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Topic: Fermentation

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Ferment a) a living organism (as a yeast) that causes fermentation by virtue of its enzymes.
All bread was "sourdough" until bakers' yeast was developed to produce fast rising (short fermentation).
Long fermentation is the secret to flavor in sourdough baking.
www.sourdo.com /fermentation.html   (0 words)

  Fermentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fermentation is a process that is important in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the production of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) by glycolysis.
In alchemy, fermentation is often the same as putrefaction, meaning to allow the substance to naturally rot or decompose.
Fermentation does not release all the available energy in a molecule; it merely allows glycolysis (a process that yields two ATP per glucose) to continue by replenishing reduced coenzymes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fermentation   (1742 words)

 FERMENTATION - LoveToKnow Article on FERMENTATION   (Site not responding. Last check: )
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motionthat is, of decompositionto other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
Fermentation, according to Pasteur, was caused by the growth and multiplication of unicellular organisms out of contact with free oxygen, under which circumstance they acquire the power of taking oxygen from chemical compounds in the medium in which they are growing.
According to Buchner the fermentative activity of yeast-cell juice is not due to the presence of living yeast cells, or to the action of living yeast protoplasm, but it is caused by a soluble enzyme.
72.1911encyclopedia.org /F/FE/FERMENTATION.htm   (5019 words)

 Malolactic fermentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Malolactic fermentation is a process of fermentation where tart malic acid is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid.
A wine undergoing malolactic fermentation will be cloudy due to the presence of bacteria, and may have an uncanny smell of buttered popcorn, due to the production of diacetyl.
The carbonation from this type of secondary fermentation should not be confused with benign carbonation, known as spritz.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Malolactic_fermentation   (310 words)

 All About Beer: Homebrewing-Secondary Fermentation
Primary fermentation is marked by the vigorous release of carbon dioxide.
The key chemical reaction of fermentation -- the conversion of sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide -- occurs mostly during the primary phase.
During this latter phase of fermentation, the majority of the yeast in the beer also settles to the bottom of the fermenter, leaving the beer clear and bright.
www.allaboutbeer.com /homebrew/secondar.html   (602 words)

 Fermentation - MSN Encarta
For example, lactase, a ferment produced by bacteria usually found in milk, causes the milk to sour by changing lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid.
Probably the most important type of fermentation is alcoholic fermentation, in which the action of zymase secreted by yeast converts simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Various fermentation productions of milk, such as acidophilus milk, Bulgarian milk, and yogurt, are widely consumed for their nutritive properties.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761578835/Fermentation.html   (308 words)

 fermentation. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Fermentation is achieved by somewhat different chemical sequences in different species of organisms.
In alcoholic fermentation, such as occurs in brewer’s yeast and some bacteria, the production of lactic acid is bypassed, and the glucose molecule is degraded to two molecules of the two-carbon alcohol, ethanol, and to two molecules of carbon dioxide.
Many of the enzymes of lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation are identical to the enzymes that bring about the metabolic conversion known as glycolysis.
www.bartleby.com /65/fe/fermenta.html   (379 words)

 Fermentation of Baker's Help
The temperature range for optimum yeast fermentation is between 75°F-85°F. The process of fermentation also generates heat, and its measure is often used by bakeries as an effective way to monitor the degree of fermentation.
Satisfactory fermentation rates can usually be achieved in doughs containing high levels of salt or sugar by increasing the amount of yeast used.
At the onset of fermentation, dough pH is approximately 5.5-5.8.
www.dakotayeast.com /help-fermentation.html   (1197 words)

Fermented foods have a very good safety record, even in developing countries where food is produced under poor hygienic conditions.
Fermented foods are overgrown by desirable and edible microorganisms, thereby reducing the risk of contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and Clostridium.
The low pH of the soybeans is obtained by a natural lactic acid fermentation in the soaking water or by an artificial addition of acids (lactic or acetic acid) after the soaking process.
www.tempeh.info /fermentation/fermentation.html   (242 words)

 Fermented and vegetables. A global perspective. Chapter 5.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The natural controls which affect the microbial populations of the fermenting vegetables include the concentration of salt and temperature of the brine, the availability of fermentable materials and the numbers and types of micro-organisms present at the start of fermentation.
The rapidity of the fermentation is correlated with the concentration of salt in the brine and its temperature.
Pit fermentations are also used in other parts of the world – for example in Ethiopia, where the false banana (Ensete ventricosum) is fermented in a pit to produce a pulp known as kocho.
www.fao.org /docrep/x0560e/x0560e10.htm   (5720 words)

 Glycolysis and Fermentation
Fermentation occurs in mammals under circumstances where ATP is required but molecular oxygen is lacking (for example, during sprints).
In fermentation (i.e., when molecular oxygen is absent or in microorganisms which are unable to take advantage of molecular oxygen when it is present), pyruvate serves as the final electron acceptor resulting in the formation of lactic acid, ethanol, etc.
The carbon dioxide produced by alcohol fermentation is the gas involved in the rising of yeast breads as well as supplying the bubbles in champagne.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/biol1095.htm   (2687 words)

 Lactic acid fermentation
Egypt: laban rayab and laban zeer (fermented milks), kishk (fermented cereal and milk mixture)
The presence of lactic acid, produced during the lactic acid fermentation is responsible for the sour taste and for the improved microbiological stability and safety of the food.
The milk sugar or lactose is fermented by these bacteria to lactic acid which causes the characteristic curd to form.
www.tempeh.info /fermentation/lactic-acid-fermentation.html   (496 words)

 Penn State engineers boost hydrogen production from fermentation
The paper details the group's experiments comparing the standard fermentation method, in which hydrogen is released from the processing vessels intermittently, with a method in which the gas is released continuously.
In the Penn State experiments, fermentation was conducted with bacteria from ordinary garden soil.
Fermentation of both glucose and sucrose with the heat-treated soil under slightly acidic conditions in the absence of oxygen produced high concentrations of hydrogen gas.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2002-05/ps-pse053102.php   (579 words)

 fermentation on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
FERMENTATION [fermentation] process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen.
Fermentation bubbles with activity; fermentation is helping fine chemical companies carve out a niche and compete on a global basis.(Special Report: Fine Chemicals 97)
Effect of an acid hydrolyzate of southern pine softwood on the growth and fermentation ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/f1/fermenta.asp   (576 words)

 Fermentation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
During the primary fermentation (H), the fermentable sugars, mainly maltose and glucose are converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
At the end of the primary fermentation, the yeast cells flocculate and sediment at the bottom of the fermenter and can be cropped and used for a new fermentation.
The fermentation characteristics of brewer's yeast are strain-dependent and are genetically inherited.
www.crc.dk /flab/fermenta.htm   (174 words)

 Early Research on Fermentation
Schwann’s microscopic observations on fermenting yeast were similar to those of Cagniard-Latour, but his work was not restricted to yeast: his interests included a wide range of subjects, and he is now generally considered the principal originator of the cell theory (Schwann, 1839).
His experiments on fermentation, begun in 1857, led him to conclude that a vital force of the yeast cells is involved (Pasteur, 1860); rather than the transfer of a vibrating action of decaying, material to the sugar, as postulated by Liebig (1839).
The only regrettable point in Pasteur’s work on fermentation is that he did not explore Traube’s suggestion of enzyme action in the yeast cells, nor did he visualize the possibility of extracting fermentation enzymes, even though an ever-increasing number of cell-free enzyme actions were being reported.
bip.cnrs-mrs.fr /bip10/schlenk.htm   (2675 words)

But you may not be aware that its fermentation helps to develop gluten in dough and also contributes to flavor from the wheat flour in the bread.
When yeast ferments, the carbon dioxide gas released by it is trapped in the tiny air cells in the bread's strong and elastic gluten strands.
When a recipe for yeast dough says, "allow the dough to rest for ten minutes", it means you should cover the dough in a warm place, with a clean dish towel and leave it alone for ten minutes.
www.baking911.com /bread/101_fermentation.htm   (1070 words)

 Silage Fermentation and Preservation
As the forage is harvested, aerobic organisms predominate on the forage surface.
This is a continuation of Phase III as the lactic-acid bacteria begin to increase, ferment soluble carbohydrates and produce lactic acid.
Lactic acid is the most desirable of the fermentation acids and for efficient preservation, should comprise greater than 60 percent of the total silage organic acids produced.
www.ext.nodak.edu /extpubs/ansci/dairy/as1254w.htm   (3578 words)

Following conversion of starch to dextrose, many corn refiners pipe dextrose to fermentation facilities where the dextrose is converted to alcohol by traditional yeast fermentation or to amino acids and other bioproducts through either yeast or bacterial fermentation.
After fermentation, the resulting broth is distilled to recover alcohol or concentrated through membrane separation to produce other bioproducts.
Carbon dioxide from fermentation is recaptured for sale and nutrients remaining after fermentation are used as components of animal feed ingredients.
www.corn.org /web/ferment.htm   (101 words)

 Applied Food Microbiology - Sauerkraut Fermentation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
By definition, sauerkraut is "acidic cabbage." It is the result of a natural fermentation by bacteria indigenous to cabbage in the presence of 2 to 3% salt.
A layer of mineral oil floating on the expressed juice prevents the entry of oxygen; the oxygen that had been in the juice and cabbage leaves originally was respired away by bacterial and plant metabolism.
Throughout the fermentation, it is critical that oxygen be excluded.
www.splammo.net /foodapplmicro/applkraut.html   (1569 words)

 Fermentater Tanks and Vessels for Beer or Wine Fermentation
Fermentation vessels must be made of food grade materials.
The most important characteristics of a plastic fermenter is a very smooth interior.
Deluxe primary beer and wine fermenter with child safety warning and gallon markings in fl.
www.leeners.com /ferment.html   (193 words)

 Biotechnology Business and Training Center > Fermentation
Fermentation is the term used to describe any process for the production of a product by means of the culture of microorganisms or cells.
Fermentation is often thought of as the "first step" in many biotechnology processes.
Fed-batch fermentation is a variation of the above process in which liquid streams of nutrients are continuously added in predetermined amounts as the fermentation process progresses.
www.uncp.edu /biotech/fermentation   (726 words)

 Fermentation Articles - Fermentation Update - Fermentation Web-Page   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Dextrose is one of the most fermentable of all of the sugars dextrose, many corn refiners pipe dextrose to fermentation facilities where the dextrose is converted to.
Fermentation is of different types and takes place under anaerobic conditions mostly in alcoholic fermentation the type of fermentation in which ethyl.
Increase maintain decrease view results fermentation may be at root of irritable bowel syndrome london, england oct. What do these microbes and the process of fermentation provide the herbivore.
www.soy-sauce-master.info /fermentation.html   (1302 words)

 CenturyWine - The Source for Wine Information   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Grapes can be fermented by adding selected wine yeast to dominate the yeast that derive from the vineyard (grape surface, leaves, and stems) and the winery environment (tanks, barrels, hoses).
Fermentation temperature and characteristics of the selected yeast determine the amount and type of flavours produced.
This fermentation is called a malolactic fermentation and during this process, lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid to lactic acid and CO, which results in a lowering of the acidity of the wine.
www.centurywine.8m.com /chemistry.html   (479 words)

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