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Topic: Fortis and lenis

  Fortis and lenis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fortis (from Latin fortis "strong") and lenis (from Latin lenis "weak") are linguistics terms.
In a narrow sense, fortis refer to consonants such as p, t pronounced with tenseness (more muscular tension) and lenis to consonants such as b, d pronounced without.
The tenseness is the feature that distinguishes fortis and lenis in the narrow sense: In the articulation of the fortis, more muscular energy is used.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fortis_(phonetics)   (423 words)

 Fortis and lenis
In Icelandic, for instance, both lenis and fortis stops (plosives) are unvoiced.
One of the effects of this phenomenon is that fortis consonants tend to shorten or 'clip' the sounds they follow (see clipping).
The fortis stops p,t,k are postaspirated (most authorities use the term "aspirated") when they occur at the beginning of stressed syllables.
www.hi.is /~peturk/KENNSLA/02/TOP/fortlen.html   (405 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
It is quite difficult to control the use of voice, and to start with the most important way to make a difference between the fortis and lenis plosives is to produce the fortis ones with more power and plosion than the lenis ones.
Technical definition /p/ is a fortis bilabial plosive /b/ is a lenis bilabial plosive (bilabial = two lips; plosive = with plosion) Spelling /p/ is always spelt with a 'p', and /b/ is always spelt with a 'b'.
Equally important is to remember that lenis /b/ doubles the length of the vowel in front of it.
webserv.nhl.nl /~borwell/cons1internet/start/week4.doc   (1161 words)

 Articles - Stop consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
In such cases the terms fortis is sometimed used for aspiration or gemination, while lenis is used for single, tenuis or voiced stops.
Beware, however, that the terms fortis and lenis are poorly defined, and their meanings vary from source to source.
A fortis stop (in the narrow sense) is produced with more muscular tension than a lenis stop (in the narrow sense).
www.ujug.com /articles/Plosive   (918 words)

 3aSC6. An acoustic and perceptual study of Swiss German stops.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Fortis occur after long vowels, long fortis after short vowels, and lenis after both.
Absence of voicing and lack of significant differences in voice onset times were noted, suggesting closure duration alone accounts for the three-way contrast: lenis are on average 57% shorter than fortis, and fortis 70% shorter than long fortis.
Using the minimal set [ra:de] (`spin'), [ra:te] (`guess') and [rat:e] (`rat'), the salience of preceding vowel length relative to closure duration was examined in two perceptual experiments: The lenis stop was lengthened in 20-ms increments to long fortis length, and the long fortis stop was shortened to lenis length.
www.auditory.org /asamtgs/asa97pen/3aSC/3aSC6.html   (213 words)

 Sound system in Vietnamese
Fortis stops in Vietnamese are voiceless /p t c k /, and voiced /b d/.
On the other hand, at the end of syllables they are about midway between the extremes of fortis and lenis.
They are fully voiced and about midway in relation to the extremes of lenis and fortis.
www.de-han.org /vietnam/chuliau/lunsoat/sound/2.htm   (618 words)

 All about Fortis and lenis - RecipeLand.com Reference library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
In a narrow sense, fortis refer to consonants such as p, t pronounced with articulatory strength and lenis to consonants such as b, d pronounced without articulatory strength.
The articulatory force is the feature that distinguishes fortis and lenis in the narrow sense: In the articulation of the fortis, more muscular energy is used, so they have a bigger articulatory force.
Even though this feature may be intuitive, it cannot be measured directly, although measuring acoustic energy may provide an approximation.
www.recipeland.com /encyclopaedia/index.php/Lenis   (368 words)

 Lojban Wiki : Proper Lojban Orthography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
What we have are, in fact, fortis and lenis stops and continuants at lips, teeth and somewhere back of the teeth/alveolum — call it the hard palate, against future reference.
Finally, there are a back fortis fricative, clearly behind the hard palate (conceptually), and what is technically a lenis vowel (its character depends on the vowels it comes between), which is treated as a continuant of indefinite — but unique — articulation.
Lenis is marked by a vertical stroke at the back (vocal cors in operation) and nasals by a tilde over the top — something above is open.
www.lojban.org /tiki/tiki-print.php?page=Proper+Lojban+Orthography   (1174 words)

 [conlang] Digest Number 4185
Fortis and lenis refer to the manner of articulation of consonants.
FORTIS - consonant sound made with a relatively strong degree of muscular effort and breath force.
LENIS - consonant sound made with relatively weak degree of muscular effort and breath force.
www.mail-archive.com /conlang@yahoogroups.com/msg00123.html   (5419 words)

 Fortis and lenis - Result for Fortis and lenis - Meaning of Fortis and lenis - Definition of Fortis and lenis - ...
Fortis and lenis - Result for Fortis and lenis - Meaning of Fortis and lenis - Definition of Fortis and lenis - Dictionary of Meaning - www.mauspfeil.net
In Korean language Korean, a higher fundamental frequency of the following vowels is thought to be a result of increased muscular tension in stop consonant.
There you find a list of all editors and the possibility to edit the original text of the article Fortis and lenis.
www.mauspfeil.net /Fortis_and_lenis.html   (480 words)

 The Ananagyu: a-Illiyar Nouns - talideon.com
Fortis verbs are characterised by having a fortis consonant cluster in them that changes with case.
In the case of nasal fortis, they are: mb, mp, nd, nt, ng, nk.
The genitive is characterised by assimilation of the cluster.
talideon.com /concultures/ananagyu/nouns.cfm?CFID=4137158&...   (300 words)

 Fortis - Wikipedia
Der Gegensatz zur Fortis ist die Lenis ( sanft, leise ; Pl.: Lenes).
In der hochdeutschen Lautung kann man jeden Konsonanten danach charakterisieren, wie stark der Druck des Phonationsstroms und wie hoch die Muskelspannung der an der Lautbildung beteiligten Sprechwerkzeuge ist.
Die zu [ b ] zugehörige Fortis ist [ p ], die zu [ p ] zugehörige Lenis ist [ b ].
de.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fortis   (448 words)

 SSILA-abstract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Based on the pioneering study by Jaeger (1983) I investigate the hypothesis that the basic phonetic specification of fortis-lenis in YZ is a differentiation in glottal width and glottal closure.
The acoustic analysis confirms the longer duration for fortis segments that was reported by Jaeger.
Additionally, I present EGG data and aerodynamic measurements supporting the claim that there is a greater air flow and a greater degree of abduction of the vocal folds during fortis consonants.
www.bol.ucla.edu /~avelino/SSILA.html   (253 words)

 [No title]
Most of the English consonants are arranged symmetrically into sets of fortis and lenis, terms that refer to the amount of muscular effort involved in their production.
The lenis series will be fully voiced when they occur between other voiced sounds (normally vowels); in initial and final position they will be partially voiced or completely voiceless.
There is an appreciable degree of aspiration associated with the presence of the fortis consonants /p, t, k/ at the beginning of stressed syllables.
thales.cica.es /rd/Recursos/rd98/Idiomas/01/third_PART.html   (473 words)

 Names as aids in the teaching of pronunciation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The distinction between fortis and lenis influences the pronunciation of the English -s suffix (plural, genitive, 3rd person singular) and the -ed suffix (past tense, past participle).
On the basis of this distinction between ‘weak’ and ‘strong’, the fortis consonant has been given a boy’s name and the lenis consonant a girl’s name.
Similarly if a student writes the past participle ‘gestapt’ with a in the mistaken belief that the /p/ is a lenis consonant, the teacher can remind him that Peter is a boy.
www.efa.nl /onderwijs/2000/phonetics/NAMESASA.htm   (1007 words)

 Fortis u Lenis - Alemannische Wikipedia
di artikulatorischi Chraft: stercheri Fortis vs. schwecheri Lenis (es isch aber umstritte, was die 'Chraft' genau söll sy).
Nöieri Untersuechige hei zeigt, das di alemannische Fortis meh als dopplet so läng duure wi di alemannische Lenis (z.B. i de Minimalpaar Schatte - Schade oder legge - lege).
Ussertäm hei di nideralemannische Dialäkte näbe der nid aschpirierte Fortis /k/ (gg) ou en aschpirierti Fortis /kh/, wo der Affrikate /kx/ (kch) us de hochalemanische Dialäkten entspricht.
als.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fortis_u_Lenis   (345 words)

 Classical briefscript   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The terms 'fortis' and 'lenis' are used rather than 'voiceless' and 'voiced' since the latter contrast did not seem adequate.
lenis : consonant is voiced and preferably, though not necessarily, pronounced with pre-nasalization.
The distinction between fortis and lenis consonants (still the same in BrScA as in 'Classical briefscript') is not entirely satisfactory.
home.freeuk.net /ray.brown/BrScA.html   (2467 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The final lenis /d(/ doubles the length of a previous vowel in stressed syllables.
Fortis /t(/ is made with more power and friction, and without vibrating vocal cords, whereas lenis /d(/ is pronounced more softly and with vibrating vocal cords.
They have no fortis or lenis forms; they are termed 'voiced' consonants.
webserv.nhl.nl /~borwell/cons1internet/start/week6.doc   (1249 words)

 [conlang] Digest Number 4184
Re: fortis vs lenis (was Re: German style orthography) From: "J. 'Mach' Wust" <[EMAIL PROTECTED]> 7.
Re: fortis vs lenis (was Re: German style orthography) From: Rene Uittenbogaard <[EMAIL PROTECTED]> 16.
I've even heard some people argue that voicing isn't the primary distinction in English (I can't remember what they were arguing was the primary distinction...), but I wasn't convinced that they weren't just being difficult.
www.mail-archive.com /conlang@yahoogroups.com/msg00120.html   (3685 words)

Zapotec languages have been described as making a contrast between fortis and lenis consonants in both obstruents and sonorants, but it seems that there is not a single phonetic feature accounting for the phonological contrast.
The results obtained indicate that the chief characteristic differentiating fortis and lenis consonants is length.
The results also indicate that the perception of the contour tone depends on a trajectory ranging from high to low frequencies in the perceptible space of the listener than an absolute magnitude of slope.
www.humnet.ucla.edu /humnet/linguistics/people/grads/havelino/YZ.html   (821 words)

 Anishinaabemowin Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The consonants in the second column are also typically said with greater muscular force, and are said to be fortis ( strong), as opposed to their partners, which are said to be lenis ( weak).
These three distinctions of voiceless and voiced, geminate and simple, and fortis versus lenis, are somewhat variable in their centrality to the speech of various speakers of Anishinaabemowin.
For many speakers, the voicing distinction is very prominent; for others, the length distinction is also prominent.
hum.lss.wisc.edu /~jrvalent/AIS/Grammar/Phonology/Phonol009.html   (336 words)

 LASSO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Additionally I will present electroglottographic results indicating that voicing is not significant in the opposition.
The results suggests that a greater air pressure is required in fortis sonorants in contrats with the correspodent lenis.
"Fortis and Lenis in Cajonos Zapotec Phonology", IJAL Vol.
www.bol.ucla.edu /~avelino/LASSO.html   (237 words)

 IPDS Kiel, Unveröffentlichtes - Kohler 1999, Plosive-related glottalization phenomena in read and spontaneous ...
` vowel - (fricative) fortis plosive - consonant ' (esp. nasal)
for lenis in nasal context of (1) also further progression to modal voice, e.g.
Frequencies of glottalization phenomena in the pattern `vowel - (fricative) fortis plosive - /
www.ipds.uni-kiel.de /pub_exx/kongrbtr/plosglot.html   (1811 words)

 Phonetic terminology and pronunciation
Fortis and lenis are similar to tense and lax: Fortis is more a more strongly exploded sound, and lenis is weaker.
English /t/ is fortis, while the French /t/ is lenis.
These terms are useful as in some languages, the idea of voiceless and voiced are not entirely appropriate.
www.languagegeek.com /roman/phonetics.html   (1297 words)

 [No title]
The stops (p, t, c, b, d, g) have fortis and lenis allophones.
The lenis allophones occur between vowels, semivowels and liquids, the fortis allophones in all other environments.
The phonemes ph, th and ch, while phonetically fricatives, phonologically behave like stops, and probably were aspirated stops in an earlier stage of the language.
listserv.brown.edu /archives/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0406c&L=conlang&F=&S=&P=47209   (819 words)

 ☆ www.Michael-Forman.com ☆ SAMPA for English   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
They are better considered "fortis" (strong) and "lenis" (weak), with duration of constriction and intensity of the noise component signalling the distinction.
The "lenis" stops are most reliably voiced intervocalically; aspiration duration following the release in the fortis stops varies considerably with context, being practically absent following /
Intervocalically the lenis fricatives are usually fully voiced, and they are often weakened to approximants (fricationless continuants) in unstressed position.
www.michael-forman.com /language/sampa-en.html   (520 words)

The alveolar stops occur as a pair, i.e.
The fortis stop /t/ is never voiced, and there is generally a devoicing of the lenis sound as well when it is not surrounded by other voiced sounds.
The lenis stop will generally have a marked lengthening effect on the preceding sound(s).
home.hib.no /AL/engelsk/seksjon/SOFF-MASTER/stopsalv.htm   (102 words)

Long vowels are marked with a length mark.
However, vowels are considerably shorter in front of fortis consonants than in other positions.
In practice this means that a long vowel in front of a fortis consonant might be shorter than a short vowel in front of a lenis consonant.
home.hib.no /AL/engelsk/seksjon/SOFF-MASTER/Vowels.htm   (193 words)

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