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Topic: First Crusade


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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  
  First Crusade@Everything2.com
Unhappily, clinging to the conviction that all the lands which the crusaders would traverse were the "lost provinces" of his empire, he induced the crusaders to do him homage, so that, whatever they conquered, they would conquer in his name, and whatever they held, they would hold by his grant and as his vassals.
In the meeting of the crusaders on the 22nd of July, some few voices were raised in support of the view that a "spiritual vicar" should first be chosen in the place of the late patriarch of Jerusalem (who had just died in Cyprus), before the election of any lay ruler was taken in hand.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
www.everything2.com /index.pl?node_id=532491   (4539 words)

  
 The Crusades - Conservapedia
On the other hand, the crusades in southern Spain, southern Italy, and Sicily were militarily successful, eventually leading to the demise of Islamic power in the regions – powers which had established themselves since the first Islamic Jihad-conquests of the eighth and ninth centuries.
The Third Crusade (1189-92) is famous for the battles between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin, highlighted by the deep respect the two enemies had for each other, and the sense of chivalric honor of King Richard.
The Fourth Crusade, begun by Innocent III in 1202, intended to retake the Holy Land but was soon subverted by Venetians who used the forces to sack the Christian city of Zara.
www.conservapedia.com /First_Crusade   (2002 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Crusades
The honour of initiating the crusade has also been attributed to Peter the Hermit, a recluse of Picardy, who, after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and a vision in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, went to Urban II and was commissioned by him to preach the crusade.
Meanwhile the crusaders, revictualled by the Armenians of the Taurus region, made their way into Syria and on 20 October, 1097, reached the fortified city of Antioch, which was protected by a wall flanked with 450 towers, stocked by the Ameer Jagi-Sian with immense quantities of provisions.
By a treaty concluded in March, 1204, between the Venetians and the crusading chiefs, it was pre-arranged to share the spoils of the Greek Empire.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/04543c.htm   (13795 words)

  
 The Byzantine background to the First Crusade, by Paul Magdalino
Crusading historians have long been concerned to distinguish the self-conception with which the crusaders set off from that which they acquired on the long march to Jerusalem, and from that which was projected on them retrospectively by chroniclers.
She wrote with the knowledge that the crusade had gone badly for Alexios, and that his son, John II, and grandson, Manuel I, were still having to cope with the consequences, in the form of the crusader states, including, most seriously, an independent Norman principality of Antioch.
First of all, it may be observed that the three developments in question were entirely separate: the Papacy, Amalfi and the Normans were not yet natural allies, and each became involved with Byzantium for reasons which had nothing to do with the others.
www.deremilitari.org /resources/articles/magdalino.htm   (12964 words)

  
  The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe -- Av Harachamim   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe -- Av Harachamim
The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe:
It was, at first, only recited the Sabbath before Shavuos, which was during the tragedy of the First Crusade (Zevin, p.
www.math.wustl.edu /~msh210/crusade/av.html   (165 words)

  
  First Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims.
The origins of the Crusades in general, and of the First Crusade in particular, stem from events earlier in the Middle Ages.
First known Islamic discussion of the concept of jihad written in the aftermath of the First Crusade.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/First_Crusade   (5234 words)

  
 Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque Country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years.
In the midst of this crusade was the first Shepherds' Crusade in 1251.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Crusade   (4354 words)

  
 The Crusades - ReligionFacts
The vital crusading spirit was now dead, and the succeeding crusades are to be explained rather as arising from the efforts of the papacy in its struggle against the secular power, to divert the military energies of the European nations toward Syria.
First among the results of the Crusades is to be counted the great increase they brought about in the power of the Church and of the papacy.
In the papal emissaries entrusted with the preaching of the crusade the first popular preachers of the Middle Ages are met with.
www.religionfacts.com /christianity/history/crusades.htm   (3106 words)

  
 ORB --Crusades   (Site not responding. Last check: )
No kings participated in their crusade, the First Crusade proper; the leadership was made up of several high nobles and a papal legate.
After a long, dangerous and hard journey, the First Crusaders finally reached Jerusalem in the summer of 1099 and took it.
The final result of the First Crusade was the establishment of four Latin "states" or "kingdoms" in the Middle East: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
www.the-orb.net /encyclop/religion/crusades/first_crusade.html   (359 words)

  
 First Crusade - The Crusades Wiki
The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim rule.
The origins of the Crusades in general, and of the First Crusade in particular, stem from events earlier in the Middle Ages.
The First Crusade succeeded in establishing the "Crusader States" of Edessa, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Tripoli in Palestine and Syria (as well as allies along the Crusaders' route, such as the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia).
crusades.wikia.com /wiki/First_Crusade   (6314 words)

  
 ::The First Crusade::
The First Crusade was an attempt to re-capture Jerusalem.
The Crusaders ran out of fresh water and according to a survivor of the First Crusade who wrote about his experiences after his return, some were reduced to drinking their own urine, drinking animal blood or water that had been in sewage.
The first attacks on the city were not successful as the Crusaders were short of materials for building siege machines.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /cru2.htm   (972 words)

  
 The Christian Crusades: 1095-1291   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The era the Crusades the first began in 1095 with Pope Urban II's famous speech and the ended in 1291 when Acre, the last of the Latin holdings in Palestine, was lost.
The Fourth Crusade: The Sack of Constantinople (1204) The crusade was to be directed at Egypt, because the Crusaders believed that conquering it would be the key to regaining Jerusalem.
Crusades (The Catholic Encyclopedia) The Crusades were expeditions undertaken to deliver the Holy Places from Moslem control.
gbgm-umc.org /umw/bible/crusades.stm   (1699 words)

  
 The First Crusade, an Overview
The First Crusade began on November 27, 1095, with a proclamation from Pope Urban II delivered to clergy and lay folk who had gathered in a field in Clermont, central France.
After crossing the Bosphorus, their first target was Nicaea, which had fallen to the Turks 10 years previously and was now the capital of Kilij Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turkish state of Rhüm.
The crusaders were forced to flee, but inflicted sufficient damage on the Duqaq's army to cause him to abandon his march on Antioch.
www.brighton73.freeserve.co.uk /firstcrusade/Overview/Overview.htm   (2130 words)

  
 The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe -- Commemorating the Crusade
The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe -- Commemorating the Crusade
In commemoration of tragedies that befell the Jews during the First Crusade, several liturgical works were written; some of these are still recited today.
Indeed, the kina commemorating the First Crusade indicates that
www.math.wustl.edu /~msh210/crusade/commemorate.html   (191 words)

  
 Tthornton :
Urban saw a crusade as an opportunity to reunite the eastern and western branches of Christianity and to bolster his own extremely weak authority within Europe itself, torn apart by the struggle between popes and emperors over who had the right to make religious appointments (the "Investiture Controversies").
The Crusaders, in full armor at the height of a ferocious Middle Eastern summer, were perhaps beaten as much by heat and thirst as by the army that opposed them.
1244 Jerusalem was retaken from the Crusaders by the Mamluks.
www.nmhschool.org /tthornton/mehistorydatabase/crusades.htm   (1124 words)

  
 The First Crusade Captures Jerusalem
It was on this date, July 15, 1099, that the First Crusade, or "Campaign of the Cross," achieved its objective and captured Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulcher.
It is important to remember that, although the rest of the Crusades were characterized by lust for wealth and combat (among the knights and clerics), or a passion for escape from serfdom (among the peasantry), the First Crusade was the only one in which the motivation for most was Christian righteousness.
This Crusade began in 1096 and the siege of Jerusalem began on 7 June 1099.
www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com /rants/0715almanac.htm   (694 words)

  
 Crusades: First Crusade — Infoplease.com
This was not the first appeal of the kind; while it may have helped to determine the time and the route of the First Crusade, 1095–99, its precise import is difficult to estimate.
The organized host of the crusade was preceded in the spring of 1096 by several undisciplined hordes of French and German peasants.
Crusaders and historians.(Figthing For Christendom: Holy War And The Crusades)(The First Crusade: A New History)(The Fourth Crusade......
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0857642.html   (796 words)

  
 The Crusader Period
The Latin Kingdom of the Crusaders was that of a conquering minority confined mainly to fortified cities and castles.
After the overthrow of the Crusaders by a Muslim army under Saladin (1187), the Jews were again accorded a certain measure of freedom, including the right to live in Jerusalem.
Crusader authority in the Land ended after a final defeat (1291) by the Mamluks, a Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Crusader.html   (409 words)

  
 crusadesbegin
The first to arrive was the army of Hugh Vermandois.
The Crusaders saw this as being disloyal to the cause, which fueled their already strong dislike of the Byzantine Emperor.
Bohemond was regarded as the leader of the first army and Raymond of Toulouse the leader of the second group.
www.medievalcrusades.com /crusadesbegin.htm   (1179 words)

  
 First Crusade: People’s Crusade » HistoryNet - From the World's Largest History Magazine Publisher
Peter was certainly among the first to preach it, but it is now known that there were many others who were advocating the same thing.
The next morning, the Crusaders set out for Sofia, but as they were leaving Nish, a group of Germans who had quarreled with some of the townspeople the night before set fire to a cluster of mills.
Meanwhile, another wave of Crusaders was on the march, venting much of their religiously inspired wrath against the Muslims on another group of ‘infidels’ who were less able to defend themselves–European Jewry.
www.historynet.com /first-crusade-peoples-crusade.htm   (2613 words)

  
 Medieval Sourcebook: The Crusades
The first, and most lasting, military encounter of the Second Crusade was the Capture of Lisbon.
Odo of Deuil: The Crusade of Louis VII.
Ludolph of Suchem: The Fall of Acre, 1291 Philip de Novare: The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/sbook1k.html   (1384 words)

  
 The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe -- The Mainz Anonymous -- Translator's Introduction
The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe -- The Mainz Anonymous -- Translator's Introduction
For a more detailed understanding of the events of the First Crusade in the Rhineland, I have herewith provided for you a new translation of a classic called the Mainz Anonymous.
Often, the author of the MA used pronouns without clear antecedents; in those and similar cases, I have used the antecedents instead of merely translating the pronouns, and did not use square brackets.
www.math.wustl.edu /~msh210/crusade/mainz.html   (308 words)

  
 First Crusade
While the First Crusade is overwhelmingly portrayed as a decidedly Catholic (i.e., Western) affair, the aims and objectives of its chief participants from the West must never obscure those of the great Byzantine Empire to the East.
This essay examines four main areas in which a diverse set of motives can be shown to have been at work during the tumultuous events, which left their mark on the world during the final years of the 11th century and affected the way we live today.
Indeed, that Alexius sought to use the crusaders as mere pawns in his efforts to rebuild a shrinking empire is best demonstrated by the fact that, in May 1097, the Anatolian Turkish capital at Nicæa chose to surrender to the Byzantines rather than to the crusaders themselves (thus depriving them of the spoils of war).
www.barnesreview.org /html/first_crusade.html   (2451 words)

  
 First Crusade
On November 27, 1095, in Clermont, France, Pope Urban II called for a crusade to help the Byzantines and to free the city of Jerusalem.
On their progress to Jerusalem the crusaders (or a faction of them) also seized Edessa (which became the first Latin settlement) and Antioch.
The Byzantines were unhappy about the Franks not returning land that had once belonged to Byzantium; the Franks were unhappy about the lack of support from the Byzantines during the crusade--and the subsequent attempts by the Byzantines to retake territory (as in 1099, 1100, 1104, 1137, 1142, and 1158-9).
www.umich.edu /~eng415/timeline/summaries/First_Crusade.htm   (555 words)

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