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Topic: Folk taxonomies

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  Taxonomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a tree structure of classifications for a given set of objects.
Such taxonomies as those analyzed by Durkheim and Lévi-Strauss are sometimes called folk taxonomies to distinguish them from scientific taxonomies that claim to be disembedded from social relations and thus objective and universal.
A recent neologism, folksonomy, should not be confused with Folk Taxonomy (though it is obviously a contraction of the two words).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Taxonomy   (555 words)

 Taxonomy - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία (taxinomia) from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification.
Mathematically, a taxonomy is a tree structure of classifications for a given set of objects.
Such taxonomies as those analyzed by Durkheim and Levi-Strauss are sometimes called folk taxonomies to distinguish them from scientific taxonomies that claim to be disembedded from social relations and thus objective and universal.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /taxonomy.htm   (450 words)

 Folk biology and the anthropology of science
Folk biology, which is present in all cultures, and the science of biology, whose origins are particular to Western cultural tradition, have corresponding notions of living kinds.
Agreement between the intermediate folk taxonomies and evolutionary taxonomy is maximized at around the level of the scientific family, both for Itzaj and Michigan subjects, indicating an intermediate-level focus in the folk taxonomies of both cultures.
Cain, A. (1956) The genus in evolutionary taxonomy.
www.bbsonline.org /Preprints/OldArchive/bbs.atran.html   (19123 words)

 7 - Understanding and Getting the Most from Farmers' Local Knowledge: International Development Research Centre
Most striking is that folk taxonomies use generic and specific labels much like Linnaean names: e.g., Honduran farmers use the term hielo negro (where "hielo" is the generic term for most plant disease and negro is the specific name for severe disease).
Some folk taxonomies are in the form of partonomies, or sets of categories that are "parts of" another, e.g., parts of an ox plough, or parts of a plant or of an insect.
Defining a set of folk categories is a good start to describing folk knowledge, but local people have a deeper understanding for each of those concepts, which we also need to know if we are going to work with rural people as colleagues in research.
idrc.org /en/ev-85049-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html   (2241 words)

 Folk Taxonomy
Folk taxonomies have hierarchical levels similar to formal biological classifications of kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species (Berlin, 1992).
In folk taxonomy, the common levels are life from, generic, specific and varietal.
For instance, “dog” is a folk genus, but “grass” is a Linnaean species folk genus, and a Linnaean family (actually a little less, since people generally do not recognize maize, etc. as grasses); “rice” is a folk genus, but two Linnaean; species and “ant” is a folk genus, but a Linnaean family, formicidae.
www.knowledgebank.irri.org /IPM/soccomm/Folk_Taxonomy.htm   (216 words)

 TAXONOMY FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
The most well-known and widely used scientific taxonomy is Linnaean_taxonomy which classifies living things and originated with Carolus_Linnaeus.
The phrase enterprise_taxonomy is used in business to describe a very limited form of taxonomy used only within one organization.
The field of solving or best-fitting of numerical equations that characterize all measurable quantities of a set of objects is called in order to produce a taxonomy is called numerical_taxonomy, taximetrics or cluster_analysis.
www.dontpayyourtaxes.com /taxonomy   (476 words)

 Why are perfect animals, hybrids, and monsters food for symbolic thought?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
Anthropological work on folk taxonomies, and especially those which relate taxonomic and symbolic aspects are not always careful to distinguish, on the one hand, semantic from encyclopaedic definitions and, on the other hand, definition from identification criteria.
Folk taxonomies are often sophisticated and show a deep knowledge of the local environment, not always equalled by scientific zoology.
While taxonomy is consistent both internally and externally, the ideal norm gives rise to two kinds of anomalies: external anomalies when the world ostensibly deviates from the norm, and internal anomalies when the norm of a species ostensibly deviates from the norm of the genus to which it belongs.
www.dan.sperber.com /hybrids.htm   (10542 words)

 Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter - Ethnotaxonomy of Dioscorea among the Kattunaikka people of Wayanad District, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
The taxonomy of quite a few species in this genus is considered to be problematic (Prain and Burkill 1936; Velayudhan 1998), which is attributed to its highly continuous variability of morphological characters, especially of aerial parts, such as leaves and bulbils.
Several authors have discussed folk taxonomy and their relation to the genetics of crops and it has been shown that inter-specific folk taxonomies are often biologically accurate (Berlin et al.
Therefore, to clarify the taxonomy of this genus, a comprehensive approach is needed to assess characters when delimiting species and varieties, perhaps by integrating the Linnaean, folk and modern taxonomic systems.
www.ipgri.cgiar.org /pgrnewsletter/article.asp?id_article=4&id_issue=135   (4660 words)

 Folk Mammalogy of the Northern Pimans. University of Arizona Press.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
As used here, the term folk indicates that the knowledge is accumulated field information held by (at least some) members of a tribal or other cultural group and that it is usually transmitted orally rather than quantified or codified in written form.
Folk taxonomy centers on the concept of the folk genus, such as pine, oak, mouse, and jay in English.
Folk genera constitute a level of abstraction that is psychologically basic or salient (C. Brown 1984:4).
www.uapress.arizona.edu /samples/sam1206.htm   (1599 words)

 Alden Botanica: kava, herbs, cultivation, extracts, and HPLC analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
The cultivar assemblages and folk taxonomy of P. methysticum are more varied and complex in some areas of Vanuatu than in others.
Folk taxonomic complexity is nonetheless probable evidence for a local history at least of clonal selection and development.
The degree of elaboration and detail within a folk taxonomy (which reflects, of course, local diversity in kavagermplasm collections) should be considered alongside morphological and genetic evidence in determining the origin of kava.
www.aldbot.com /New_Folder-1/ch4lebot.htm   (2873 words)

 Plant systematics: Collecting and identifying plant specimens. Use of herbaria.
In folk taxonomies, the taxon of “unique beginner” … e.g., plant or animal ….
In typical folk taxonomies, taxa which are members of the ethnobiological category “generic” are much more numerous.
The authors identified general principles that all "folk biosystematics" are built on, the most important of which is five main taxonomic levels that cultures use to classify organisms.
www.life.uiuc.edu /ib/454/lecture18.html   (1686 words)

 “The Ninth Life: Folklore in Animal Shelters”
What follows is an example of how folk beliefs, taxonomies, narratives, and urban legends and the use of folklore method have framed my study of the human-animal bond in shelters.
This essay discusses the means by which women communicate messages based not only on their inclusion in a folk group, but also based on their understanding of how true communication is accomplished within that group.
My hope is that we might possibly entertain the idea that each animal we confront in field settings is a dynamic, complex, socialized subject of concern, worthy of the attention we devote to the people connected with him or her.
cla.calpoly.edu /~jlynch/Harbolt.html   (2467 words)

 Untitled Document
Taxonomy is perhaps the oldest branch of botany.
These "folk" taxonomies often made very accurate distinctions and were sometimes quite sophisticated.
The science of Western taxonomy vs. practical or folk taxonomy arose out of the Mediterranean region (which is one reason why we have a legacy of Latin names).
mercury.bio.uaf.edu /courses/biol331/12feb.html   (1614 words)

 Learn more about Taxonomy in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
The theories of Kant and Durkheim also influenced Claude Levi-Strauss, the founder of anthropological structuralism.
The most well-known and widely used scientific taxonomy is Linnaean taxonomy which classifies living things and originated with Carolus Linnaeus.
In recent years taxonomic classification has gained support from computational biology / bioinformatics employing the method of phylogenetic trees.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /t/ta/taxonomy.html   (412 words)

 Taxonomy - Metaweb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
Taxonomy may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification.
Perhaps the most well-known and influential study of folk taxonomies is Emile Durkheim's The Elementary Forms of Religious Life.
The theories of Kant and Durkheim also influenced Claude Levi-Straus, the founder of anthropological structuralism.
www.metaweb.com /wiki/wiki.phtml?title=Taxonomy   (330 words)

 Uses of the Vernacular in N.S. Art, 1994   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
Harold Pearse suggests that the appearance of clumsy workmanship in folk art is distasteful to many middle and working class people.(Footnote 16) The perceived lack of technical facility in folk art is often equated with the perceived lack of technical facility in abstract painting, and some people reject all contemporary art as being childish.
Most folk artists who are found by collectors or dealers and whose work eventually reaches the marketplace, perhaps to become highly collectible and desirable, usually go through two, and sometimes three, generations of development.
The spirit is not the fact that she lives in a shack, that she's poor and crippled with arthritis, it's the joy of the little paintings of deer and butterflies dancing in the windows and the celebratory aspect of the good things in life.
www.umanitoba.ca /academic/schools/art/content/galleryoneoneone/vern.html   (11155 words)

 [No title]
Surprisingly, for biological taxonomies, Rosch et al.’s “basic level” failed to correspond to Berlin’s privileged “folk generic” rank; instead of maple and trout, Rosch et al.
Using these similarity ratings--based on the participants’ own folk taxonomies--we created pairs of arguments where the categories mentioned in the premise of one argument were more similar than the categories mentioned in the corresponding argument.
It is important to describe folk taxonomy, but it is equally important to document how folk taxa are used in everyday thought and interaction with the world.
www.uark.edu /misc/lampinen/folkbio.doc   (8645 words)

Background: Earlier work showed a strong correspondence between the ways folk and scientific systems of biological classification: the folk and scientists recognize similar categories of plants and animals.
Folk and scientist agree more strongly on older orders of birds than on the most recently radiated order.
The natural order determines the basic structure of folk biological classification; alternative classifications are similar only to the extent that the natural order is clear.
cognition.clas.uconn.edu /~jboster/classes/anth244_f03/ethnobiology1   (1333 words)

 SILEWP 1998-002
Definitions may be both folk and technical and the methodology suggested here profits from the semantic framework and theory of Wierzbicka (1985, 1986, 1987), as well as from other sources.
It is doubtful that average English speakers could develop the taxonomy of a cassowary further and supply the scientific taxonomic label for this group, or that their knowledge of ratite would serve in any defining process.
Other kinds of relationships include hierarchical, such as taxonomies, and part-whole, which Cruse (1986:157) calls meronomies; for example, the `paw' of a dog is part of its `leg'.
www.sil.org /silewp/1998/002/SILEWP1998-002.html   (11492 words)

 Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Taxonomy -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
Taxonomy may refer both to a hierarchical classification of things, and the principles underlying the classification.
Almost anything -- animate objects, inanimate objects, places, and events -- may be classified according to some taxonomic scheme.
Kids.net.au - Search engine for kids, children, educators and teachers - Searching sites designed for kids that are child safe and clean.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/ta/Taxonomy   (352 words)

 Week 6 -- Ethnobiology
moving to a description of taxonomies -- placement into categories based on an overall pattern (or undiffentiated gestalt), rather than a discrete list of features.
Generics or 'natural kinds' (e.g., oak, sparrow), these are the core of folk taxonomies.
Specific and varietal categories are fewer in number, occur in small contrast sets, are often culturally important, distinguished by few features, and are labelled by secondary lexemes.
aurora.clas.uconn.edu /anth/new/244/week6.htm   (1617 words)

Is there a finite taxonomy of genres or are they in principle infinite?
Several taxonomies of musical genres have been designed by Internet music retailers and consequently made available to the public.
These taxonomies are all aimed at helping users navigate in music catalogues using a top-down approach, like in record stores, but often with a much finer level of detail.
www.jahsonic.com /Taxonomy.html   (840 words)

 Sumarios varios
Inui, Toshio; Folk, Charles L; McClelland, James L
Open Peer Commentary - Folk taxonomies and folk theories: The case of Williams syndrome
Folk Knowledge as Legal Action: Death Penalty Judgments and the Tenet of Early Release in a Culture of Mistrust and Punitiveness
europa.sim.ucm.es:8080 /compludoc/AA?a=Folk&donde=otras&zfr=0   (745 words)

 Botany 307F - Families of Vascular Plants - What are common names?
The common names applied to plants (or any organisms) in any given language can often be seen to represent elements of a folk taxonomy.
Folk taxonomies have a structure similar to that seen in scientific taxonomies, and often is clear that folk taxonomies capture features of organisms that are important in scientific classifications.
Click HERE to access the more extensive discussion of common nmes by Jane Bowles from which the examples above were drawn.
www.botany.utoronto.ca /courses/bot307/A_What/307A1common.html   (272 words)

 Cognitive Science-General
Berlin, Breedlove, and Raven found that folk taxonomies are generally limited to five levels, with the occasional insertion of a sixth.
Chapter concludes with a discussion of the "Roschian synthesis," in which psychologist Eleanor Rosch extended the cognitive anthropological work on color terms and folk taxonomies into a psychological theory of categorization based on prototypes and basic-level objects.
The definitions and challenges sections are extremely useful, clearly written summaries of the literature.
www.music-cog.ohio-state.edu /Music950/bibCogSciGen.html   (1225 words)

 Dawson Margin Notes On Smith Vol 3 Intro
"This `default' folk-biological taxonomy, which serves as an inductive compendium of biological informatioin, is composed of a fairly rigid hierarchy of inclusive classes of organisms, or taxa." Taxa are mutually exclusive.
This spontaneous arrangement of living things into taxonomies of essential kinds thus constitutes a prior set of constraints on any and all possible theories about the causal relations between living kinds." Atran now moves to cross-cultural data to make this point.
A second interesting result was that exposure to science had little effect on the taxonomies generated by Michigan students.
www.bcp.psych.ualberta.ca /~mike/Pearl_Street/Margin/OSHERSON/Vol3/Atran.3.5.html   (1023 words)

 Author: Joseph E. Boxhorn (jboxhorn@csd4.csd.uwm.edu) Title: FAQ: Observed Instances of Sp
2.1 The Folk Concept of Species Naturalists around the world have found that the individual plants and animals they see can be mentally grouped into a number of taxa, in which the individuals are basically alike.
These sorts of folk taxonomies have two features in common.
To test this idea, I asked about two dozen graduate students and faculty members in the department where I'm a student whether there were examples where speciation had been observed in the literature.
www.skepticfiles.org /origins/faq-spec.htm   (6871 words)

Recognizing and naming species, however, does not exhaust the performance of folk taxonomies.
Up to five hierarchically nested ranks can be recognized in the most developed folk taxonomies.
Several times, beginning with the 1840s and finishing with the 1990s, there have been efforts towards devising a single code which would rule the nomenclature of all living beings, but no workable result has been yet achieved.
www.peripatus.gen.nz /Biology/Taxonomy.html   (3226 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Books: Folkbiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-12)
The issues covered include: are folk taxonomies a first-order approximation to classical scientific taxonomies, or are they driven more directly by utilitarian concerns?; how are these category schemes linked to reasoning about natural kinds?; is there any nontrivial sense in which folk-taxonomic structures are universal?; and what impact does science have on folk taxonomy?
While there has been much talk in the cognitive science literature of “folk psychology” and “folk physics,” there has been relatively little discussion of the everyday understanding that most people use to classify and reason about living things.
This is surprising, since as bio-logical creatures we spend probably the most important and meaningful segments of our life-cycle interacting with other biological crea-tures—our spouses, children, pets, food, and the like.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/026263192X   (555 words)

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