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Topic: Fingerprint

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  Fingerprint - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fingerprints are commonly held to be an infallible method of uniquely identifying an individual, but it's more an art than science: most state and federal level crime labs will not report a fingerprint match until two experts independently reach that conclusion.
Fingerprint identification (sometimes referred to as dactyloscopy) is the process of comparing questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions (see Minutiae) from fingers, palms, and toes to determine if the impressions are from the same finger (or palm, toe, etc.).
Fingerprint experts had conceded that the process they use -- matching large, evenly pressured prints taken from suspects at the police station to smaller, unevenly pressured prints from crime scenes -- is ultimately subjective and bedeviled by inconsistent standards.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fingerprint   (3138 words)

 Biometrics: Fingerprint
A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger.
Fingerprint classification is a technique to assign a fingerprint into one of the several pre-specified types already established in the literature which can provide an indexing mechanism.
An input fingerprint is first matched at a coarse level to one of the pre-specified types and then, at a finer level, it is compared to the subset of the database containing that type of fingerprints only.
biometrics.cse.msu.edu /fingerprint.html   (865 words)

 Fingerprint Information
While his experience with fingerprinting was admittedly limited, Sir Herschel's private conviction that all fingerprints were unique to the individual, as well as permanent throughout that individual's life, inspired him to expand their use.
He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints.
While he soon discovered that fingerprints offered no firm clues to an individual's intelligence or genetic history, he was able to scientifically prove what Herschel and Faulds already suspected: that fingerprints do not change over the course of an individual's lifetime, and that no two fingerprints are exactly the same.
www.usdoj.gov /marshals/usmsforkids/fingerprint_history.htm   (1623 words)

 ABC News: Study: Fingerprint Evidence Isn't Infallible
Fingerprints taken at crime scenes are not always clear, which can lead to faulty analysis and misidentification – errors that are extremely difficult to counter, but perhaps happen a thousand times a year, says a researcher.
That research eventually cleared him, despite the fact that experts had testified that his fingerprint implicated him in the attempted murder of a police officer.
In another case, a corpse found in the Nevada desert was identified – on the basis of fingerprints – as that of a California woman who later turned up alive.
abcnews.go.com /Technology/DyeHard/story?id=1202813&page=1   (437 words)

By having an individual scan their fingerprint electronically to decode information, the transmitter of the data can be certain that the intended recipient is the receiver of the data.
One concern of fingerprint biometrics is that latent prints left on the glass will register the prior user, however there already exist units that will not scan unless a "live" finger is on the glass and will only register the later imprint.
Closely associated with fingerprint biometrics is another biometric that registers the imprint left by the palm of the hand.
www.emory.edu /BUSINESS/et/biometric/Fingerprint.htm   (370 words)

 Fingerprint Identification
The last several years have proved that fingerprint scanners are overwhelmingly the most successful biometric device (Davis, A. Fingerprint imaging devices/applications account for nearly 80 percent of the total worldwide biometrics market, according to Frost and Sullivan.
The first country to adopt a national computerized form of fingerprint imaging was Australia in 1986, which implemented fingerprint imaging technology into its law enforcement system (Simon, D. It has been estimated that the chance of two people, including twins, having the same fingerprint is less than one-in-a-billion (Industry Information: Biometrics, 1996).
Optical fingerprint technologies require the user to place his or her finger on a glass substrate at which point an internal light source from the fingerprint device is projected onto the fingerprint.
et.wcu.edu /aidc/BioWebPages/Biometrics_Finger.html   (1170 words)

 FingerPrint   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Fingerprint cuts any subrange of a nucleotide sequence at Gs (as if it were digested with T1 ribonuclease) and arranges the fragments in order of their U (or T) content.
It was sequenced by Pedersen and Devereux at Smithies' lab at the University of Wisconsin and at Larkin's lab at Purdue University, Spring 1981.
If Fingerprint rejects your nucleotide sequence, turn to Appendix VI to see how to change or set the type of a sequence.
helix.nih.gov /docs/gcg/fingerprint.html   (504 words)

 AIM - The global trade assocation for automatic identification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
For storage, a fingerprint requires a data template that ranges from several hundred bytes to more than 1,000 bytes depending on the approach.
A digital template of the user's fingerprint (no ink involved!) may be captured and stored with credit card information on a smart card.
When the card is inserted into the terminal, the cardholder is prompted to place a finger on the integrated fingerprint scanner to determine if the live scan and the information on the card match.
www.aimglobal.org /technologies/othertechnologies/biometric_fingerprint.asp   (346 words)

 fingerprint america
In time, after viewing a number of fingerprints, Herschel noticed that no two prints were exactly alike, and he observed that even in widespread use, the fingerprints could be used for personal identification purposes.
He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification: a greasy print left by a laboratory worker on a bottle of alcohol.
Fingerprinting technology comes into widespread use in the United States, as the New York Police Department, the New York State Prison system and the Federal Bureau of Prisons begin working with the new science.
www.fingerprintamerica.com /fingerprintHistory.asp   (1525 words)

The background check requires one fingerprint card (of the applicant) to be submitted to the Washington State Patrol Identification and Criminal History Section.
Once fingerprinted, the law enforcement agency which processed your prints will place your card in the addressed, postage paid envelope provided by the school district and mail it to the Washington State Patrol.
Be sure to fill out the fingerprint card completely and include in the envelope your certified check or money order for the processing fee made payable to the "Washington State Patrol." You must have your check at the time of your fingerprinting appointment.
www.sumner.wednet.edu /employment/pages/fingerprint.html   (440 words)

 infra-red spectra - the fingerprint region
The importance of the fingerprint region is that each different compound produces a different pattern of troughs in this part of the spectrum.
The pattern in the fingerprint region is completely different and could therefore be used to identify the compound.
You would then compare the fingerprint region of its infra-red spectrum with known spectra measured under exactly the same conditions to find out which alcohol (or whatever) you had.
www.chemguide.co.uk /analysis/ir/fingerprint.html   (401 words)

 NOVA Online/Bombing of America/Fingerprint
Fingerprint identification is a well-established science, which investigators attempt to use at virtually every type of crime scene.
A fingerprint is "lifted" using a variety of chemicals, depending on the surface.
It was over a decade before fingerprints were used in England for identification purposes, and not until 1903 that the New York City Police department began fingerprinting every person arrested.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/nova/bombing/fingerp.html   (149 words)

 NASD - Regulatory Systems - CRD FAQ - Fingerprint Cards
When completing fingerprint cards for submission to NASD, please write the individual's name and physical description clearly on the cards to ensure that the fingerprint card is processed in a timely manner by the FBI.
If the fingerprint card is not received within the 30-day time period, the individual's NASD registration status will be changed to "Inactive-prints", and the individual will have to cease doing business until such time as the card is received and entered into the Web CRD system.
Only one fingerprint card is required for affiliated firms in connection with the Form U4 filing as long as the Forms U4 are filed on the same date.
www.nasd.com /web/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&ssDocName=NASDW_005902&ssSourceNodeId=1108   (1512 words)

 Daylight Theory: Fingerprints
Fingerprints are a very abstract representation of certain structural features of a molecule; before we describe them, we'll discuss the problems that inspired the development of the fingerprinting techniques used in the Daylight Chemical Information System.
Fingerprints are not so definite: if a fingerprint indicates a pattern is missing then it certainly is, but it can only indicate a pattern's presence with some probability.
Although a fingerprint doesn't indicate with 100% certainty that a particular pattern is present, it contains far more patterns total than a structural key, the net result being that a fingerprint is a far better screen than a structural key in almost all situations.
www.daylight.com /dayhtml/doc/theory/theory.finger.html   (5117 words)

 Fingerprint Evidence -- Page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In this day and age of high-tech crime-solving methods, especially DNA typing, the lowly art of fingerprint identification sometimes seems lost.
In fact, fingerprint evidence is highly reliable and particularly accessible to juries: You don't need a Ph.D. or a scientific lecture on genetics to understand that your own fingers contain a contour map of ridges and whorls that is completely unique.
And it is increasingly popular for parents to ask local police departments or schools to fingerprint their young children, a grim reminder that children who are abducted or are the victims of other heinous crimes often cannot be identified otherwise.
www.nolo.com /lawcenter/ency/article.cfm/objectID/6BC35DBC-8021-41FD-842843A353454430   (346 words)

 Microsoft Fingerprint - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Microsoft Fingerprint Reader is a device sold by Microsoft that augments normal passwords with the fingerprint of a user for convience.
The device otherwise has limited capabilities out of the box - it lets the user perform the initial login to Windows XP, and perform logins to websites using a variety of browsers, but can't be used to log into screen savers.
It is useful in an office or campus environment, where its use may prevent others from seeing logins and passwords being keyed in, and can also be useful on shared computers, where different users can authenticate their unique access to applications and sites.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Microsoft_Fingerprint   (358 words)

 Applicants - Fingerprint Submissions - California Dept. of Justice - Office of the Attorney General
Live Scan technology allows digitally scanned fingerprints to be submitted electronically to the Department of Justice within a matter of minutes and allows criminal background checks to be processed usually within 72 hours.
In California, fingerprinting must be done by a certified fingerprint roller or qualified law enforcement personnel.
Fingerprinting services are available at most local police departments, sheriff's offices or any public applicant Live Scan site.
ag.ca.gov /fingerprints/index.htm   (812 words)

"Fingerprint Identification" has been adopted by a number of colleges and universities as the text for basic and advanced courses in fingerprint identification.
William (Bill) Leo has been a fingerprint examiner and crime scene investigator for 30 years and is currently assigned as the Training Officer for the Crime Scene/Latent Print Section of the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department's Crime Lab.
He is a Past-President of the Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers and is a Board Certified Latent Print Examiner through the International Association for Identification.
www.fingerprintidentification.net   (194 words)

 Biometrics: fingerprint
While the overall appearence of monozygotic (identical) twins' fingerprints is often similar (a and c), they differ in the fine details (the locations of ridge starting and stopping); in addition, they are no more similar to each other than to some prints of unrelated individuals (b).
Also, like twins, a clone is not a perfect copy, and fingerprints (and other non-genenic traits) will be different (recall this point when you see a movie such as The 6th day).
Some people have some skin diseases which prevent normal formation of fingerprints, and we even know the case of one family which have no fingerprints (for genetic reason, probably).
perso.wanadoo.fr /fingerchip/biometrics/types/fingerprint.htm   (933 words)

 Fingerprint FAQ
Fingerprints can be copied in the form of data sets, paper prints, wax molds, etc. It is possible with criminal technical methods to observe, analyze, and copy latent fingerprints unwittingly left behind on beer glasses or door handles.
This is because traces from the last fingerprint remain on the sensor and may be activated, e.g., by breathing upon the sensor surface.
In test reports about fingerprint sensor devices occasionally is criticized that residuals of the fingerprint of an authorized person remaining on the sensor might be activated by an attacker to gain unauthorized access (e.g., by breathing on the sensor).
www.bromba.com /faq/fpfaqe.htm   (4111 words)

 NIST Image Group's Fingerprint SDK Testing
Fingerprint matching systems from vendors are being evaluated to insure that the accuracy of the matchers used in various existing and planned government systems (including US-VISIT) are comparable to the most accurate available COTS products.
Unlike the Fingerprint Vendor Technology Evaluation, FpVTE, these evaluations are ongoing and new SDKs can be included in the test at any time.
With the use of the fingerprint images on this CD you can determine the performance of your system and compare it to those ROC plots of the same data from other systems reviewed in the NISTIR 7221 report.
fingerprint.nist.gov /SDK   (787 words)

 Fingerprint Technicians
Fingerprint Technician I is the trainee position; Fingerprint Technician II is the journey level position.
This is the entry level into the Fingerprint Technician Series and incumbents work in the Forensics Services Division of the Office of the Sheriff where they are assigned to the Identification Unit of Central Identification Services.
This class is distinguished from Fingerprint Technician I in that the latter learn basic fingerprint identification and crime scene processing skills under direct supervision.
www.cocosheriff.org /recruiting/fingerprint_tech_102505.htm   (1705 words)

 Fingerprint Door Locks - Biometric Access Controls & Fingerprint Identification Lock Products
We specialize in biometric fingerprint recognition devices that identify a user's fingerprint ridge pattern to create a binary number which represents certain points in the pattern.
With this information, a user's finger is scanned and the fingerprint pattered is detected and used for access control through a keyless door lock.
Stylish and easy to use, this fingerprint door lock offers a sliding front cover that not only allows protection for the optical sensor but also activates the fingerprint scanner when lifted.
www.fingerprintdoorlocks.com   (900 words)

 Fingerprint Photography, Northumberland, UK
Each print is treated entirely individually, hence the name 'Fingerprint Photography' as each print is as individual as a fingerprint.
Infra red photography has now become an essential part of the range of work now presented, and it produces an ethereal, surreal effect that can either excite or disturb the viewer, arousing the imagination to new heights of fantasy.
A proud statement of Fingerprint Photography is, The work is done in the true tradition of photography, on traditional old classic cameras, all over 30 years old, 35 mm's, and a twin lens medium format, chemical warfare in the darkroom, and the barest minimum of digital jiggery going on !
www.fingerprint-photography.co.uk /profile.htm   (409 words)

 Howstuffworks "How Fingerprint Scanners Work"
Computerized fingerprint scanners have been a mainstay of spy thrillers for decades, but up until recently, they were pretty exotic technology in the real world.
You can pick up a personal USB fingerprint scanner for less than $100, and just like that, your computer's guarded by high-tech biometrics.
We'll also see how fingerprint scanner security systems stack up to conventional password and identity card systems, and find out how they can fail.
computer.howstuffworks.com /fingerprint-scanner.htm   (148 words)

 ConsumerReports.org - Biometrics: Fingerprint scanners 4/06
Using fingerprints instead of passwords also makes life easier for families that share one home computer, since many scanners can be set up to recognize different family members.
Fingerprint scanners read your fingerprint using either an optical method similar to the way a photocopier scans an original or a capacitive method that senses the difference in electrical charges between the ridges and valleys in a fingerprint.
Still, a fingerprint scanner can be handy if you use multiple computers and have user names and passwords for all the different Web sites you visit.
www.consumerreports.org /cro/electronics-computers/fingerprint-scanners-406/overview.htm   (1140 words)

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