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Topic: Flagella

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  Flagellum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Both flagella consist of filaments extending outside of the cell, and rotate to propel the cell.
Bacterial flagella are thicker than archaeal flagella, and the bacterial filament has a large enough hollow "tube" inside that the flagellin subunits can flow up the inside of the filament and get added at the tip; the archaeal flagellum is too thin to allow this.
Instead, some components of archaeal flagella share sequence and morphological similarity with components of type IV pili, which are assembled through the action of type II secretion systems (the nomenclature of pili and protein secretion systems is not consistent).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Flagellum   (1272 words)

 CDC - Characterization of Flagella Produced by Clinical Strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
The flagella filaments are composed of a 38-kDa subunit, SM FliC
The flagella were detached from the bacterial cells by vigorous shaking, and the supernatant containing the sheared flagella was separated by centrifugation at 8,000 x g for 30 min (26).
Flagella have been associated with biofilm formation in other bacteria (18,20–22), where they can perform three basic roles: a) act as an adhesin promoting intimate attachment to the surface; b) generate force to subjugate the repulsive forces between bacteria and surface; and c) promote spread of the bacteria throughout the surface (20).
www.cdc.gov /Ncidod/EID/vol8no9/01-0535.htm   (3326 words)

 Animal Cells: Cilia and Flagella   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Flagella move in a somewhat different movement, they are more of a wavelike motion that starts at the base and moves up, with a continuous motion, not with distinct return strokes.
Flagella can either be at the front of a cell, drawing the cell along, or behind the cell, pushing it forward.
Humans contain both flagella and cilia, and a good example of cilia and flagella in a human body is in fertilizing a human egg.
sun.menloschool.org /~tbuxton/cells/f/animals/cilia_flagella   (645 words)

 Cytoskeleton Tutorial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Flagella are whip-like appendages that undulate to move cells.
Both flagella and cilia have a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules.
This arrangement refers to the 9 fused pairs of microtubules on the outside of a cylinder, and the 2 unfused microtubules in the center.
www.biology.arizona.edu /cell_bio/tutorials/cytoskeleton/page2.html   (142 words)

 Flagellates: Heterotrophic Protists With Flagella   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Flagella arose early in eukaryote evolution, and we are not able to identify any groups of protists which are primitively without flagella.
Flagella in rows are said to occur in kineties.
Flagella in euglenids are thicker than in many other eukaryotes because of the presence of an additional rod within the flagellum (the crystalline structure within the flagellum to the right below), and because there is a thick coating of fine hairs on the outside.
tolweb.org /accessory/Flagellates?acc_id=50   (772 words)

 Cilia, flagella, and centrioles
Cilia and flagella are projections from the cell.
Cilia and flagella move because of the interactions of a set of microtubules inside.
Cilia and flagella are organized from centrioles that move to the cell periphery.
www.cytochemistry.net /Cell-biology/cilia.htm   (696 words)

 Surface structures :: Microbiology and Bacteriology :: The world of microbes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Flagella can be thought of as little semi-rigid whips that are free at one end and attached to a cell at the other.
Flagella are mostly composed of flagellin (a protein) that is bound in long chains and wraps around itself in a left handed helix.
The number of units, the wavelength and diameter of a single helix of the flagella are determined by the protein subunits.Below is a picture of a common flagella in a Gram negative bacterium.
www.bact.wisc.edu /Microtextbook/modules.php?op=modload&name=Sections&file=index&req=viewarticle&artid=37&page=1   (1358 words)

 Fixation of Chlamydomonas for microscopic observation of flagella
Flagella are extremely fragile, so with either fixative the cells must be examined quickly or else flagella break off and the results are disappointing.
Unstained flagella will not show up at all in bright field mode, but can be readily visualized and measured by an experienced observer in phase contrast or dark field modes.
Cells that are stained with Lugol's iodine appear brownish with dark flagella in phase contrast, reddish-brown with bright white flagella in dark field.
www.ruf.rice.edu /~bioslabs/studies/invertebrates/chlamfix.html   (1474 words)

 Cilia and Flagella   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Flagella and cilia function either in the moving cell, in moving fluids, or in small particles across the cell surface.
The difference between cilia and flagella is as follows: 1) flagella has only one or two arm(s) attached to the cell surface, 2) flagella are longer, and 3) flagella creates a different direction of force.
Cilia and Flagella both contain micro tubes that are arranged in an outer ring of connected microtubles which are around a non connected pair of microtubles.
sun.menloschool.org /~cweaver/cells/e/cilia_flagella   (167 words)

 Prokaryotic Cell Structure: Flagella
Axial filaments are composed of from two to over a hundred axial fibrils (or endoflagella) that extend from both ends of the bacterium between the outer membrane and the cell wall, often overlapping in the center of the cell.
A popular theory as to the mechanism behind spirochete motility presumes that as the endoflagella rotate in the periplasmic space between the cytoplasmic membrane and the cell wall, this could cause the corkscrew-shaped outer membrane of the spirochete to rotate and propell the bacterium through the surrounding fluid.
Flagella may also enable Helicobacter pylori (inf) to penetrate the mucous covering in the stomach and thus colonize the gastric mucosa.
student.ccbcmd.edu /courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/flag.html   (1358 words)

 What the Heck is a Bacterium's "Tail"?
The filament is the long part, the hook is a wider region at the base of the filament - where the surface of the cell is located, and the basal body anchors the flagellum to the cell.
Energy generated by the cell is used to cause the flagellum or flagella to rotate.
If there are flagella all around the cell, each flagellum intertwines with the others to form a single filament which extends from one end of the cell - quite amazing.
people.ku.edu /~jbrown/flagel.html   (1796 words)

 Flagella - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Some species of bacteria (those of Spirochete body form) have internal flagella that lie between their inner and outer membranes, the rotation of which causes the entire bacterium to corkscrew through its medium.
Many components of bacterial flagella share sequence similarity to components of the Type III secretion systems (TTSS); the components of bacterial and archaeal flagella share no sequence similarity, however, some components of archaeal flagella share sequence similarity with Type IV secretion systems, also known as Type IV pili.
These differences mean that the bacterial and archaeal flagella are a classic case of biological analogy, rather than homology; however, in comparison to the decades of well-publicized study of bacterial flagella (e.g.
wiki.cotch.net /wiki.phtml?title=Flagellum   (1123 words)

 Amputation of flagella from Chlamydomonas
Single cells in suspension typically slip through the gap between rotor and shaft and are unharmed, however flagella are quite fragile.
Mechanical deflagellation typically results in amputation of flagella from 95% of cells, with partial amputations among the remainder.
A failure to regenerate flagella among a majority of cells is the most common problem.
www.ruf.rice.edu /~bioslabs/studies/invertebrates/chlamamput.html   (685 words)

 Localization of the Blue-Light Receptor Phototropin to the Flagella of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii -- ...
Flagella and cell bodies were resuspended in 0.4 and 50 ml of sample buffer, respectively, and homogenized (see MATERIALS AND METHODS).
Flagella isolated from mutants oda1 (B), pf20 (C), pf14 (D), and ida5 (E) were separated into M+M and axoneme (A) fractions using 0.05% (oda1 mutant) and 0.5% NP-40 (oda1, ida5, pf14, and pf20 mutants) in the presence of 10 mM ATP in HMDEK buffer.
photoreceptor molecules from the cytoplasm to the flagella is
www.molbiolcell.org /cgi/content/full/15/8/3605   (5923 words)

 Cilia and Flagella
Flagella also tend to be longer than cilia but are otherwise similar in construction.
Cilia and flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell.
In the case of cilia and flagella, dynein powers the sliding of the microtubules against one another — first on one side, then on the other.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Cilia.html   (504 words)

 Learn more about Bacterium in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A unique group of bacteria, the spirochaetes, have structures similar to flagella, called axial filaments, between two membranes in the periplasmic space.
Bacterial flagella are arranged in many different ways.
Many bacteria move from one place to another with the help of thin, hair-like structures called flagella.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /b/ba/bacterium.html   (1648 words)

 Flagella Stain
Hardy Diagnostics Flagella Stain is recommended for use in detecting the presence and arrangement of flagella on the bacterial cell.
Bacterial flagella, due to their narrow diameter, cannot be seen with a light microscope.
Hardy Diagnostics Flagella Stain is a simple, rapid, qualitative method for detecting bacterial flagella and their shape, length, curvature, arrangement and number on the cell.
www.hardydiagnostics.com /catalog/hugo/FlagellaStain.htm   (925 words)

 Biophysical Journal: Diameter Oscillation of Axonemes in Sea-Urchin Sperm Flagella
Axonemes of eukaryotic flagella and cilia are composed of a specific 9 + 2 structure enveloped in cell membrane.
The observed frequency was 300-450 Hz at 1.0 mM of ATP and was revealed to be due to the back-and-forth small sliding of microtubules with amplitudes reflecting the unit size of tubulin dimers (Kamimura and Kamiya, 1992).
A 3-µl aliquot of the resultant suspension of demembranated sperm flagella was introduced into a chamber made of silicon rubber sheet (28 × 28 mm^sup 2^, 3-mm thickness, with 20 × 20 mm^sup 2^ cut made in the center) placed on a coverslip (54 × 28 mm^sup 2^).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3938/is_200401/ai_n9369550   (1161 words)

 Protein Particles in Chlamydomonas Flagella Undergo a Transport Cycle Consisting of Four Phases -- Iomini et al. 153 ...
The accumulation of complex B in flagella of phase III and IV mutants does not necessarily correlate with that of cytoplasmic dynein.
IFT is inhibited in flagella of pf15fla10-1 exposed to the restrictive temperature.
The depletion of particles from flagella of pf28fla10-1 cells as a function of time of exposure to the restrictive temperature of 32°C correlates with the depletion of complexes A and B as well as of kinesin II and cytoplasmic dynein.
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/153/1/13   (7784 words)

 Flagella, fimbriae, and pili (from bacteria) --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Swimming and swarming bacteria possess flagella, which are the extracellular appendages needed for motility.
Flagella are long, helical filaments made of a single type of protein and located either at the ends of rod-shaped cells, as in Vibrio…
More results on "Flagella, fimbriae, and pili (from bacteria)" when you join.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-39339?tocId=39339   (848 words)

 Flagellated protozoa
Almost all organisms have flagella (at some stage in their lives).
Flagella and cilia are transparent and thin so it is not easy to see them with a microscope.
One of their two flagella runs as a spiral through a groove along the cell.
www.microscopy-uk.org.uk /mag/wimsmall/flagdr.html   (666 words)

 Evolution of Bacterial Flagella
Eubacteria and archebacteria have flagella that look almost identical, except that they are composed of completely different, non-homologous proteins (and they are both different from the eukaryote flagellum)(3,12).
A possible scenario for the evolution of the eubacterial flagella is as follows: a secretory system arose first, based around the SMC rod pore forming complex, which was the common ancestor of the type III secretory system, and the flagellar system.
Thus, if the flagella is a secretory system that has been co-opted for a motile function (while still retaining some of it's secretory function), then the ICness of the system is in the mind of the beholder, and a clear path for it's evolution is opened up.
www.health.adelaide.edu.au /Pharm/Musgrave/essays/flagella.htm   (2420 words)

 Rosenbaum Lab Research Summary
Flagella are complex protein machines in which arrays of motor proteins must be precisely assembled along microtubule-based structures.
He has found that flagella undergo continuous turnover even after assembly is complete, with new tubulin being incorporated at the tip of flagella and then undergoing retrograde flux to the base.
Flagella are excellent model systems to ask this question because their length is easily measured.
www.yale.edu /rosenbaum/rosen_research.html   (730 words)

 Ciliated Epithelium
Flagella (pronounced "fla-gel-ah") (not spelt "flagellae") is the plural of flagellum - long, threadlike appendages on certain cells which function as organs of locomotion.
There are usually fewer flagella on the surface of a cell and they show a longer beat pattern with a variety of waveforms.
However, in prokaryotes, flagella are filamentous protein structures composed of flagellin, attached to the cell surface.
www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk /video/cilia.html   (862 words)

 [No title]
Flagellae are, in effect, rotary motors comprising a number of proteinaceous rings embedded in the cell wall.
Additional proteins are also found in cilia and flagella including nexin, which connects the fused columns along the circumference, dynein, which has two "side arms" and is associated with the outer double columns, and a radial spoke protein that extends from to the outer double columns to the center two columns of tubulin.
Flagella   Flagella are helical structures that bacteria use for motility.
www.wright.edu /~james.olson/CHS-SO/SpecialAssignments/Flagella.doc   (1503 words)

 The Encyclopedia of Life Project - Index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The generic name Pyrococcus means `the fireball`, reflecting the fact that this group of organisms can grow at temperatures above 100 C. furiosus (`the rushing fireball`) is found in the marine sand surrounding sulfurous volcanoes.
Cells of this organism are motile cocci that have about 50 flagella at one end and are often found in pairs.
They are anaerobic (live without oxygen), and are capable of growing at temperatures ranging from 70-103 C and at a pH ranging from 5-9.
www.eolproject.org:8080 /alphaindex.jsp?char=p   (590 words)

 Flagellar Morphology and Mechanisms of Bacterial Motility
Hundreds of individual periplasmic flagella are bundled together to create a struture that allows spinning and flexing motility.
Bacteria possessing flagella have basal bodies embedded in the plasma membrane as anchoring mechanisms.
Peritrichous bacteria move in a similar fashion, even though the situation is somewhat complicated by a requirement for bundling of the flagella to produce coordinated action during counterclockwise rotation.
www.indstate.edu /thcme/micro/flagella.html   (542 words)

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