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Topic: Foraminifera

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  USGS: Geological Survey Professional Paper 374-G: Foraminifera from the Northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington ...
Foraminifera were first reported from the lenticular bodies of reddish argillaceous limestone of the Crescent formation by Pardee (1921, p.
The Foraminifera are abundant locally and are commonly concentrated in thin layers.
Planktonic Foraminifera can be brought into such an environment by ocean currents, but they probably would die in mass and their tests would be deposited in concentrations as part of the accumulating sediments.
www.cr.nps.gov /history/online_books/geology/publications/pp/374-G/sec2.htm   (907 words)

Foraminifera, also called foraminifers or forams, extrude shells, called tests, that may be either wholly organic, mixed with sand grains, or composed of a thin organic inner layer and a thick calcareous outer layer.
Foraminifera move about with slender pseudopodia, or extensions of cytoplasm, the living matter of the cell, which stream through an opening in the test known as the aperture; in porous tests, the pseudopodia also emerge through the pores.
Reproduction is sexual or asexual; all the cytoplasm is used in forming the young, and the parent dies in the process of reproduction.
www.history.com /encyclopedia.do?vendorId=FWNE.fw..fo056400.a   (343 words)

 What are Foraminifera?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The phylogenetic affinity of Foraminifera is under debate; based on molecular evidence, they do not seem to have close relatives except possibly for some unstudied naked and testate rhizopods.
Foraminifera are game for many small marine invertebrates and fish; however, there seem to be rather few groups specialized on forams, the best known of which are the scaphopod mollusks.
Many scientists propose, that the foraminifera are a key group in the marine food chain: they feed on small prey mostly inaccessible for the macrofauna and are prey for the latter.
www-bprc.mps.ohio-state.edu /foram/whatarefor.htm   (621 words)

  MavicaNET - Фораминифера (Foraminifera)
Foraminifera are testate unicellular animals (protozoans) that inhabit a wide variety of marine and marginal marine environments and have proven to be a very useful tool for paleoenvironmental analysis in the earth sciences and, more recently, in marine archaeology.
Foraminifera may be omnivores, carnivores, herbivores, or detritivores and use pseudopodia, net-like extensions of protoplasm, to anchor, move, and retrieve food.
Foraminifera are classified primarily on the composition and morphology of the test.
www.mavicanet.com /lite/rus/7237.html   (560 words)

Foraminifera are found in all marine environments,  from the intertidal to the deepest ocean trenches, and from the tropics to the poles, but species  of foraminifera can be very particular about the environmentin which they live.
Foraminifera have been used to  map past distributions of the tropics, locate ancient shorelines, and track global ocean  temperature changes during the ice ages.
Foraminifera are  abundant enough  to be an important part of the marine food chain, and their predators include marine snails,  sand dollars and small fish.
www.fiu.edu /~goldberg/coralreefs/FORAM.html   (1113 words)

 Foraminifera: What we do. Earth History : GNS Science Limited
Foraminifera are single-celled, amoeba-like, protozoans which form a shell, or test, either from calcium carbonate (calcite) or from cemented grains of sand or other material (e.g., sponge spicules).
During the 1930's foraminifera became the first microfossil group to be used extensively for age assessment of strata encountered during drilling, and still today are the major "workhorse" microfossil for subsurface exploration.
Foraminifera are ideal subjects for testing various aspects of evolutionary theory, because large populations of individuals, whose characteristics can be measured and treated statistically, can be obtained from closely spaced rock samples at carefully selected localities to provide an evolutionary time series.
www.gns.cri.nz /what/earthhist/fossils/forams.html   (1718 words)

Unpicking this nomenclature tells us that foraminifera are testate (that is possessing a shell), protozoa, (single celled organisms characterised by the absence of tissues and organs), which possess granuloreticulose pseudopodia (these are thread-like extensions of the ectoplasm often including grains or tiny particles of various materials).
Foraminifera with hard tests are scarce until the Devonian, during which period the fusulinids began to flourish culminating in the complex fusulinid tests of the late Carboniferous and Permian times; the fusulinids died out at the end of the Palaeozoic.
Foraminifera range in size from several millimeters to a few tens of microns and are preserved in a variety of rock types.
www.ucl.ac.uk /GeolSci/micropal/foram.html   (2165 words)

 Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Mortimer Abramowitz Gallery of Photomicrography - Foramnifera Plankton
Foraminifera are microscopic unicellular organisms that can be found in all marine environments.
Though the creatures are small, foraminifera achieve amazing densities, hundreds of thousands of their shells existing in a single cubic centimeter of sediment.
Foraminifera, also known as forams, may be free-floating, planktonic species, but the vast majority are benthic (bottom-dwellers).
www.olympusmicro.com /galleries/abramowitz/pages/foraminiferasmall.html   (208 words)

 Migration and bioturbation of benthic deep-sea foraminifera.
Benthic deep-sea foraminifera are largely fueled by organic matter arriving from the sea-surface and they respond rapidly to incoming phytodetritus.
Living foraminifera from down to 2880 m water depth were successfully maintained and observed.
The rate of bioturbation thus seems to be directly related to the response of benthic foraminifera to the prevailing trophic conditions in the deep-sea.
www.imbc.gr /biblio_serv/deepsea/X8-0001.html   (784 words)

 Gallery of skeletal carbonate images   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Foraminifera are one-celled animals that are free-floating (planktonic) or live on the sea floor (benthonic) and secrete a calcareous or agglutinated test that is commonly preserved unbroken.
Foraminifera tests preserved in the sedimentary record are commonly used as indicators of water paleo-depth, paleotem perature, oceanic circulation, turbidity and age of the deposit.
Planktonic foraminifera tests form reservoirs in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the North Sea (the chalk reservoirs of Ekofisk Field are an example), and benthic foraminifera tests are responsible for hydrocarbon reservoirs in some porous carbonate sand deposits within the Permian Basin (Late Paleozoic fusilinids) and offshore Tunisia (Tertiary Nummulites).
strata.geol.sc.edu /thinsections/caco3-skeletal.html   (2326 words)

 Fabulous Foraminifera: examining past climates using microscopic marine organisms - NIWA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Despite their small size, foraminifera are astoundingly useful to geologists, palaeocean-ographers and palaeobiologists because of their wide distribution and their ability to preserve a record of past oceanic conditions in the calcite of their shells.
Some foraminifera species have well-defined preferences for certain conditions, and their presence in sediment can to help us to identify changes in the environment over past ice ages and warm periods - the so-called glacial-interglacial cycles.
By collecting foraminifera from slices of the sediment at different depths in the cores and analysing the species composition and isotopic signature, we can begin to construct a picture of ocean conditions through the glacial-interglacial cycles of the past.
www.niwa.cri.nz /pubs/wa/08-3-Sep-2000/foraminifera.htm   (1894 words)

 Collecting foraminifera
Foraminifera and the Shelly remains of other calcareous marine creatures would be an ideal component of the School Curriculum: The empty "Shells" have considerable aesthetic appeal.
In the bay situation the spread of Foraminifera is confined to a very limited deposition zone which is to be found towards the headland from which the tidal flow originates.
In the Mediterranean Sea the Foraminifera are numerous but because of the lack of strong tides, the deposition zone extends to most of the sandy coastline with large numbers to be found to the lee of headlands.
www.microscopy-uk.org.uk /mag/artnov98/bdforam3.html   (1131 words)

 Earliest calcareous foraminifera
The early part of the invertebrate fossil record during the Cambrian period seems to show a striking contrast between the abundance of highly developed organisms such as the trilobite arthropods and the paucity of simpler forms such as the foraminiferal protozoans.
Foraminifera are very small acellular animals with an important role in marine food chains
Consequently, the assumptions that Lower Palaeozoic foraminifera were primitive and mainly non-calcareous have been taken as bases for inferences concerning the early evolution of the group
www.nature.com /nature/journal/v257/n5523/abs/257208a0.html   (431 words)

 AAAS - AAAS News Release
Much to the surprise of researchers Yuko Todo and colleagues, these populations of organisms known as foraminifera were found to inhabit the sediment of the Challenger Deep, in the Pacific's enormous Marianas Trench.
Foraminifera are single-celled protists, typically with hard shells, found primarily in the oceans.
The lineage to which the new soft-walled foraminifera belong includes the only species to have invaded fresh water and land, and analysis of the new organisms' DNA suggests they represent a primitive form of organism dating back to Precambrian times from which more complex multichambered organisms evolved.
www.aaas.org /news/releases/2005/0203scipak.shtml   (199 words)

 APPLICATIONS - Foraminifera
The oldest rocks for which foraminifera have been biostratigraphically useful are Upper Carboniferous to Permian strata, which have been zoned using the larger benthic fusulinids.
Fabulous Foraminifera: examining past climates using microscopic marine organisms by Barbara Manighetti and Lisa Northcote in Water and Atmosphere, Vol.
Foraminifera are used in the oil and gas industry as indicators of diagenesis, thus, conditions favorable for hydrocarbon formation.
www.eforams.icsr.agh.edu.pl /index.php?title=APPLICATIONS&printable=yes   (358 words)

 National Environmental Research Institute, Univ. of Aarhus - New discovery in Nature: Animals can breathe without oxygen
Foraminifera are single-celled animals (protozoa) surrounded by a shell of varying size and form.
Foraminifera can gather an enormous stock of nitrate close to the surface of the sea floor.
Foraminifera shells are actually important clues that provide information about the environment and climate changes that have taken place over several hundred million years.
www.dmu.dk /International/News/Nitraterespiration.htm?wbc_purpose=basic&WBCMODE=presentationunpublished%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23Knopurt%23Fagdatacentrer_for_jordforurening   (748 words)

 NERC - Awards
Biostratigraphy and palaeoceanographic significance of Benthic Foraminifera from the Lomonosov Ridge.
This proposal is to study the nature of the foraminifera in the Paleogene and Upper Cretaceous part of the stratigraphic record, roughly between 80 and 50 million years before present.
We propose to study the benthic foraminifera from Hole M0004A drilled in August 2004 on the Lomonosov Ridge, to document the taxonomy and investigate the response of the benthic foraminifera to the Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum.
www.nerc.ac.uk /research/programmes/ukiodp/facts/awards.asp   (1116 words)

 Bowser Lab Foraminifera Page
These foraminifera make their tests by gluing together particles from their environments, and they are very selective about which particles they choose.
Given the high density of "giant" foraminifera in Explorers Cove, Antarctica, it is estimated that the sea floor there may be carpeted with the pseudopodia of foraminifera.
Certain foraminifera use the elaborate ornamentations on their shells, which look like teeth in the scanning electron microscope, to accomplish this cellular rasping (which we call skyllocytosis).
www.bowserlab.org /foraminifera/forampage2.htm   (843 words)

 Molecular systematics of foraminifera is the leading MSG project
Foraminifera, affectionately called "forams", are classically defined as a group of protists having tectinous, agglutinated or calcareous shells (tests) and inhabiting marine or brackish water environments.
According to ribosomal sequence data, the foraminifera diverged early in the evolution of eukaryotes, among the earliest mitochondriate lineages.
It is probable, that foraminifera have evolved from some ancestral lineage that did not form tests and therefore was not preserved in the fossil record.
www.unige.ch /sciences/biologie/biani/msg/people/Jan/forams.htm   (3000 words)

 Palaeos Eukarya: Rhizaria
One group of basal agglutinated-test Foraminifera became sessile, and a subgroup of this line took to growing to Brobdignagian proportions — the Xenophyophorea.
Foraminifera, especially the calcareous forms, have a fossil record stretching back to the Cambrian (Lee, 1990), and are especially important biostratigraphically.
The Xenophyophorea are either Foraminifera, or possibly the sister group of Foraminifera.
www.palaeos.com /Eukarya/Units/Rhizaria/Rhizaria.html   (1587 words)

 Fossil Groups - Benthic Foraminifers
foraminifera differ in having granular rhizopodia and elongate filopodia that emerge from the cell body.
The foraminifera are divided into two primary groups based on their mode of life, planktonic (marine floaters), and benthic (sea floor dwellers).
Benthic foraminifera occupy a wide range of marine environments, from brackish estuaries to the deep ocean basins, and occur at all latitudes.
geology.er.usgs.gov /paleo/forams_b.shtml   (429 words)

 Nearctica - Paleontology - Protists
Foraminifera are relatively large protists with a shell of various construction and materials.
The foraminifera are known from the Ordovician to the present.
As part of the project the author discusses how Foraminifera can be used to study and infer past climates and environments of the earth at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/Olson2.html and http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/Olson3.html.
www.nearctica.com /paleo/inverts/protists.htm   (588 words)

 ZapMeta Web Site Results for: "foraminifera"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the deep-sea biomass in the...
of Mississippian endothyroid Foraminifera: University of Kansas Paleontological...
INTRODUCTION TO Foraminifera (forams for short) are single-celled organisms (protists) with...
www.zapmeta.com /search/meta/zapfor.pl?search=web&query=foraminifera&page=2&en=yx.&match=all&within=v0D73AATscy4A&S1=&txt=   (217 words)

 Benthic foraminifera assemblages of the Aiguillon cove
Foraminifera (class Foraminifera, phylum Granuloreticulata) are amongst the more abundant and most conspicuous protozoa in most marine and brackish water habitats.
Foraminifera are easy to collect, and are often found in high-density populations, providing an adequate statistical base (even in small volume samples), they are then well adapted for environmental monitoring (Scott, 2001).
The cove is a 5km-wide sediment settling basin (Verger, 1968), delimited from the open sea by two spits, the Pointe de l’Aiguillon in the west and the Pointe Saint-Clément in the east.
www.ifremer.fr /crema/PGSauriau/foraminifera/indexforaminifera.htm   (316 words)

 Introduction to the Foraminifera   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Foraminifera (forams for short) are single-celled protists with shells.
Their shells are also referred to as tests because in some forms the protoplasm covers the exterior of the shell.
They move and catch their food with a network of thin extensions of the cytoplasm called reticulopodia, similar to the pseudopodia of an amoeba, although much more numerous and thinner.
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /foram/foramintro.html   (246 words)

 Foraminifera Group. The Micropalaeontological Society - TMS
The Micropalaeontological Society's Foraminifera and Nannofossil Groups Joint Spring Meeting, Thursday
Thursday 25th - Friday 26th May, 2006 at the University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
The Foraminifera and Nannofossil Groups Joint Spring Meeting 2005
www.nhm.ac.uk /hosted_sites/tms/foram.htm   (88 words)

 The Soft Earth Pottery Of Woods Hole, Cape Cod
Foraminifera are tiny single-celled organisms that construct shells.
They live in oceans and after death their shells settle and are keys to paleoclimate research.
What I’ve observed from all my geographically varied collection, is that sediments containing foraminifera often make branching patterns.
www.thesoftearth.com /pages/foraminifera.htm   (354 words)

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