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Topic: Fortification


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In the News (Tue 16 Apr 19)

  
  FDA/CFSAN Folic Acid Fact Sheet (1996) and FDA Consumer (1994)
These foods were chosen for fortification with folate because they are staple products for most of the U.S. population, and because they have a long history of being successful vehicles for improving nutrition to reduce the risk of classic nutrient deficiency diseases.
Because FDA has a mandate to set fortification levels that are safe for all population groups, lack of long term data makes it impossible to conclude that continuous intakes of 1 mg or more daily would be safe.
Iodine fortification was initiated in the U.S. in 1924 to prevent goiter, cretinism and other symptoms of severe iodine deficiency.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov /~dms/wh-folic.html   (3198 words)

  
  Food Fortification   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Fortification or enrichment is the addition of nutrients to processed foods at levels above the natural state.
Fortification level shall be appropriately presented on the label indicating number of servings per package, serving size by quantity, calories per serving, and nutrients added with corresponding amount expressed as % RDA per serving.
Food fortification is the addition of one or more essential nutrients to food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency with one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups.
www.fnri.dost.gov.ph /htm/fortific.htm   (877 words)

  
  Fortification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Field fortifications are extemporized by troops in the field, perhaps assisted by such local labor and tools as may be procurable and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth, brushwood and light timber.
Fortifications in the age of flpowder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire.
Steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries, however the advances in modern warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fortification   (1024 words)

  
 Medieval fortification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Medieval fortification is the military aspect of Medieval technology that covers the development of fortification construction and use in Europe roughly from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance.
During this millennium, fortifications changed warfare, and in turn were modified to suit new tactics, weapons and siege techniques.
A moat was a common addition to medieval fortifications, and the principal purpose (just as in antiquity) to make the walls harder to assail and increasing their effective height.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Medieval_fortification   (1089 words)

  
 fortification. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Fortification developed along two general lines: permanent sites built in peacetime, and emplacements and obstacles hastily constructed in the field in time of war.
However, with the breakdown of Roman authority and the increase in raids and incursions by invaders from the North and the East, fortification on the grand scale was largely replaced by local fortifications.
In fortifications of towers (roundels) connected by walls (curtains), there were areas that could not be covered by defensive fire from the towers.
www.bartleby.com /65/fo/fortific.html   (1011 words)

  
 Fortification information - Search.com
Field fortifications are extemporized by troops in the field, perhaps assisted by such local labor and tools as may be procurable and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth, brushwood and light timber.
Fortifications in the age of flpowder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire.
Fortifications also extended in depth, with protected batteries for defensive cannonry, to allow them to engage attacking cannon to keep them at a distance and prevent them bearing directly on the vulnerable walls.
www.search.com /reference/fortress   (1087 words)

  
 Folic Acid Fortification--Fact and Folly
Finally, and most importantly, fortification was felt to be the best way to insure that women of child-bearing age received supplementation in the months leading up pregnancy and in the critical window when a woman might not know that she was pregnant, but the neural tube was being established.
This would be the first highly significant food fortification act since the 1940s and many of the subcommittee members were aware that such action would be historic in the field of nutrition.
National enrichment and fortification efforts are public health initiatives undertaken only in light of significant scientific findings relating a specific vitamin deficiency to a specific disease condition.
www.fda.gov /oc/history/makinghistory/folicacid.html   (3631 words)

  
 fortification. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Fortification developed along two general lines: permanent sites built in peacetime, and emplacements and obstacles hastily constructed in the field in time of war.
However, with the breakdown of Roman authority and the increase in raids and incursions by invaders from the North and the East, fortification on the grand scale was largely replaced by local fortifications.
In fortifications of towers (roundels) connected by walls (curtains), there were areas that could not be covered by defensive fire from the towers.
www.bartelby.com /65/fo/fortific.html   (1011 words)

  
 Governments Committing "Public Health Malpractice" Over Flour Fortification | Daily Policy Digest | NCPA
Fortification could save as many lives as are lost each year in vehicle crashes, according to Professor Godfrey Oakley of Emory University.
Recent evidence indicates that fortification improves the lives of adults, including elderly people, and that it is safe.
In 1998 -- the year in which flour fortification was made mandatory in the United States -- deaths from stroke and heart attack declined by 3.4 percent.
www.ncpa.org /sub/dpd/index.php?page=article&Article_ID=6619   (220 words)

  
 BioMed Central | Full text | A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary ...
In order to determine intakes of naturally occurring folate (the form of the vitamin found naturally in foods) pre and post fortification, and dietary intakes of folic acid (the synthetic form of the vitamin) post fortification, a Willett food frequency dietary questionnaire [16] was administered to subjects during an in-person interview.
This level of fortification was estimated to increase the average daily intake of folic acid in women of childbearing age by about 100 μg [26].
The 78% (95% CI 65%–86%) reduction in the NTD rate after implementation of fortification is greater than the 18%–22% reduction predicted at current levels of fortification [27,28], and greater than the 19% reduction in birth prevalence of NTDs reported in the US after mandatory fortification [29].
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2393/4/20   (6260 words)

  
 Manual for Sugar Fortification with Vitamin A: Part 2   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Among the interventions available, food fortification is an accepted method of delivering micronutrients to the population at large and is widely practiced in developed countries.
Fortification of sugar with vitamin A is one of the safest, most efficacious, and most cost-effective interventions to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency.
In countries in which sugar fortification has been implemented, it has been determined that preschool children are able to get their daily basal requirements of vitamin A when the concentration of retinol in fortified sugar at the refinery is 15 µg/g.
www.jsi.com /intl/omni/sugr_pt2.htm   (5392 words)

  
 Manual for Sugar Fortification with Vitamin A: Part 1   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Establishing a food fortification program requires the existence of a technically developed food industry and a system of quality control and monitoring, which can guarantee that vitamin A is added correctly to the selected food(s) and does indeed improve the vitamin A status of the population.
For this group, fortification is unnecessary, but it would be more costly and complex to exclude them than applying the program "universally." When establishing the fortification level, care should be taken to ensure that the total retinol intake of all groups does not reach the upper limit of safety.
Estimate the fortification level that ensures that vitamin A needs are met for the group at the highest risk of deficiency and that, at the same time, will not result in excessive intakes for individuals having a high sugar intake.
www.jsi.com /intl/omni/sugr_pt1.htm   (11856 words)

  
 Fortification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
For other meanings of fort, fortress or fortification, see disambiguation page.
The art/science of laying siege to a fortification and of destroying it has the popular name of siegecraft and the formal name of.
Fortification is usually divided into two branches, namely and.
www.dunedin.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Fortress   (398 words)

  
 The Geometry of War: Essay
It was in the sixteenth century that cannon came to be used in large numbers and their effect became critical to the outcome of military engagements; in the same period the geometry of war became a major branch of practical mathematics.
With the acceptance that aspects of warfare were amenable to geometry, the association could be used to justify a group of mathematical problems that in practice would remain confined, for the great majority of readers, to textbook instruction.
Both gunnery and fortification become established in general encyclopaedic works aimed at the gentle market, and polygonal scales are included in a conventional way on a variety of instruments whose links to professional military surveying seem implausible.
www.mhs.ox.ac.uk /geometry/essay.htm   (3457 words)

  
 Folic acid fortification may be linked to decrease in stroke deaths
DALLAS, March 14 – Folic acid fortification of enriched grain products — a requirement in the United States and Canada to reduce neural tube defects — might also be linked to a significant decrease in stroke deaths, according to a report in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.
U.S.  average annual rate of decline in stroke-related death rates among whites in all age and sex groups was less than 1 percent before fortification and greater than 2.7 percent after fortification.
The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that folic acid fortification of enriched grain products might contribute to significant reductions in stroke deaths; however, data from this kind of epidemiology study cannot prove the drop in deaths is directly linked to fortification and homocysteine levels, Yang said.
www.americanheart.org /presenter.jhtml?identifier=3038285   (762 words)

  
 food : composition : fortification
often, this kind of food fortification consists primarily of replacing, or enhancing quantities of vitamins and minerals that disappear from the food product during preparation or distribution.
The contributions of B vitamins in enriched cereal products to the eradications of beri beri, pellagra, and ariboflavinosis; of iodized salt to goiter; and of vitamin D-fortified milk to rickets are strong testimony to the importance of enriching and fortifying foods.
RDAs, which largely determine the ceilings for vitamin and mineral fortification, cater to a particularly broad vision of health and save the state some health care costs by introducing some small measure of preventative care.
www.links.net /vita/swat/course/thesis/food/composition/fortification.html   (1134 words)

  
 Security Fortification
Fortification is the addition of packages to improve security.
Fortification frequently will discard a supplied component in preference to a carefully chosen added component.
Of the many fortification suggestions made in this lecture, virus scanners are probably the most universally experienced item.
www.cs.wright.edu /~pmateti/InternetSecurity/Lectures/Fortification   (1137 words)

  
 International Regulatory Update - Update on South African Grain Fortification
South Africa’s proposed grain fortification programme is in the advanced stages of planning, and while it could significantly impact on the well being of South Africa’s population, there are some thorny issues to resolve.
Compulsory fortification, explains Zunckel, has never been legislated in this country, but regulations have existed since 1979 (Regulation No R2839, 21 Dec. 1979) on minimum levels of fortification allowable to permit the marketing of a maize meal as enriched, which specified only riboflavin and nicotinamide.
The fortification programme is thus ‘on track’ albeit moving slower than its proponents might prefer.
www.worldfoodscience.org /cms?pid=1001016   (844 words)

  
 fortification
fortification: Rise of Field Fortifications - Rise of Field Fortifications At the beginning of World War II, the Maginot Line was quickly...
fortification: Effect of Artillery - Effect of Artillery The development of artillery in the 15th cent.
fortification: Development of Fortress Chains - Development of Fortress Chains On the American frontier semipermanent forts and stockades were...
www.factmonster.com /ce6/history/A0819245.html   (141 words)

  
 Delaying folic acid fortification of flour -- Oakley 324 (7350): 1348 -- BMJ
Recent evidence indicates that fortification improved the lives of adults.
Although fortification of flour is long overdue in the United Kingdom and the remainder of Europe, on 9 May 2002, the UK Board
Folic acid fortification of flour is one of those rare opportunities.
bmj.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/324/7350/1348   (1142 words)

  
 Mesoamerican Fortifications and the Book of Mormon
Further, the discoveries of ancient fortifications that fueled the paradigm shift are remarkably consistent with descriptions of fortifications given in the Book of Mormon.
Together, the evidence about ancient warfare and fortifications in Mesoamerica strengthens the case for the plausibility of the Book of Mormon as an ancient text.
Accurately describing ancient fortifications in Mesoamerica is just one tiny part of the military mosaic that reflects ancient authorship of the Book of Mormon.
www.jefflindsay.com /BForts.shtml   (2610 words)

  
 Press Releases: West Africa, Côte d’Ivoire launches national food fortification project to combat vitamin and ...
The public-private-partnership project involves fortification of palm and cottonseed vegetable oils with vitamin A, and fortification of wheat flour with iron and folic acid, and is included in Côte d'Ivoire's national micronutrient deficiency control program.
The project aims to achieve fortification of all vegetable oil and wheat flour produced in the country by the end of the three-year project, which should provide 50 percent of a person's daily needs for vitamin A and 30 percent for iron and folic acid.
The official launch of the Côte d'Ivoire national food fortification project was hosted by the President of the National Fortification Alliance, Minister Dr. Albert Toikeusse Mabri, and was attended by GAIN Senior Portfolio Manager Françoise Chomé and Mr.
www.reliefweb.int /rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/VBOL-6EXJ5X?OpenDocument   (1016 words)

  
 REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE FORTIFICATION IN FOOD AID PROGRAMMES   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Discussion of food fortification in the context of food aid programmes was based on the working paper 'Requirements for Effective Fortification in Food Aid Programmes' (CONFORT 6) which has been attached as Annex 6, for clarity.
Fortification of food aid for displaced persons and refugees was endorsed at the ICN in the World Plan of Action for Nutrition, which included the following recommendation:
There are several challenges to achieving effective fortification in the context of food aid programmes which include: varying uses of a given fortified commodity, and; varying fortification and enrichment policies and practices by donor countries.
www.fao.org /docrep/W2840E/w2840e06.htm   (504 words)

  
 CWFFW: Fortification Library: Digitized Nineteenth Century Texts On The Art And Science Of War And Military Engineering
The Civil War Field Fortifications Website Fortification Library provides a miscellaneous selection of scanned nineteenth century texts concerning Field Fortification, Military Engineering in general, the Art and Science of War, and other useful subjects that are intended as a primer for those more or less interested in pursuing a more thorough study of these subjects.
Introductory Essay to the Study of Fortification for Young Officers of the Army.
Wheeler, J. The Elements of Field Fortifications for the Use of the Cadets of the United States Military Academy at West Point, N. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1882.
civilwarfortifications.com /library/library.html   (2025 words)

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