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Topic: Formal language

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  Formal language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The sense of formal language dealt with in this article is the precise sense studied in formal language theory.
A typical language over that alphabet, containing that string, would be the set of all strings which contain the same number of symbols a and b.
A question often asked about formal languages is "how difficult is it to decide whether a given word belongs to the language?" This is the domain of computability theory and complexity theory.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Formal_language   (512 words)

 Formal Language Definitions
L(G) is the notation for a language defined by a grammar G. The grammar G recognizes a certain set of strings, thus a language.
L = L1 intersect L2 The complement of a language is a language.
The language class P is the set of languages for which there exists a deterministic Turing machine that accepts each language in a number of transitions bounded by a fixed polynomial in the length of the input string.
www.csee.umbc.edu /help/theory/lang_def.shtml   (1263 words)

 Specification language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A specification language is a formal language used in computer science.
Unlike most programming languages, which are directly executable formal languages used to implement a system, specification languages are used during system analysis, requirements analysis and design.
The result of such a refinement process is an executable algorithm, which is either formulated in a programming language, or in an executable subset of the specification language at hand.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Specification_language   (219 words)

 Formal Methods - Definition and Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Thus, either the formal language associated with a method permits a system to be described by at least two levels of abstraction or two languages are provided for describing a specification and its implementation.
The concept of formalism in formal methods is borrowed from certain trends in 19th and 20th century mathematics.
Formal proofs can show with certainty, subject to mistakes in calculation, that given certain assumptions, a program is a correct implementation of a specification.
www.dacs.dtic.mil /techs/fmreview/definition.html   (3882 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Posted October 1, 2001 Guidelines for the use of formal languages in IETF specifications ----------------------------------------------------------------- This temporary guideline has been prepared by the IESG in response to a specific case; it is intended that it be put into an internet-draft and progressed as an IETF consensus position.
Formal languages ---------------- When a specification makes use of a formal language, such as C, ASN.1, SMI, ABNF, UML or MOF, there are a number of considerations: - The use of a language requires a reference to the specification for that language.
Their syntactic and semantic properties need to be known to any implementor of the specification; therefore, stability of reference is as important as for the language itself, and accessibility of the specification is a primary concern.
www.ietf.org /IESG/STATEMENTS/pseudo-code-in-specs.txt   (651 words)

 Formal Systems and a Language of Thought
The explicit idea of a formal system is pretty much an intellectual product of this century, but Leibniz uses areas of mathematics as examples of what he has in mind.
The interest in the idea of a formal system arises from the intuition that there is a kind of "language of thought." Indeed, a naive assumption is that the language of thought is determined by the natural language that we have learned as a child.
A formal system consists first of all of a set of things, usually we think of this set of things as a set of symbols.
www.rci.rutgers.edu /~cfs/305_html/Intro/Ideas_Syntax.html   (1234 words)

 Peter Suber, "Sample Formal System S"
It would fulfill the formal system assignment except that it does not prove as many theorems or metatheorems as I want you to prove, and it lacks an intended interpretation.
Note that the metatheorems are stated in the metalanguage, not in the formal language, and are proved with metatheoretic reasoning, not necessarily with the forms of reasoning represented by the system's rules of inference.
You may know that formal systems and programs are isomorphic, and you may know how to program your idea, but don't underestimate the difficulty of finding the formal system that is isomorphic to the program you have in mind.
www.earlham.edu /~peters/courses/logsys/sys-xmpl.htm   (2131 words)

 LILT:Formal/Informal language
Formality of language varies in relation to such factors as public v.
The ability to vary your language according to the situation is often considered a mark of an educated person (see Appropriateness).
At its most extreme, formal language is signalled by complex, complete sentences, impersonality, avoidance of colloquial or slang vocabulary, and a consistent preference for ‘learned’ words, often derived from Latin.
www.arts.gla.ac.uk /SESLL/EngLang/LILT/forminf.htm   (175 words)

 Formal Language Definitions
L(M) is the notation for a language defined by a machine M. The machine M accepts a certain set of strings, thus defines a language.
L(G) is the notation for a language defined by a grammar G. The grammar G recognizes a certain set of strings, thus defines a language.
L = L1 ∩ L2 The complement of a language is a language.
cs.wwc.edu /~aabyan/CC2001/AL/lang_def.html   (1520 words)

 Chapter 1: The way of the program
For example, the notation that mathematicians use is a formal language that is particularly good at denoting relationships among numbers and symbols.
When you read a sentence in English or a statement in a formal language, you have to figure out what the structure of the sentence is (although in a natural language you do this subconsciously).
Formal languages are designed to be nearly or completely unambiguous, which means that any statement has exactly one meaning, regardless of context.
www.it.rit.edu /~pnm/tlap/chap01.htm   (1116 words)

 Formal language Info - Encyclopedia WikiWhat.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In mathematics, logic and computer science, a formal language is a set of finite-length words (or "strings") over some finite alphabet.
Use of a particular formal language in the sense intended here is an 'ultimate' version of that usage: formal enough to be used in written form for automatic computation, is a possible criterion.
A typical alphabet would be {a, b}, a typical string over that alphabet would be "ababba", and a typical language over that alphabet containing that string would be the set of all strings which contain the same number of a's as b's.
www.wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/f/fo/formal_language.html   (434 words)

 Aristotle's Formal Language
Modern specifications for a formal language can be constructed totally without regard for any use of that language; in such a construction, the tokens of the language are mentioned only.
The formal language which attempts to capture the portion of natural language with which Aristotle was interested is the predicate logic.
Aristotle begins his explication of a formal structure for language by saying what a name, a verb, a negation, an affirmation, a statement and a sentence are.
www.xenodochy.org /philosophy/aristotlefl.html   (3150 words)

 Monket :: Notes on Formal Language Design
A great deal of work has been done in Linguistics, Semiotics, Semantics, Computer Science, and Mathematics towards developing methods for analyzing the articulations of formal languages, describing their semantic fields, and the relationships between them, and producing translators and interpreters by which these languages may be given impetus to affect the world.
In which is described Natural and Formal Language, and in which the decision process of "Does a Formal Semantics exist for a language?" is given to distinguish between the two.
A language is balanced to the extent that the expected linguistic distance between two statements is proportional to the expected semantic distance.
monket.samedi-studios.com /articles/nold/print.html   (1629 words)

 Object Constraint Language (OCL)
Because OCL is a modeling language in the first place, not everything in it is promised to be directly executable.
The disadvantage of traditional formal languages is that they are useable to persons with a string mathematical background, but difficult for the average business or system modeler to use.
It is used within UML both to help formalize the semantics of the language itself, and to provide a facility for UML users to express precise constraints on the structure of models.
lcm.csa.iisc.ernet.in /soft_arch/OCL.htm   (877 words)

 IBM Research - Natural Language Processing - Speaker Bureau
Natural Language Understanding in a restricted domain can be posed as problem of selecting the most probable formal language sentence given the natural language utterance.
Language modeling deals with the estimation of the frequency of a given word given the preceding words in text.
In this talk, we present a history of the "smoothing" techniques studied in language modeling to estimate unseen event probabilities, and we discuss the impact of improved smoothing in language modeling on the tasks of text compression and speech recognition.
www.research.ibm.com /compsci/nlp/bureau.html   (889 words)

 FormalLanguageVsProse - ESW Wiki
When defining a language (such as XHTML), some requirements are defined in prose (in the case of W3C, in English) while others are defined using a formal specification.
Very often, too, there is an overlap between the 2 approaches ; that's especially the case in XML Languages where a DTD or an XML Schema can be used for 2 purposes : to define the syntactic requirements set by the language and/or to allow validating documents conforming to the said language.
Case 1 may lead to a situation where a document is said to be valid with regard to the formal language, while it is not conformant to the specification as described in the text, and vice versa for case 2.
esw.w3.org /topic/FormalLanguageVsProse   (454 words)

 [No title]
It is not a good idea to try to address all of these points of writing in the first draft.
     The cardinal characteristic of formal language is the careful thought given to all levels of language structure‑‑choice of individual words, structure of phrases, sentences and paragraphs, relationships among paragraphs, and the structure of the whole document.
Formal language is not flowery, indirect, fancy, nor is it wise to use long words, rare words, etc. Using big words won’t make you look smart, it will just make you look like you’re trying to look smart (not a good thing).
www.uni.edu /harton/formal.html   (483 words)

 The UVic Writer's Guide: Levels Of Usage
Language is sometimes rather arbitrarily divided into three major styles: formal, informal, and popular (vulgar).
Formal language tends to be impersonal and precise, and often uses long, carefully constructed sentences; the formal writer will avoid contractions and abbreviations, and will use a more specialized and complex vocabulary than that employed in everyday speech.
Informal language is not necessarily inferior to formal; it simply serves a different purpose and is directed to a different audience.
web.uvic.ca /wguide/Pages/SentLevsUsage.html   (588 words)

 The formal approach to meaning
Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of analytical techniques from logic.[1] The first, background, section of the paper will survey the changing attitudes of linguists toward semantics into the last third of the century.
The formal languages of logic are strongly compositional, which means that expressions of a given syntactic category all receive the same type of interpretation and contribute in the same way to the interpretation of larger expressions of which they form a part.
Tarski proposed as a minimal condition on the adequacy of the semantic rules for a language, that they should allow the derivation (that is, the proof, in the logical sense) of the correct T-sentences for all the sentences of the object language.
www.msu.edu /user/abbottb/formal.htm   (7353 words)

 Arpa Active Networks Project   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A wide-spectrum formal framework can also offer a good mathematical basis on which to develop the new security models and proof techniques that will be needed for secure active networks.
Our goal is to provide the active networks architecture with a formal language technology that will be an ideal match for its design and specification needs, will allow formal transformation of those specifications into mobile code and will support formal verification of security properties.
Formal Specification and Analysis of RBP in Maude (slides for ActiveNets Demo Presentation, September 1999)
www-formal.stanford.edu /clt/ArpaActive   (389 words)

 Peter Suber, "Formal Systems and Machines"
A computer is an instantiation of a formal system, and a formal system is an idealization of a computer.
In logical terms, this is to generate theorems from axioms by means of rules of inference when the axioms and theorems are expressed as wffs of symbols of the formal language of the system.
From this point of view you can look forward to Gödel's incompleteness theorem and the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem: the first showed that formalizations or simulations of a certain strength always capture less than their intended interpretation, and the second showed they are importantly ambiguous and always capture more than their intended interpretation.
www.earlham.edu /~peters/courses/logsys/machines.htm   (695 words)

 [No title]
Workshop: GRAMMAR SYSTEMS: A FORMAL LANGUAGE THEORETIC MULTI-AGENT ARCHITECTURE To be held at the 9th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL'99), Bergen, Norway, June 12, 1999.
Scope: The theory of grammar systems is a recent branch of formal language theory intending to model complex distributed systems.
In traditional formal language theory, a language is usually generated by one grammar.
coleweb.dc.fi.udc.es /cole/cfp/GS-99   (440 words)

 Formal Specification of an Active Networks Programming Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A particularly interesting paradigm is supported by the active network programming language PLAN, which has been developped and implemented by the group of Carl A. Gunter at the University of Pennsylvania.
It is based on a functional programming language with a concept of location and remote function invocation, which is quite different from the remote procedure calls known from conventional languages.
On the other hand, the formal specification is intuitive, easy to understand and can serve as a useful guide for application programmers and language implementors.
www-formal.stanford.edu /clt/plan.html   (586 words)

 [No title]
I. Formal Language as Language Distilled A. Introduction 1.
I hope to inform you of the nature of formal language, recount some of its history, convince you of its relevance...
the "native language" of machines is a sequence of simple instructions; realistic human usage required the development of more abstract, structured language 4.
www.willamette.edu /~fruehr/talks/ling/langdist   (888 words)

 LiveScience.com - Study: Instant Messaging is Surprisingly Formal :-)
But a recent study of IM-ing by college students found that the communication was more formal — in use of vocabulary and abbreviations — than might be expected in a speech-like medium.
She thinks the more writing-like style found in her data may be because the average college student — as opposed to the average teenager — is less concerned with appearing hip to his or her peers.
"Teenagers want to strut their language," Baron explained, whereas the typical young adult probably finds it takes too much effort to remember what the currently cool acronyms are, or how to make a particular emoticon.
www.livescience.com /technology/050301_internet_language.html   (746 words)

 Formal Methods Virtual Library
Formal methods are a fault avoidance technique that help in the reduction of errors introduced into a system, particularly at the earlier stages of design.
CSML and MCB, a language for compositional description of finite state machines and a (non-symbolic) model checker for CTL.
Formal Verification Methods and Tools from the VERIMAG research group, France.
www.afm.sbu.ac.uk   (1633 words)

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