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Topic: Forebrain

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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  Augmentation of Plasticity of the Central Auditory System by the Basal Forebrain and/or Somatosensory Cortex -- Ma and ...
somatosensory cortex, or dorsal to the basal forebrain.
The basal forebrain was lesioned by a 10-s-long 500-µA monophasic
to the excitation of the cholinergic basal forebrain that is evoked
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/89/1/90   (7413 words)

 Vax1, a novel homeobox-containing gene, directs development of the basal forebrain and visual system -- Hallonet et al. ...
At 13.5 dpc, deficient growth of the mutant ventral forebrain is observed in the septum (Sep) and the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) (cf.
The pattern of expression of Shh (b,d) and Nkx2.1 (f,h) at 11.5 dpc and that of Dlx1 (j,l) or of Pax6 (n,p) at 13.5 dpc are apparently not modified in homozygous mutants, suggesting that the patterning of the forebrain is not affected by the Vax1 mutation.
Cooperation of BMP7 and SHH in the induction of forebrain ventral midline cells by prechordal mesoderm.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/13/23/3106   (5252 words)

 The making of a brain
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a brain malformation characterized by the failure of the forebrain to divide into hemispheres during development.
While it is estimated that HPE affects 1 in 5,000-10,000 live births, the real incidence may by as high as 1 in 200-250 fetuses, owing to the high rates of spontaneous abortion of those severely affected.
The researchers found that in mice, the protein encoded by the Six3 gene (SIX3) secures the identity of anterior (forebrain) neural cells by blocking out a posteriorizing signal that sweeps through the putative forebrain during day 8.0-8.5 of embryogenesis, and determines the identity of more posterior brain structures.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2003-01/cshl-tmo011703.php   (425 words)

 Memory Loss & the Brain
The basal forebrain is a term for a group of structures that lie near the bottom of the front of the brain, including the nucleus basalis, diagonal band, medial septum and substantia innominata.
This may be one reason why basal forebrain damage can result in memory impairments such as amnesia and confabulation.
One common cause of basal forebrain damage is aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery.
www.memorylossonline.com /glossary/basalforebrain.html   (190 words)

 John Rubenstein   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The forebrain, which is at the rostral end of the neural tube, differentiates into the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and other components, each with distinct histologies and functions.
These studies have led us to propose that the forebrain is subdivided by longitudinal and transverse boundaries, and thereby has a neuromeric organization.
Porteus, M.H., Bulfone, A. Ciaranello, R.D. and Rubenstein J.L.R. Isolation and characterization of a novel cDNA clone encoding a homeodomain that is developmentally regulated in the ventral forebrain.
keck.ucsf.edu /bms/rubens.htm   (507 words)

 Brain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Diagram depicting the main subdivisions of the embryonic vertebrate brain.
These regions will later differentiate into forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain structures.
According to the hierarchy based on embryonic and evolutionary development, chordate brains are composed of the three regions that later develop into five total divisions:
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Brain   (3686 words)

 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Copyright 2003   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The forebrain is destined to contain, among other structures, the eyes, olfactory center and cerebrum.
Once protected by Six3, the forebrain matures, giving rise to some of the higher centers that control a variety of critical functions such as thought, memory and the senses of sight and smell.
Previous work by a variety of laboratories showed that the early development of both the anterior and posterior brain is controlled by a number of different signals that are highly conserved among most vertebrates, according to Oliver.
www.stjude.org /print/0,2510,404_2022_3121,00.html   (850 words)

 Ectopic bone morphogenetic proteins 5 and 4 in the chicken forebrain lead to cyclopia and holoprosencephaly -- Golden ...
Forebrain Expression of BMPs Is Predominantly Localized to the Roof Region and the Eye.
In situ hybridization for dorsal and ventral markers in the forebrain of E4 embryos.
BMP5, the dorsal forebrain of stage 9 or 10 embryos was extirpated
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/96/5/2439   (5401 words)

A clear understanding of induction in the forebrain is crucial since the molecular signaling pathways that underlie this process may be disrupted by environmental toxins, genetic mutations, dietary agents, pharmaceuticals, and drugs of abuse.
The investigator will determine whether interactions between the mesenchyme and the adjacent forebrain or surface epithelia are necessary for patterned gene expression and neuronal differentiation in the presumptive olfactory epithelium and forebrain.
Such disruptions of early induction during forebrain development may ultimately compromise the unique behavioral and cognitive functions that are the province of distinct forebrain regions and circuits.
www.med.unc.edu /wrkunits/1dean/research/Lamantia200.html   (369 words)

 Department of Developemntal Biology - Home
The forebrain is formed by remodeling and growth of the anterior neural plate.
This morphogenesis occurs in response to inductive signals during gastrulation and neurulation but is poorly understood at the cellular level.
These data are consistent with a model of progressive specification of forebrain domains.
www.pasteur.fr /recherche/departements/DepBiodev/forebrain.html   (218 words)

 Molecular Pain | Full text | Forebrain overexpression of CaMKII abolishes cingulate long term depression and reduces ...
Synaptic plasticity in the ACC may serve as a cellular model for studying the roles of CaMKII in forebrain structures and behavioral alternations to persistent pain may be due to changes in these forebrain neurons.
NMDA receptors and their related signaling pathways in the forebrain (including the ACC) have been implicated in injury-related behavioral sensitization [17-19].
In our previous study in mice over expressing NMDA NR2B receptors in forebrain regions, we found that late behavioral nociceptive responses to formalin was selectively enhanced in transgenic mice [10].
www.molecularpain.com /content/2/1/21   (4546 words)

 Center Line Vol 11 No 1 Cover story   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The dopamine released in the forebrain can be measured by a second electrode, the recording electrode, which monitors the activity of nerve cells in the nucleus accumbens.
This result was interpreted as support for the hypothesis that activation of the dopaminergic reward pathway and forebrain release of dopamine are important, and perhaps necessary, for the experience of pleasure and reward that underlie the development of addiction.
The fact that the animal continued to be rewarded by pressing the bar for stimulation of the ventral tegmental area in spite of the lack of dopamine release is a remarkable discovery that forces a re-evaluation of the role of dopamine in the neural basis of brain reward.
www.med.unc.edu /alcohol/cenline/11_2_1.htm   (1264 words)

 Galanin regulates the postnatal survival of a subset of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons -- O'Meara et al. 97 (21): ...
cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of rodents.
the basal forebrain in the rat (2, 3).
We hypothesized that the reduced populations of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of the mutant mice might be caused
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/97/21/11569   (5164 words)

 Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program | University of California, San Francisco
To this end, we have identified several genes that regulate forebrain development, and are focusing on T-box and homeobox transcription factor genes.
We are investigating the inductive mechanisms that pattern the neural plate and neural tube, by performing experimental manipulations in chicken embryos, and by analyzing the phenotypes of mice with mutations in genes encoding patterning molecules (Shh and FGF8) or encoding transcription factors that transduce patterning signals (e.g.
These studies show that development of different forebrain compartments are controlled by distinct transcription factors and suggest that distinct types of neurons (e.g.
www.ucsf.edu /bms/faculty/rubenstein.html   (849 words)

 Genetic enhancement of inflammatory pain by forebrain NR2B overexpression - Nature Neuroscience
Among forebrain areas, formalin injection induced prominent c-Fos staining in the ACC (Figs.
Abundant c-Fos expression was observed in the dorsal horn of lumbar spinal cord, particularly in superficial laminae and the deep neck of the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the injected hind paw, with much smaller (but nonetheless evident) expression contralaterally (Figs.
Although the two forebrain regions exhibited enhanced c-Fos staining after formalin injection in transgenic compared to wild-type mice, the pattern of c-Fos expression in the spinal cord was not changed by forebrain-targeted NR2B overexpression.
www.nature.com /neuro/journal/v4/n2/full/nn0201_164.html   (4137 words)

 forebrain - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Jude Researchers Show That the Six3 Gene is Vital in the Creation of the Brain's Complexity; Six3 Protein Orchestrates a Vital Step in the Formation of the Embryonic Forebrain.
Protective effects of Choto-san and hooks and stems of Uncaria sinensis against delayed neuronal death after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbil.
Celastrus paniculatus seed oil and organic extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide- and glutamate-induced injury in embryonic rat forebrain neuronal cells**.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/X/X-forebrai.asp   (215 words)

 Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2)-mediated retinoic acid synthesis regulates early mouse embryonic forebrain ...
was diminished in the mutant ventral forebrain neuroepithelium,
occurs in the mouse forebrain at the 8- to 10-somite stages.
Osumi-Yamashita, N., Ninomiya, Y., Doi, H. and Eto, K. The contribution of both forebrain and midbrain crest cells to the mesenchyme in the frontonasal mass of mouse embryos.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/133/2/351   (6828 words)

 Intracellular calcium and survival of tadpole forebrain cells in anoxia -- Hedrick et al. 208 (4): 681 -- Journal of ...
Intracellular calcium and survival of tadpole forebrain cells in anoxia -- Hedrick et al.
Measurements were taken from tadpole forebrain cells after exposure to normoxia and 1-6 h anoxia.
Measurements were taken from forebrain cells after exposure to normoxia, and 1-4 h anoxia and 4 h normoxic control.
jeb.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/208/4/681   (3308 words)

 St. Jude researchers show that the Six3 gene is vital in the creation of the brain’s complexity
Jude scientists showed that the Six3 gene ensures proper development of the forebrain by halting the activity of another gene, called Wnt1, which had previously been shown to control the development of more posterior parts of the brain.
Lagutin, who works in the laboratory of Guillermo Oliver, Ph.D., an associate member in the department, is the lead author of a report on this work, which appears in the Feb. 1, 2003 issue of the journal Genes & Development.
“This finding indicates that what was eventually to become the forebrain was instead being turned into an extension of the posterior part of the brain,” Oliver said.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2003-01/sjcr-sjr013003.php   (870 words)

 Cholinergic Modulation of Visual Attention and Working Memory: Dissociable Effects of Basal Forebrain 192-IgG-saporin ...
that ChAT-IR neurons in adjacent nuclei of the basal forebrain,
Chudasama, Y. and Muir, J.L. A behavioural analysis of the delayed non-matching to position task: The effects of scopolamine, lesions of the fornix and of the prelimbic region on mediating behaviours by rats.
Cholinergic innervation of cortex by the basal forebrain: Cytochemistry and cortical connections of the septal area, diagonal band nuclei, nucleus basalis (substantia innominata and hypothalamus) in the rhesus monkey.
www.learnmem.org /cgi/content/full/11/1/78   (6564 words)

 Title: Table
The development of the forebrain derives from a sheet of neuroepithelial cells.
of the forebrain and a partial role in dorso-ventral gene expression.
Gpc4 is required for the expression of Emx2 during early neural plate stages and onward through the development of the forebrain.
www.unr.nevada.edu /~kegler   (752 words)

 Morphological and Membrane Properties of Rat Magnocellular Basal Forebrain Neurons Maintained in Culture -- Sim and ...
Basal forebrain cultures were stained for AChE using the modified histochemical technique described by Hedreen et al.
The dissociated cultures of basal forebrain neurons were routinely used after 5-27 days in culture.
Basal forebrain neurons of postnatal rats maintained in culture.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/80/4/1653   (7830 words)

 Oliver: Forebrain and Visual System Development: Six3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The current model of forebrain development suggests that induced neural tissue is inherently anterior (forebrain) in character, and a graded transforming (or posteriorizing) signal specifies more posterior neural fates.
The functional inactivation of Six3 in mice allowed us to determine that Six3 is a crucial regulator of vertebrate head development; its activity is essential to regulate key molecular events required for the regional patterning of the anterior neural plate and the generated Six3 mutant mice lack the rostral forebrain (Lagutin et al., 2003).
Following the specification of the anterior neural plate, the optic vesicles evaginate from the ventral forebrain to produce the lens and retina of the vertebrate eye.
www.stjude.org /faculty/0,2512,407_2030_9828,00.html   (536 words)

 CRISP - Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects, Abstract Display
We have recently shown that two zebrafish forebrain mutations encode Hh-responsive transcription factors of the gli family.
Cell differentiation defects in the zebrafish forebrain mutants appear to be caused by mis-regulation of Hh signaling.
The fact that three of the zebrafish forebrain mutants encode members of the Hh pathway underscores the importance of this signaling cascade in development.
crisp.cit.nih.gov /crisp/CRISP_LIB.getdoc?textkey=6609678&p_grant_num=5R01NS039994-04&p_query=&ticket=16783130&p_audit_session_id=78836308&p_keywords=   (396 words)

 Brain Explorer - Brain Atlas - Forebrain   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemispheres connected by a mass of white matter
The thalamus functions to relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus regulates visceral functions, such as temperature, reproductive functions, eating, sleeping and the display of emotion.
Also known as the 'emotional brain', the limbic system is important in the formation of memories and in controlling emotions, decisions, motivation and learning.
www.brainexplorer.org /brain_atlas/Brainatlas_Forebrain.shtml   (207 words)

 Distinct Forebrain and Caudal Brainstem Contributions to the Neuropeptide Y Mediation of Ghrelin Hyperphagia -- ...
Distinct Forebrain and Caudal Brainstem Contributions to the Neuropeptide Y Mediation of Ghrelin Hyperphagia -- Faulconbridge et al.
Distinct Forebrain and Caudal Brainstem Contributions to the Neuropeptide Y Mediation of Ghrelin Hyperphagia
to the hyperphagic response to forebrain GHS receptor stimulation.
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org /cgi/content/full/54/7/1985   (5044 words)

 Lesions of an Avian Forebrain Nucleus That Disrupt Song Development Alter Synaptic Connectivity and Transmission in the ...
The avian forebrain nucleus, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN), is necessary for normal
The anterior forebrain pathway (open symbols, dashed arrows) is critical for normal song development and consists of area X, the medial nucleus of the dorsolateral thalamus (DLM), and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN) (Okuhata and Saito, 1987
The primary input to the anterior forebrain pathway is from HVc to area X; the sole output of LMAN to the vocal motor pathway is onto RA.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/19/21/9385   (8995 words)

 N-Acetylcysteine Enhances Hippocampal Neuronal Survival After Transient Forebrain Ischemia in Rats -- Knuckey et al. 26 ...
Bar graph illustrates the mean (±SEM) number of viable neurons in a 1000-µm segment of the CA1 region of the hippocampus in animals treated before transient forebrain ischemia (mean arterial blood pressure, 45 mm Hg).
The results demonstrate that posttreatment with NAC (group 6) effected a significant improvement in neuronal survival compared with vehicle-treated animals (group 5) in animals with transient forebrain ischemia at 45 mm Hg, but there was no significance between groups 7 and 8 with transient forebrain ischemia at 30 mm Hg.
Effects of intra-ischemic blood pressure on the outcome from 2-vessel occlusion forebrain ischemia in the rat.
stroke.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/26/2/305   (3498 words)

 Multipotent Stem Cells from the Mouse Basal Forebrain Contribute GABAergic Neurons and Oligodendrocytes to the Cerebral ...
Multipotent Stem Cells from the Mouse Basal Forebrain Contribute GABAergic Neurons and Oligodendrocytes to the Cerebral Cortex during Embryogenesis -- He et al.
Multipotent Stem Cells from the Mouse Basal Forebrain Contribute GABAergic Neurons and Oligodendrocytes to the Cerebral Cortex during Embryogenesis
This indicates that forebrain stem cells are regionally specified.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/abstract/21/22/8854   (1014 words)

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