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Topic: Formal equivalence

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  Dynamic and formal equivalence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For example, a novel would be translated with dynamic equivalence so that it reads well, but in international diplomacy, the exact original meaning may be very important, so formal equivalence would be more desirable.
But formal equivalence allows readers familiar with the source language to see how meaning was expressed in the original text, preserving original idioms, rhetorical patterns (such as Biblical Hebrew poetic parallelism), and diction.
Formal equivalence of 17th century English to the Hebrew and Greek source manuscripts is exemplified by the King James Version.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Formal_equivalence   (385 words)

 Formal verification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods.
System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM), labelled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions, Petri nets, timed automata and hybrid automata, cryptographic protocols, combinatorial circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and abstractions of general software components.
The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration, symbolic state space enumeration, abstract interpretation, abstraction refinement, process-algebraic methods, and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem proverss such as HOL or Isabelle.
hallencyclopedia.com /Formal_verification   (350 words)

 Formal Validation
Formal design validation is a functional verification methodology that combines aspects of traditional checking and logic simulation based verification methods with the symbolic simulation and static analysis techniques of formal verification.
Formal verification techniques are emerging and are beginning to alleviate the verification problem for certain applications such as verifying the equivalence of two gate level designs.
Equivalence checking is used to verify that two structural descriptions are equivalent, model checking is used to verify that design properties are satisfied, while theorem proving verifies that circuits meet their specifications.
www.veritable.com /Computer/Formal_Validation/formal_validation.html   (2683 words)

Formal equivalence Formal equivalence is a Bible being literal, they are referring to ones which have been translated wi...
Formal power series In recursively defined sequences; this is known as the method of generating functions and will be il...
The formal semantics of a language is given by a mathematical...
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /topics/formal.html   (256 words)

 Equivalence in Translation
Equivalence can be said to be the central issue in translation although its definition, relevance, and applicability within the field of translation theory have caused heated controversy, and many different theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated within this field in the past fifty years.
Formal correspondence 'focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content', unlike dynamic equivalence which is based upon 'the principle of equivalent effect' (1964:159).
Dynamic equivalence is defined as a translation principle according to which a translator seeks to translate the meaning of the original in such a way that the TL wording will trigger the same impact on the TC audience as the original wording did upon the ST audience.
accurapid.com /journal/14equiv.htm   (3652 words)

 [No title]
Douay-Rheims The Catholic equivalent of the AV is the Douay-Rheims.
Formal equivalence says that we are trying to produce something whose form is as close to the original as possible.
Dynamic equivalence says that the goal of translation is to transfer the same message to the 20th Cent.
www.cs.rutgers.edu /pub/soc.religion.christian/faq/translations~   (4606 words)

 Principles of Bible Translation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Dynamic equivalence, it is claimed, should be a great improvement over the so-called formal equivalence, narrow, word for word translation, where the translator tries to stay as close as possible to the text of the source language.
Today dynamic equivalence has a very wide acceptance, but it seems that it has now peaked and is on its way down while formal equivalence translations may be regaining some ground.
For the dynamic equivalence principle, correctness of the translation must be determined by the extent to which the average reader for which the translation is intended will be likely to understand it correctly.
www.bpc.org /minerva/trans.html   (4510 words)

 IBFI Schloss Dagstuhl - Dagstuhl Seminar 02352
Formal equivalence verification techniques have had tremendous success in solving this problem in the last decade.
Nevertheless, formal equivalence verification techniques can be limited from space and time complexities that grow exponentially with circuit size in the worst case.
The simplest of these formal equivalence approaches require that the corresponding number and placement of memory elements in the circuits under examination are identical.
www.dagstuhl.de /02352   (968 words)

 jmarkbertrand.com - Bibles - Mixed Message: What Publishers Can Learn from The Message Remix
Translations used to be divided into two camps: formal equivalence, where translators attempt to communicate the words of Scripture, and dynamic equivalence, where translators attempt to communicate the thoughts or ideas.
Dynamic equivalence was justified on the grounds that it took into account the abilities of the reader, accommodating the text to the reader's understanding.
While advocates of formal equivalence may think of this as "dumbing down" the text, everyone agrees that a translation should communicate its meaning to the audience, and that requires a certain amount of accommodation.
www.jmarkbertrand.com /bibles/message   (1517 words)

 Translations Disclaimer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The formal equivalence method attempts to transfer (as far as possible) the structural information of the message as well as the general idea or meaning of the words.
Equivalent effect means the translators first try to discern what the impact of the original text would have been on the original readers.
The main concern of dynamic equivalence is not formal linguistic correspondence but correspondence of thought or idea.
www.newtestamentchurch.org /html/Translations/translations_disclaimer.htm   (466 words)

 JOLLYBLOGGER: Translation Issues, Part 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The more one is willing to forgo formal equivalence for functional equivalence, the closer one moves toward a theory of translation frequently described as “dynamic equivalent.” Such translations keep historical distance on all historical and factual matters but “update” matters of language, grammar and style.
Therefore, formal equivalence advocates would insist that, whatever the root word for “adelphoi” means it must be translated as a noun, masculine plural.
The gripe that the formal equivalent adherents have about this matter is that the translators of versions like the TNIV and others did the work of the commentator, or expositor.
jollyblogger.typepad.com /jollyblogger/2004/04/translation_iss.html   (1509 words)

 EETimes.com - Value of Verification Fits Survival Profile   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
These powerful and expressive formal property languages will enable engineers to specify properties and constraints for formal analysis (for example, property checking), specify functional coverage models to measure the quality of simulation, and develop pseudorandom constraint-driven simulation environments derived from formal specifications But it may be some time before commercial simulators support the languages.
Note that formal equivalence checking of the pre-vs. post-synthesis models does not help you in this case, since the two designs are logically consistent with the full_case pragma in the RTL (that is, their Boolean expressions are logically equivalent when the full_case "don't cares" are considered).
Formal verification has grown beyond the bounds of research and can be successfully integrated into your design flow, helping you achieve your goals of shortening the verification cycle while improving the quality of your functional validation process.
www.eetimes.com /news/design/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=16504208   (2401 words)

 Sign Language Interpreting: Chapter 1 (0742chapter1-3)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The goal of literal translation is to pursue equivalency with regard to the form, rather than the content, of the text.
The goal of translating with an emphasis on this approach to establishing equivalence to the source text is problematic, however.
Dynamic equivalence refers to a target text that yields an effect on a target audience that is similar to the effect of the source text on the original audience.
gupress.gallaudet.edu /0742chapter1-3.html   (434 words)

 Formal-Numeric Series   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
It's interesting to consider formal associations of different numerical series with each other according to their partial sums rather than according to their terms.
On this basis it's clear that the natural series is "equivalent" to any other divergent series, such as the geometric series of powers of 2, so this kind of "formal equivalence" is not particularly interesting.
In general, since the nth partial sum of the natural sequence is n(n+1)/2, and the mth partial sum of the geometric sequence 1 + b + b^2 +...
www.mathpages.com /home/kmath500.htm   (448 words)

 Vermont Ecumenical Council and Bible Society
The KJV is a "formal equivalent" translation, with great beauty and dignity of language.
The NIV seeks a balance between "formal equivalence" and "functional equivalence;" however, it tends slightly toward the "functional equivalence." The NIV has been the single largest-selling version over the past 25 years.
For study purposes, a translation based on "formal equivalence" may be preferred; for devotional reading, or for reading aloud, a "functional equivalent" version may be desired.
www.vecbs.org /society/bible.html   (1267 words)

Although formal equivalence translations have weaknesses in terms of readability, overall preservation of original meaning, and impact, they are useful for helping one understand HOW meaning was expressed in the original text.
The editor of this glossary is more comfortable with the terms formal equivalence and idiomatic translation, approaches to translation which appear on opposing ends of an idiomaticity scale.
Creating new terms such as closest natural equivalent translation may be helpful, but those who use them should describe them well enough so that it can be better understood how they relate to terms already in use such as idiomatic, dynamic, and meaning-based translation.
www.geocities.com /bible_translation/glossf.htm   (2011 words)

 Blogger: Email Post to a Friend
Dynamic equivalence, instead, aims to translate phrase for phrase, or "idea for idea." But Mounce actually prefers formal equivalence for serious study, and one major reason is that "dynamic equivalence" translations don't preserve the important distinction between independent and dependent clauses (and this makes it harder to find the main idea of a sentence).
Dynamic equivalence allows a greater freedom to attempt to make reading the English an experience like reading the Greek as a native speaker, but most translations don't live up to that potential and may abuse their poetic license.
In either case, formal or dynamic, one must understand the limitations of the translation one is using and that every translation is interpretive.
www.blogger.com /email-post.g?blogID=8543814&postID=110817785319961095   (1220 words)

 Study Bibles
They prefer the terms "formal equivalence" and "dynamic equivalence." These terms reflect the thought that responsible translators try to reflect the original intent as well as they can, but take different routes to achieve the same goal.
In a formal equivalence translation, the translators use the English words which are "formally equivalent" to the original language.
Dynamic equivalence uses a similar paradigm in translation, but leans toward the dynamic intent of the statement rather than its formal wording.
www.bibleonly.org /study/versions.html   (1495 words)

The fact that the KJV is in an early English sometimes difficult to understand four-hundred years later, and was based on late manuscripts and printed texts of the Bible, does not detract from its value as a formal equivalence translation of the biblical text available to it at the time.
The focus of functional equivalence is to score the essential point or points of a passage in the receptor language without necessarily reflecting the original with its textual nuances.
Normally a formal equivalence translation is preferable for midrashic and intertextual study of the Bible, while dynamic equivalence translations are valuable for less advanced students and those who do not know the history of the formation of the biblical text.
www.bc.edu /research/cjl/meta-elements/sites/partners/cbaa_seminar/sanders2.htm   (4585 words)

 FWB Net - Insight and Opinion
Formal equivalence (the translation theory behind NASB, ESV, the old ASV, and to some extent NRSV) would generally translate ka’at with its one word minimal equivalent.
KJV’s word for word formal equivalence of Heb 12:8 reads, "But if ye be without chastisement..., then are ye bastards, and not sons." Few of us would otherwise use the somewhat crass word.
While the formal equivalence translations are not the best for general reading or for scripture memory, they are extremely helpful in doing detailed exegetical work.
www.freebaptist.net /modules/soapbox/article.php?articleID=14&com_id=182&com_rootid=182&   (2318 words)

 Bible Version Tool: the Best Bible Translation for You   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Bible translations can vary from extremely dynamic or functional, that is using a thought by thought method of translation, to quite formal or literal, and their name may or may not reflect it.
Formality refers to how closely a translation follows the grammatical forms and wording of the source language.
Though the NIV is a little less formal than I like when I need to do words studies (each Hebrew or Greek word has too many possibilities as a rendering), the availability of excellent tools based on it makes is a good possibility for Bible study.
energion.com /books/bibles/eneversion.php   (1382 words)

 Bible Versions Overview (Energion Bookshelf
Formal equivalence translation refers to the effort to translate as closely as possible to the words and forms of the source language.
Since this is not possible with any language, formal equivalence is not an absolute goal.
I distinguish Bibles which tend to balance between idiomatic renderings and formal equivalency from either of the extremes.
energion.com /books/bibles/version_notes.shtml   (2479 words)

 Table of Contents   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The sense of formal equivalence here is that the inputs and outputs of the UM can be decoded in a uniform way as the inputs and outputs of the machine being simulated.
More precisely a computer could compute a formally equivalent function, which means that in principle it can be made to exhibit the same input-output behavior as that of a specified function.
Second, the formal symbol structures mirror all the relevant semantic distinctions to which the system is supposed to respond, and continue to do so when certain semantically interpreted rules are applied to them, transforming them into new symbol structures.
ruccs.rutgers.edu /seminar/spring99/wwwboard/bk3.html   (18234 words)

 BibleGateway.com Version information: Holman Christian Standard Bible
Formal Equivalence: Often called "word for word" translation, formal equivalence seeks to represent each word of the original text with a corresponding word in the translation so that the reader can see word for word what the original human author wrote.
A formal equivalence translation is good to the extent that its words accurately convey the meaning of the original words.
Dynamic Equivalence: Often called "thought for thought" translation, dynamic equivalence seeks to translate the meaning of biblical words so the text makes the same impact on modern readers that the ancient text made on its original readers.
bible.gospelcom.net /versions/index.php?action=getVersionInfo&vid=77   (5132 words)

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