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Topic: Forced labour

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 Unfree labour - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families.
Unfree labour is often more easily instituted and enforced on migrant workers, who have travelled far from their homelands and who are easily identified because of their physical, ethnic or cultural differences to the general population, since they are unable or unlikely to report their conditions to the authorities.
Another historically significant example of forced labour was that of political prisoners, people from conquered or occupied countries, and prisoners of war, especially during the 20th century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Forced_labour   (1324 words)

 Penal labour - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Convicts subjected to forced labour have often been regarded with lack of sympathy, because of the social stigma attached to people regarded as "common criminals".
In some countries and historical periods, however, prison labour has been forced upon people who have been: victims of prejudice, convicted of political crimes, convicted of "victimless crimes", or people who committed theft or related offences because they lacked any other means of subsistence — categories of people for whom compassion is typically called.
Another historically significant example of forced labour was that of political prisoners and other persecuted people in labour camps, especially during the 20th century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Forced_labor   (389 words)

 About HRI
Forced or compulsory labour exacted as a tax and forced or compulsory labour to which recourse is had for the execution of public works by chiefs who exercise administrative functions shall be progressively abolished.
In the case of labour to which recourse is had by chiefs in the exercise of their administrative functions, payment of wages in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be introduced as soon as possible.
Forced or compulsory labour for the transport of persons or goods, such as the labour of porters or boatmen, shall be abolished within the shortest possible period.
www.hri.ca /uninfo/treaties/31.shtml   (2600 words)

 Trades Union Congress - Forced Labour and Migration to the UK
Forced labour is not considered as something that happens in the United Kingdom, but rather as a term chiefly applied to situations in states such as Myanmar and Sudan.
Forced labour is proscribed as a violation of fundamental human rights in international and in national law [9].
Forced labour is analysed by considering the forms of coercion used to retain a worker.
www.tuc.org.uk /international/tuc-9317-f0.cfm   (18289 words)

The new study confirms that forced labour is a major global problem which is present in all regions and in all types of economy.
Forced economic exploitation in such sectors as agriculture, construction, brick-making and informal sweatshop manufacturing is more or less evenly divided between the sexes.
Most forced labour today is still exacted in developing countries where older forms of forced labour are sometimes transmuting into newer ones, notably in a range of informal sector activities, the report says.
www.un.org /news/Press/docs/2005/sag360.doc.htm   (834 words)

 Choike - Forced labour in Brazil
Forced labour affects some 30,000 to 40,000 men, women and children in Brazil today, according to figures cited by the national media.
These forced labourers are the hidden victims of a global phenomenon which affects millions of people in both developing and developed countries.
On 28 January 2004, four Labour Ministry officials were ambushed and killed in a shooting which the authorities believe is related to the discovery of slavery in a farming region dominated by large soybean farms, about 140 km (90 miles) from the capital, Brasilia.
www.choike.org /nuevo_eng/informes/2047.html   (1499 words)

 Child Labour Inquiry
When analyzing the caste composition of child labourers Nangia (1987) observes that, "if these figures are compared with the caste structure of the country, it would be realised that a comparatively higher proportion of scheduled caste children work at a younger age for their own and their families’ economic support" (p.
Since the earnings of bonded child labourers are less than the interest on the loans, these bonded children are forced to work, while interest on their loans accumulates.
Child labour cannot be eliminated by focusing on one determinant, for example education, or by brute enforcement of child labour laws.
www.geocities.com /CollegePark/Library/9175/inquiry1.htm   (3884 words)

 Forced labour: ADB’s suggested legal reforms -DAWN - Business; December 22, 2003
A recent set of studies for the ministry of labour testify that the forced labour is growing in industry and remains widespread in agriculture.
Forced labour persists despite commitments of the state through the Constitution, specific and general national laws, and the long-ratified international conventions of the UN and the ILO.
The bank is hesitant to stress that the children are generally part of the family labour extorted from haris, since the intensification of labour services is the objective of all capital.
www.dawn.com /2003/12/22/ebr5.htm   (1012 words)

 Regime Still Intransigent on Forced Labour   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The army has also continued to ''routinely use forced labour for a variety of tasks, including forcing them to be porters, particularly in the border areas,'' he told IPS.
The Burmese regime, according to the report, has failed to implement a countrywide programme to inform communities that forced labour was forbidden and to create a mechanism to prosecute wrongdoers.
As disturbing for the U.N. agency was another development that undermined Rangoon's commitment to eradicate forced labour -- three Burmese men were convicted last November for ''high treason'' and sentenced to death by the junta for having contacts with the ILO.
www.mizzima.com /archives/news-in-2004/news-in-jun/09-jun04-15.htm   (950 words)

 DEMOCRACY: Is that it? - NI 324 - Development as forced labour
Forced labor, the author continues, is still — ie in the 1930s — practised in all of Central Africa, French Algeria and Indo-China, British India, Dutch East Indies, Belgian Congo, British East Africa, Madagascar and French West Africa, Liberia, Portuguese West Africa, Dutch Java.
Because of the compulsory methods used in the construction of the Congo-Ocean railway in French Equatorial Africa and a lack of adequate precautions, 17,000 native workers engaged on the enterprise died between 1925 and 1929.
defended forced labor for private enterprises on the ground that primitive peoples will not progress until they learn to work and that the wealth of the tropics cannot be exploited for the outside world unless forced labour is employed.’
www.newint.org /issue324/forced.htm   (1837 words)

 RIGHTS: Burma Still Not Free From Scourge of Forced Labour   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The forms of forced labour that prevails mostly in the rural parts of that South-east Asian country also include men, women, children and the elderly being compelled by the army to porter for them, perform sentry duty and build and repair roads, according to the report.
These labour camps in communist-ruled China and Vietnam were created by their respective regimes to detain citizens who were perceived as those in need of political indoctrination.
In all, there are an estimated 9.5 million victims of forced labour in the Asia-Pacific region, which equals to three-fourths of the global total of 12.3 million people, the report states.
www.ipsnews.net /africa/interna.asp?idnews=28631   (894 words)

 ITT Flygt Headquarter - Forced labour
One of the oldest forms of slavery is bonded labour or debt bondage, where children and adults work many years for extremely low wages to pay off debts and loans.
Other forms of forced labour include prison labour and forms of labour where workers are obliged by the state to carry out certain kinds of work.
We have to be aware of the risks involved with forced labor, when using suppliers and sub-contractors from countries where human rights violations are reported.
www.flygt.com /214689.asp   (311 words)

 ILO: At least 12.3m people trapped in forced labour
At least 12.3 million people are trapped in forced labour around the world, the International Labour Office (ILO) said in a new study released today.
Of the overall total, some 9.5 million forced labourers are in Asia, which is the region with the highest number; 1.3 million in Latin America and the Caribbean; 660,000 in sub-Saharan Africa; 260,000 in the Middle East and North Africa; 360,000 in industrialized countries; and 210,000 in transition countries.
In Asia, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of trafficked persons is less than 20 per cent of all forced labour, while in industrialized and transition countries and in the Middle East and North Africa, trafficking accounts for more than 75 per cent of the total.
www.finfacts.ie /irelandbusinessnews/publish/article_10001779.shtml   (1221 words)

 Gulag, Selected Bibliography
Forced labour camps in White Sea and Kolyma areas.
Exploitation of Japanese POW labour in the USSR.
Memoirs of truck driver, describing forced labour camps in Kolyma from 1933-1935, and after release working as stakhanovite for Magadan motor-transport depot from 1935-1945.
www.osa.ceu.hu /gulag/bibliography.htm   (1793 words)

 GB.273/MYANMAR - Governing Body
Indeed, it is clear that the practice of forced labour is becoming more widespread and that the authorities in Myanmar are directly responsible for its increasing use, and actively involved in its exploitation.
Since then, however, forced labour is being used systematically, on an ever larger scale, and in an increasing number of areas of activity.
The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall communicate the report of the Commission of Inquiry to the Governing Body and to each of the governments concerned in the complaint, and shall cause it to be published.
www.ilo.org /public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb273/myanmar.htm   (2379 words)

 Volkswagen’s history of forced labour , by Frederic F Clairmont
At Volkswagen, the foreign workforce subjected to forced labour was exposed to the cold (photos in the book show young Soviet women, reduced to slavery, working barefoot), incessant beatings, malnutrition and early death.
The Barbarossa operation - the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 - was a particular opportunity for Volkswagen to improve its fortunes, in terms of the exploitation of forced labour.
Without foreign labour, and in particular that of Soviet slaves, the whole of German industry would have collapsed: in the spring of 1945, Volkswagen’s workforce was 90% non-German.
mondediplo.com /1998/01/11volkswag   (2046 words)

 C29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930
For the purposes of this Convention the term [ forced or compulsory labour ] shall mean all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily.
For the purposes of this Convention the term [ competent authority ] shall mean either an authority of the metropolitan country or the highest central authority in the territory concerned.
that any worker who may wish to remain as a voluntary worker at the end of his period of forced or compulsory labour is permitted to do so without, for a period of two years, losing his right to repatriation free of expense to himself.
www.itcilo.it /actrav/english/common/C029.html   (2374 words)

 Democratic Voice of Burma
The people living on the eastern side of the Pegu Yoma in lower central Burma have been subjected to forced labour practice by the authorities of Burma’s military junta, State Peace and Development (SPDC).
Those who could not do so are forced to pay 500 kyat and most people who have to survive daily are facing difficulties.
The authorities told the people that the Karen National Union (KNU) fighters often disrupt electricity supply to the capital but the people are not interested in the authorities’ excuse as the majority of the supply goes to the junta sponsored industries and they themselves do not receive any electricity supply or profits from the junta.
english.dvb.no /news.php?id=3852   (308 words)

 Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (ILO No. 105), 320 U.N.T.S. 291, entered into force Jan. 17, 1959.
The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall notify all Members of the International Labour Organisation of the registration of all ratifications and denunciations communicated to him by the Members of the Organisation.
The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall communicate to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations full particulars of all ratifications and acts of denunciation registered by him in accordance with the provisions of the preceding articles.
The foregoing is the authentic text of the Convention duly adopted by the General Conference of the International Labour Organisation during its fortieth session which was held at Geneva and declared closed the twenty-seventh day of June 1957.
www1.umn.edu /humanrts/instree/n2ilo105.htm   (854 words)

 Burma Violates Own Ban in Use of Forced Labor (Human Rights Watch, 7-3-2001)
The governing body of the International Labour Organization (ILO) will be meeting in Geneva next week to review Burma's progress toward eradicating a practice that is in clear violation of international human rights standards.
In November 2000, the ILO governing body adopted a resolution urging international organizations and governments to "reassess" their relationship with the SPDC to avoid contributing to the use of forced labor.
One ethnic Shan farmer said that in January 2001, a local unit of the Burmese military had forced him to dig trenches and fence-post holes for a military base in Ton Hu in Shan State's Nam Zarng Township.
www.hrw.org /press/2001/03/burma0307.htm   (645 words)

 Nanmusi Female Forced Labour Camp Tortures Dafa Practitioners and Deceives Overseas Investigators | Clearharmony - ...
The unlawful perpetrators of crimes at Nanmusi Female Forced Labour Camp not only brutally torment innocent Falun Gong practitioners, but also deceive investigators from Australia to cover up the facts, and retaliate against practitioners who reveal the lies to the investigators.
On the second night, because I refused to give up my practice of Falun Gong, I was forced to stand facing the wall in a torture known as "standing in army corps posture." I was not allowed to move at all.
The perpetrators forced us to stand in the "army corps" posture and "backing up an airplane" from 10 pm to 6pm without rest.
www.clearharmony.net /articles/200304/11470.html   (714 words)

 LABOUR UPDATE: ILO, BURMA TO MEET ON FORCED LABOUR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In other labour news, Burma (Myanmar) and ILO officials met from 24-26 May to discuss a plan of action toward Burma's implementation of ILO recommendations on labour reform.
The ILO in 1998 reported that an estimated 800,000 Burmese are pressed into forced labour by Burma's military forces.
The legislation has passed the Swaziland Parliament, but King Mswati III has thus far refused to sign the law, insisting that the law be amended to, inter alia, hold workers liable for losses incurred from labour actions.
www.ictsd.org /html/weekly/story4.30-05-00.htm   (411 words)

 Dues and duties in ancient Egypt   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The use of force was never far from the minds of either party when collectors had dealings with farmers.
In contrast to taxes on produce, labour could be exacted from everybody [11].
With the passing of the centuries shawabtis seem to have improved their labour conditions and ended up by being called upon just one day per year, requiring the tomb owner to surround himself with a small army of these stand-ins, one for every day of the year.
nefertiti.iwebland.com /economy/taxation.htm   (2664 words)

 ILOLEX: English display cgi
Status: Up-to-date instrument This instrument is one of the fundamental conventions.
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to forced or compulsory labour, which is included in the first item on the agenda of the Session, and
At such times as it may consider necessary the Governing Body of the International Labour Office shall present to the General Conference a report on the working of this Convention and shall examine the desirability of placing on the agenda of the Conference the question of its revision in whole or in part.
www.ilo.org /ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C029   (2491 words)

 WWW Virtual Library Labour History: Special Topics
Archives of Indian Labour The AIL is a repository of documents related to labour movement, personal narratives, memoirs and video and audio material.
In addition several special reports and articles on labour history of India, a detailed inventory of material and sources on labour history and papers on technical aspects of digital archiving are included.
Cradle of Collective Bargaining: History of Labour and Technology in Hamilton and District A visual history of the rise of trade unionism in Hamilton and the changing conditions of work in the city from the early decades of the century through to the 1950s.
www.iisg.nl /~w3vl/specialtopics.html   (5823 words)

 International Labour Organization - ILO Web site
Labour situation in Myanmar will be discussed, along with making decent work a global goal
The Governing Body of the International Labour Office (ILO) will discuss a wide range of issues at its 294th session beginning here today, including basic labour rights in Myanmar, globalization, and employment issues, especially among the world's youth.
The global textile and clothing trade has called on the International Labour Organization (ILO) to play a leading role in addressing a "revolution" facing the industry in the wake of the phase-out of the Multi-fibre Arrangement (MFA) that affects millions of jobs worldwide.
www.ilo.org   (511 words)

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