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Topic: Fortran programming language

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  Fortran programming language
FORTRAN was developed in the 1950-s by a team of IBM programmers and released in 1957.
It was the first high level language, one in which the programmer did not have to directly deal with assembler or machine code (0's and 1's).
FORTRAN knew an implicit typing, that means that variable names beginning with I, J, K, L, M, N were always integer and the rest were reals.
www.thocp.net /software/languages/fortran.htm   (581 words)

  Fortran - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fortran III was designed in 1958, allowing for inline assembler code; but it was never released because the portability concept of a high-level language would be lost.
Fortran 90 was a major revision, adding free source form, dynamic memory allocation, array operations, abstract data types, operator overloading, pointers, and modules to group related procedures and data together.
Fortran 95 was a minor revision, adding features for parallel programming from the High Performance Fortran dialect, such as user-defined pure and elemental functions, and the forall construct.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/FORTRAN_programming_language   (1498 words)

 Functional programming - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A much-improved functional programming language was LISP, developed by John McCarthy while at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the IBM 700/7000 series scientific computers in the late 1950s.
Furthermore, functional programming languages are likely to enforce referential transparency, which is the familiar notion that 'equals can be substituted for equals': if two expressions are defined to have equal values, then one can be substituted for the other in any larger expression without affecting the result of the computation.
For programs which spend most of their time doing numerical computations, some functional languages (such as OCaml and Clean) can approach C speed, while for programs that handle large matrices and multidimensional databases, array functional languages (such as J and K) are usually faster than most non-optimized C programs.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /functional_programming.htm   (1765 words)

 The FORTRAN Programming Language, FORmula TRANslation, 1957   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
This language became so popular in the early 1960s that other vendors started to produce their own versions and this led to a growing divergence of dialects (by 1963 there were 40 different compilers).
FORTRAN is generally the preferred spelling for discussions of versions of the language prior to the current one ("90").
FORTRAN vs. generic Fortran to mean all versions of the standard, and specifically the modern dialect, ISO 1539:1991).
bugclub.org /beginners/languages/fortran.html   (111 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Fortran 90 Language Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Fortran is one of the most widely used programming languages in science and engineering with around 15% of code worldwide being written in Fortran.
Fortran 90 Language Guide is designed to appeal directly to programmers, demonstrating the many features of the language which are new to this version - including those which support object-oriented programming and high-performance computing.
Fortran 90 allows programmers to write code faster, make it more legible and easily maintainable, and avoid many of the bugs that used to be typical to Fortran programs.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/3540199268?v=glance   (618 words)

 Programming in FORTRAN   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In 1966 the language was standardized and FORTRAN IV was born.
For the past 30 years FORTRAN has been used for such projects as the design of bridges and aeroplane structures, it is used for factory automation control, for storm drainage design, analysis of scientific data and so on.
These programs can be borrowed and used by other people who wish to take advantage of the expertise and experience of the authors, in a similar way in which a book is borrowed from a library.
www.chem.ox.ac.uk /fortran/fortran1.html   (191 words)

 CSC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Fortran was also the first programming language to be standardized.
This is due to the general developments in the theory and practice of programming languages in the 1970's and 1980's.
The High-Performance Fortran (HPF) language is a data-parallel extension to the Fortran 90 programming language.
www.csc.fi /math_topics/Publ/f90.html   (2241 words)

 The FORTRAN Programming Language
One of the oldest programming languages, the FORTRAN was developed by a team of programmers at IBM led by John Backus, and was first published in 1957.
Since FORTRAN was so much easier to code, programmers were able to write programs 500% faster than before, while execution efficiency was only reduced by 20%, this allowed them to focus more on the problem solving aspects of a problem, and less on coding.
FORTRAN was so innovative not only because it was the first high-level language, but also because of it's compiler, which is credited as giving rise to the branch of computer science now known as compiler theory.
www.engin.umd.umich.edu /CIS/course.des/cis400/fortran/fortran.html   (976 words)

 Fortran : Fortran programming language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Fortran (also FORTRAN) is a programming language originally developed in the 1950s and still in use today.
Fortran is mainly used for scientific computing[?] and numerical analysis.
The first FORTRAN compiler was developed for the IBM 704 in 1954-57 by an IBM team led by John W. Backus.
www.city-search.org /fo/fortran-programming-language.html   (1027 words)

 F77 - latest version of the Fortran programming language.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The name Fortran was derived from the original reference to a computer language as a "FORmula TRANslator", and was designed to permit the statement of a problem in terms that closely resemble mathematical notation.
Programs can be developed for eventual use in the batch environment with the convenience of the interactive time sharing environment, and, after debugging is complete, they can be submitted to batch without concern for time sharing/batch language incompatibilities.
A collection of source programs can be compiled, some through Time Sharing, some through batch, and the object modules plus run-time packages combined for execution in either environment.
www.thinkage.on.ca /english/gcos/expl/f77/expl.html   (209 words)

 Java Technology
Filthy Rich Clients, a new book by Chet Haase and Romain Guy, is now available.
Take Java Programming Language (SL-275-SE6) and the practice exam.
Take Fundamentals of the Java Programming Language (SL-110) before attempting the Java Programming Language course.
java.sun.com   (414 words)

 What is programming language? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Assembly languages are similar to machine languages, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers.
For example, FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data, but it does not lend itself very well to organizing large programs.
The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise of the programmer.
www.webopedia.com /TERM/p/programming_language.html   (681 words)

 Language Reference - FORTRAN   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
FORTRAN is usually credited, Knuth and Pardo in 1977 credit Alick E. Glennie for his Autocode compiler for the Manchester I computer in 1952.
FORTRAN included many features that were specific to the IBM 704, the first computer on which it was implemented.
For many years, FORTRAN dominated programming, and was described as the lingua franca, or common tongue, for computer programmers.
www.isi.edu /~iko/pl/hw3_fortran.html   (214 words)

 Object Oriented Fortran 90 Programming
Fortran 90 is a modern language that introduces many important new features beneficial for scientific programming.
While Fortran 90 is not a full object-oriented language it can directly support many of the important concepts of such languages including abstract data types, encapsulation, function overloading, and classes.
This allows experienced Fortran 77 programmers to modernize their software, making it easier to understand, modify, share, explain, and extend based on the benefits modern programming principles provide.
www.cs.rpi.edu /~szymansk/oof90.html   (453 words)

 Fortran FAQ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Building on the well-established strengths of the Fortran family of languages, it is carefully crafted to be both safe and regular, whilst retaining the enormously powerful numerical capabilities of its parent language, Fortran 90, as well as its data abstraction capability.
F is ideally suited for teaching as a first programming language, and provides a smooth path into both Fortran 90 and High Performance Fortran (it is a subset of both).
For a newcomer to programming, it is an opportunity to learn a modern language, with most recommended features, and yet to be in line with scientific and industrial engineering communities where Fortran is and is going to remain for a good while THE favourite language.
www.faqs.org /faqs/fortran-faq   (10266 words)

 Standard Fortran Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A language standard specifies the form and establishes the interpretation of programs expressed in the language.
Although a language standard seeks to define the form and the interpretation uniquely, a standard might not cover all areas of interpretation.
You need to carefully craft your program in these cases so that you get the answers that you want when producing a portable program.
h18000.www1.hp.com /fortran/docs/vf-html/pg/pgystfor.htm   (288 words)

 Fortran M: A Language for Modular Parallel Programming
Fortran M is a small set of extensions to Fortran 77 that supports a modular approach to the design of message-passing programs.
Programs are constructed by using explicitly-declared communication channels to plug together program modules called processes.
The parallel code is based on a sequential Fortran program, and uses FM to implement a fairly simple communication structure.
softlib.rice.edu /fortran_M.html   (337 words)

 Computer Programming [encyclopedia]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Programs can be built into the hardware itself, or they may exist independently in a form known as software.
Compiled programs written in languages such as FORTRAN and C or C++ aren't directly executable by a computer; they are translated into lower-level machine language by compilers and then are executed directly by the hardware.
Object-oriented programming is a method of implementation in which programs are organized as cooperative collections of objects, each of which represents an instance of some class, and whose classes are all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance relationship.
kosmoi.com /programming   (602 words)

 FORTRAN - A Programming Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
FORTRAN is a powerful program language that allows you to perform numerical calculations at an incredibly high speed.
To write a program using FORTRAN you prepare your FORTRAN code, which consists of sequence of instructions using the commands and syntax of the FORTRAN language, using a text editor.
While programs written in FORTRAN are in principle portable between various machines, provided they have a FORTRAN compiler, many compilers contain extensions to the standard FORTRAN 77, which allow one to take advantage of particular aspects of the architecture.
www.physics.mun.ca /MUNPhys/UNIX/Resources/Languages/FORTRAN.html   (544 words)

 Preface   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
This manual is intended for experienced applications programmers who have a basic understanding of Fortran concepts and the Fortran 90 language, and are using DIGITAL Fortran in either a single-platform or multiplatform environment.
Appendix B describes some statements and language features supported for programs written in older versions of Fortran.
Fortran 90 Handbook by J. Adams, W. Brainerd, J. Martin, B. Smith, and J. Wagener; published by Intertext Publications (McGraw-Hill), ISBN 0-07-000406-4.
nimbus.temple.edu /df90au51/lrm0001.htm   (1623 words)

 FORTRAN Computer Programming Language
FORTRAN is one of the two earliest "high-level" computer languages for computer careers.
Fortran is not a beginner’s language, although QBasic was based on it in some ways.
FORTRAN has improved over the years and is still popular with scientists, though it’s lost some ground to PL/I, Pascal, C and C++.
www.inforingpress.com /computer_information/fortran.htm   (530 words)

 Vision Engineer - FORTRAN Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
FORmula TRANslator, or FORTRAN for short, is a computer programming language that is commonly used for numerical analysis.
FORTRAN compilers, which convert the programming code into programs that can be run, are being developed by many software vendors.
The FORTRAN language was originally developed in the 1950s, but has been updated several times over the years.
www.visionengineer.com /comp/fortran.shtml   (297 words)

 Task Parallelism and Fortran
Much of this work is performed in the context of Fortran, but many of the techniques apply equally to other languages.
High Performance Fortran (HPF) provides a convenient syntax for specifying data-parallel execution, but does not at present allow programmers to write task-parallel programs in which different tasks perform different activities at the same time.
Fortran~M is a small set of extensions to Fortran that supports a modular approach to the construction of sequential and parallel programs.
www.mcs.anl.gov /fortran-m/FM.html   (533 words)

 Free Fortran Compilers and Interpreters (thefreecountry.com)
Just because a program, book or service is listed here or has a good review does not mean that I endorse or approve of the program or of any of its contents.
LCC-Win32 is primarily a free C compiler and its programming environment for Win32, but it also appears to have a Fortran compiler available for download from their website.
It apparently compiles Fortran 77 code (with some common extensions) to C which is subsequently compiled by the C compiler to generate a Win32 native executable.
www.thefreecountry.com /compilers/fortran.shtml   (999 words)

 Fortran Tutorials   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Some course notes on the fundementals of Fortran developed at Michigan Technical University may be found at http://www.csl.mtu.edu/cs2911/www/ At the site, you can access the course notes, a short FAQ, some sample exams, and programming assignments.
A tutorial on the transition from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90 by Bo Einarsson and Yuriy Shokin.
Fortran 90 course material is available from the Manchester Computer Centre.
www.fortran.com /fortran/tutorials.html   (289 words)

 Open Directory - Computers: Programming: Languages: Fortran   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Cloudy's Journey from FORTRAN to C, Why and How - Article describing why the Cloudy astronomy program was converted from Fortran to C. Co-Array Fortran - Small extension to Fortran 95 providing an explicit notation for data decomposition, such as that often used in message-passing models.
Fortran Forum - Addresses the Fortran language, its uses, profitability, standardization, further evolution, and the implementation of Fortran compilers.
Object-Oriented Programming in Fortran 2000 - Essay by Werner W. Schulz opining on how object orientation and genericity should be added to Fortran.
dmoz.org /Computers/Programming/Languages/Fortran   (644 words)

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