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Topic: Final devoicing


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In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

  
  Tieszen, Final stop devoicing in Polish: Abstract
This thesis examines the acoustic nature of word-final devoicing process in Polish and provides a possible explanation for its development on the basis of the history of the Polish language.
The results revealed that word-final devoicing is not complete in Polish, and that the dialect regions influence the kind of voicing cues which maintain the voicing distinction phonetically.
For speakers from Warsaw in all environments and all places of articulation, the duration of glottal pulsing into closure was significantly longer for underlyingly voiced stops than for voiceless.
ling.wisc.edu /abstracts/tieszen.htm   (364 words)

  
 [No title]
In her original (1991, 1995) typology, Lombardi stipulated the independence of final devoicing from regressive assimilation by treating the final voiced obstruents of Yiddish and Serbo-Croatian as “extrametrical”.
In Polish word final obstruents assimilate the voicing of a following obstruent; before a sonorant there is dialectal variation with the Warsaw dialect having a uniformly voiceless realisation while for the Krakow dialect it is determined by the context and thus appears voiced before a sonorant.
Final devoicing is not reflected in Jastrow’s transcriptions, except for the pharyngeal /9/, which takes the voiceless variant /H/ word-finally and before a voiceless consonant.
web.mit.edu /linguistics/www/kenstowicz/laryngeal_licensing.doc   (4991 words)

  
 Final consonant devoicing
  Final consonant devoicing applies to the final tail of roots which appear either uninflected or with inflectional suffixes which do not begin with a vowel.
1996a, 201-3) has suggested that this amounts to devoicing of all syllable-final consonants, since the addition of a vowel-initial suffix results in the tail of the root becoming an onset of the following syllable (as required by the maximal onset principle).
Kloeke actually argues that the term ``final consonant devoicing'' is inaccurate because the feature in question is tenseness, rather than voice, but this is immaterial in an account which is formulated segmentally rather than featurally.
www.informatics.susx.ac.uk /research/nlp/polylex/polynode42.html   (396 words)

  
 Final consonant devoicing
  Final consonant devoicing applies to the final tail of roots which appear either uninflected or with inflectional suffixes which do not begin with a vowel.
Kloeke actually argues that the term ``final consonant devoicing'' is inaccurate because the feature in question is tenseness, rather than voice, but this is immaterial in an account which is formulated segmentally rather than featurally.
The devoiced variants are then determined by checking the suffix of the form in question.
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk /research/nlp/polylex/polynode42.html   (396 words)

  
 Final obstruent devoicing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Final obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German, Dutch, Polish, and Russian, among others.
English does not have phonological final obtruent devoicing of the type that neutralizes phonemic contrasts; thus pairs like bad and bat are distinct in all major accents of English.
The most salient distinction between bad and bat is not the voicing of the final consonant but rather the duration of the vowel and the glottalization of final /t/: bad is pronounced [bæːd̥] while bat is [bæˀ(t)].
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Final_devoicing   (341 words)

  
 [No title]
This supports the proposal that devoicing is preferred to nasalization, gliding or lateralization as a means of complying with the voicing constraint (1), because the input-output dissimilarity induced by devoicing is less than that caused by a change of obstruency.
From which we deduce that devoicing is preferred to epenthesis because it is a less salient modification of the input.
Finally, we have focussed here on aspects of perceived similarity that correspond to broad cross-linguistic generalizations: and for this reason it may appear that a claim of universality is made regarding the contents of the P-map.
www.linguistics.ucla.edu /people/steriade/papers/P-map_for_phonology.doc   (14169 words)

  
 FINAL DEVOICING FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Final devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German, Dutch, and Russian, among others.
Phonological final devoicing can lead to the neutralization of phonemic constrasts in certain environments.
English does not have phonological final devoicing of the type that neutralizes phonemic contrasts; thus pairs like ''bad'' and ''bat'' are distinct in all major accents of English.
www.factagent.com /Final_devoicing   (160 words)

  
 Differences in the scope of obstruent voicing assimilation in learners' English as a consequence of regional variation ...
The values of the [P=.] tags (V for voicing and D for devoicing area) were determined on the basis of Dejna (1994: Map 6) by plotting the locations derived from questionnaires on the map.
The narrow area of overlap which Dejna (1994: caption to Map 6) describes as an area of expansion of sandhi devoicing pronunciation with relics of voicing across word-internal morpheme boundaries was classified as D ('devoicing area').
Finally, in terms of the Style variable (Reading versus Speaking), it is not known whether other settings, such as word-list reading, or completely natural conversation (if there is such a thing for second-language learners at this level of competence) as opposed to an interview would constitute different styles.
www.staff.amu.edu.pl /~rlew/voifr.htm   (6496 words)

  
 Gothic Miscellany: Vowels, Grimm's Law, Syntax, and Devoicing
The devoicing of fricatives in final position is a sticking point for many German scholars; in particular the historical time at which this devoicing occured is difficult to pinpoint.
Roberge looks at the patterns of final fricatives and concludes that these voiced fricatives (-b, -d, -g, -z) were in fact present in the original archetype, and were copied by the later scribes.
Since, however, final devoicing had begun to take effect by the time of these later scribes, there are inconsistencies: in some cases the scribes tried to reconcile Wulfila's spellings to their own pronunciation, but they did so incompletely, thus leaving us with a rather confusing mixture of voiced and voiceless final fricatives.
www.nthuleen.com /papers/755gothhome.html   (1372 words)

  
 Devoicing | Antimoon Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
As for *word-final* devoicing, such is just a weird feature of my own dialect which is reflected in my transcriptions here, and which is in no means at all usual for an English dialect.
In final position in a tone unit, both /s/ and /z/ might sound identical, yet the vowel will be clipped when you originally had a /s/ but never before /z/.
Partial devoicing of final consonants is common to all/most varieties of English but I would think very few would do so when followed by a vowel such as in "prove it." I definitely have fully voiced [v] there.
www.antimoon.com /forum/t1710.htm   (1549 words)

  
 NISC South Africa
Abstract: Phonetic incompleteness during final devoicing has been subject to some debate, particularly as far as the reliability of the data and the proper explanation of incompleteness are concerned.
The data indicate that under more natural speaking conditions, final devoicing is complete, but various reflexes of incomplete neutralisation are observed under different types of experimental conditions.
The interpretation of the data proposed in the paper is that final devoicing itself is a complete and categorical process affecting the feature [voice], aimed at maintaining the perceptual salience of final obstruents generally.
www.nisc.co.za /oneAbstract?absId=684   (289 words)

  
 Final Devoicing or 'Why does <naoi> sound like [n̴̪ɯiç]?'
Linguists call it Final Devoicing and there is no really easy way of explaining it.
They are transcribed with the symbol for devoicing rather than [x] or [ç] because they are not as "strong" as broad and slender [x] but much fainter and less strongly pronounced.
Something slightely more bizarre, but definitely not unheard of in the languages of the world is the devoicing of final vowels.
www.akerbeltz.org /beagangaidhlig/gramar/grammar_devoicing.htm   (640 words)

  
 Betsy-McCall.com -- Writing, Academic -- Luo Plurals, preliminaries
They are not entirely predictable from the singular forms, since a final palatal affricate may alternate with the palatal glide, the voice palatal affricate or the voiceless palatal affricate in the plural forms.
The overlapping character of the zero-marked plurals and the e-marked plurals suggest some underlying connection, and the devoicing behaviour suggests that these devoiced consonants may have once been final in all the forms.
This would mean that the forms that currently do not undergo the devoicing were not final and belie their historical connection.
www.pewtergallery.com /betsy/research/luo/plurals.html   (1254 words)

  
 On-line conference "Language Typology"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The delimitation of a word is achieved by the boundary markers existing on the different levels of a language: Phonological (final devoicing, consonant clusters, vowel harmony, fixed accent, etc.), morphological (the word basic form (lexeme) coincidence with the stem (lexical morpheme)), syntactic, etc.
If the fixed accent is on the final syllable, devoicing of the final obstruents does not occur.
In a language with the basic word form that coincides with the stem, final obstruents are devoicing.
www.kcn.ru /tat_en/science/fccl/abstyp.htm   (718 words)

  
 IngentaConnect Demystifying incomplete neutralisation during final devoicing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Phonetic incompleteness during final devoicing has been subject to some debate, particularly as far as the reliability of the data and the proper explanation of incompleteness are concerned.
The data indicate that under more natural speaking conditions, final devoicing is complete, but various reflexes of incomplete neutralisation are observed under different types of experimental conditions.
The interpretation of the data proposed in the paper is that final devoicing itself is a complete and categorical process affecting the feature [voice], aimed at maintaining the perceptual salience of final obstruents generally.
www.ingentaconnect.com /content/nisc/ling/2003/00000021/F0020001/art00005;jsessionid=1rrh8l6mbjs12.victoria   (253 words)

  
 Language Log: Blog or Block?
Lucas admitted that his judgments might be affected by the fact that he has been speaking mostly English for a year or so, so he provided a scholarly citation (Caroline Féry, "Final Devoicing and the Stratification of the Lexicon in German", HILP 4, 1999), which mentions "rave" (p.
This surprises me a bit, since I had always thought that German final devoicing was a phonologically transparent process, somewhat like the process of flapping and voicing in American English that makes "latter" sound the same as "ladder".
German final devoicing (or fortition in a growing number of recent views, like those of Iverson and Salmons, Jessen and others) is almost certainly a complete neutralization (Fourakis and Iverson, Jessen, see now Piroth and Junker) when speakers are unaware of the task in an experiment.
itre.cis.upenn.edu /~myl/languagelog/archives/002228.html   (1040 words)

  
 Comments for phonoloblog
The learner temporarily "forgets" final devoicing, even when speaking Russian, inhibiting a process that is not desired in the L2, where the voiced/voiceless contrast is crucial in final position.

The learner temporarily “forgets” final devoicing, even when speaking Russian, inhibiting a process that is not desired in the L2, where the voiced/voiceless contrast is crucial in final position.
When we talked about final devoicing, they both agreed that [xljep] ‘bread’ was pronounced with a “p”, not a “b”, i.e.
camba.ucsd.edu /phonoloblog/wp-commentsrss2.php   (2418 words)

  
 Perceptual effects of assimilation-induced violation of final devoicing in Dutch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Kuijpers, C.T.L., Van Donselaar, W.A., and Cutler, A. Perceptual effects of assimilation-induced violation of final devoicing in Dutch.
Voice assimilation in Dutch is an optional phonological rule which changes the surface forms of words and in doing so may violate the otherwise obligatory phonological rule of syllable-final devoicing.
Processing was not impaired in appropriate assimilation contexts across morpheme boundaries, but was impaired when devoicing was violated (a) in an inappropriate (non-assimilatory) context, or (b) across a syntactic boundary.
www.nici.kun.nl /Publications/2002/16382.html   (137 words)

  
 Voicing in Dutch
At first sight, Final Devoicing seems a fairly stable process across the West Germanic dialect continuum: virtually all dialects devoice obstruents at the end of the syllable.
Historically, it could be argued that in these cases, an inflectional schwa has been dropped and that final devoicing has 'not yet' applied to the resulting syllable- and word-final obstruents.
The problem for constraint-based phonology is that the synchronic process is opaque: it is not clear why the final obstruent does not devoice in the 1SG, while it does in the 2SG form (in most dialects of Dutch, 1SG and 2SG in inversion have exactly the same phonological shape).
www.let.leidenuniv.nl /ulcl/faculty/vdweijer/dvoice   (1892 words)

  
 Van Rooy: Word-final devoicing by Tswana and Afrikaans speakers of English
Tswana does not allow final consonants in its syllable structure, and consequently, the application or not of final devoicing is supposedly irrelevant to a Tswana speaker.
It is argued in this paper that final devoicing is a universal tendency, a default mechanism used by speakers when dealing with a new language, perhaps.
The debate on whether or not this final sound is an allophone of the voiced alternative, and not possibly an allophone of the voiceless alternative, is not even seriously contested in English phonology.
www.und.ac.za /und/ling/archive/rooy-01.html   (3882 words)

  
 Devoicing-source   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Click on the city names below and concentrate on hearing this at the end of each of the syllables.
Notice that devoicing does not affect m, n, l, or r.
When a word ends in the suffix -ig, it comes out in the standard pronunciation sounding like the word ich.
lab.chass.utoronto.ca /rescentre/german/TalkingMap/Devoicing-source.htm   (124 words)

  
 abstract2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
While most studies of neutralization have focused on word-final devoicing, the present study investigated a different kind of neutralization, namely that of manner of articulation.
This is of particular interest given the long tradition in Korean phonology of considering coda neutralization to yield unreleased stops.
Finally, perceptual results from Experiment 3 show that listeners were unable to reliably determine from which underlying form a given surface form had been derived, thus indicating that other potential cues besides duration had been neutralized.
www2.ku.edu /~kuppl/abstracts/aapefcnomoaik.html   (254 words)

  
 A Linguistic and Neuropsychological Approach to Remediation in a German Case of Developmental Dysgraphia Annals of ...
The absence of a method-specific and a generalization effect for the whole-word form intervention and the success of the rule-based method is determined by the specific cognitive component(s)s that constitute the source of the deficit and the appropriateness of Optimality Theory to address this particular deficit.
For this purpose, we will first describe consonant neutralization (final devoicing) in German phonology within the framework of OT and the realization of the neutralization in orthography.
In order to be able to write words with final devoicing correctly, one has to have access not only to the phonetic forms but also and more importantly, to the underlying phonological form of each word; this requires lexical knowledge.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3809/is_200301/ai_n9226185   (842 words)

  
 stressed "or" | Antimoon Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Final devoicing is the devoicing of phonemes at the ends of words.
For instance, German (aside from Yiddish), Dutch, Russian, and Polish all have final devoicing.
My dialect does have final devoicing, but on a more limited basis than said languages, as it really only applies such consistently to words ending in fricatives of affricates, and even then such very often does not occur if the following word starts with a vowel.
www.antimoon.com /forum/t6242-15.htm   (690 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 3.169: Chinese, Dictionary, Final Devoicing
This is a query directed to linguists familiar with languages with final devoicing (especially but not limited to Polish, Russian, Dutch, German, (certain varieties of) Yiddish, and Catalan).
It is sometimes claimed that in at least some of these languages final devoicing can be "suppressed" when you "enunciate" (specifically, when you put a brief schwa-like vocoid after the final obstruent).
However, my observation (at least in the case of Polish and Russian) is that it is possible to enunciate devoiced obstruents, as in the word ad, in one of two ways, depending on what is MEANT.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/3/3-169.html   (887 words)

  
 [No title]
Several experiments in acoustic phonetics have demonstrated that final neutralization in various languages is incomplete.
Port et al tried to determine whether the neutralization is really complete, and in the case of incomplete neutralization, they attempted to find the variables that contribute to the difference.
For each target word four measurements were taken: (1) the duration of the vowel that precedes the target obstruent, (2) the duration of the final obstruent, (3) duration of voicing into the consonant closure, and (4) the burst duration of the final stop.
www.indiana.edu /~sls2006/Abstracts/ShragerSLS.doc   (601 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 3.769: Phoneticians I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
True, there are a great many cloth-eared phoneticians around who are apparently incapable of noticing the phonetic distinction between "devoiced" voiced stops and ordinary voiceless stops, but that does not mean that all ear-trained phoneticians are bad, or that impressionistic phonetics is no good.
Cases of incomplete neutralization where the phonetician's ear is incapible of hearing the difference have been reported in child phonology and in aphasia.
In child phonology, it is clear that some children incompletely devoice final obstruents, but the phonetician can't detect it; sometimes its a matter of a subtle difference in the length of the preceding vowel.
www.linguistlist.org /issues/3/3-769.html   (801 words)

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