega fatty acid from fish oil.
Possible beneficial effect of fish and fish n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast and colorectal cancer.
www.mobilelinex.com /Roex/dhaefa.htm   (903 words)

 Fatty Acid Analysis
The balance of fats (the ratio of Omega-6 fatty acids to Omega-3 Fatty Acids) in the membranes of the cells in our bodies should replicate that of green leafy plant material.
When the ratio is skewed, for instance when it's greater than four to one, body failures start to occur.
This is why the meats you eat must have ratios that are very close to one to one.
www.texasgrassfedbeef.com /id73.htm   (222 words)

 Fatty Acid Chemistry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
To learn the names of the common even-carbon numbered saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
To understand the basis of the nutritional necessity for linoleic acid, linolenic acid and, on occasion, arachidonic acid.
To know that fatty acids may occur covalently attached to proteins.
hsc.unm.edu /som/bmb/Courses/BCH446/lectures/FattyAcid.htm   (121 words)

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