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Topic: Forward osmosis

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  Osmosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Osmosis is the net movement of water through a selective permeable membrane from a region of low solute potential to a region of high solute potential (or equivalently, from a region of high solvent potential to a region of low solvent potential).
Osmosis is an important topic in biology because it provides the primary means by which water is transported into and out of cells.
Forward osmosis is an area of ongoing research, focusing on applications in desalination, water purification, water treatment, and food processing.
www.1bx.com /en/Osmosis.htm   (1001 words)

 Osmosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
'''Osmosis''' is the diffusion of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration.
Computer simulation of process of Osmosis Osmosis is an important topic in biology because it provides the primary means by which water is transported into and out of cells.
Sometimes the term "forward osmosis" is used for osmosis, particularly When used for rehydrating dried food using contaminated water.
osmosis.iqnaut.net   (855 words)

 osmosis - Information from Reference.com
Osmosis will occur if a vessel is separated into two compartments by a semipermeable membrane, both compartments are filled to the same level with a solvent, and solute is added to one side.
Osmosis and dialysis are of prime importance in living organisms, where they influence the distribution of nutrients and the release of metabolic waste products.
In plants osmosis is at least partially responsible for the absorption of soil water by root hairs and for the elevation of the liquid to the leaves of the plant.
www.reference.com /search?q=osmosis   (1894 words)

 Forward osmosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Forward Osmosis is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis, uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved solutes.
In contrast, the reverse osmosis process uses hydraulic pressure as the driving force for separation, which serves to counteract the osmotic pressure gradient that would otherwise favor water flux from the permeate to the feed.
An additional distinction between the reverse osmosis (RO) and forward osmosis (FO) processes is that the water permeating the RO process is in most cases fresh water ready for use.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Forward_osmosis   (1211 words)

 Water desalination takes a step forward
Reverse osmosis typically recovers 35–50% of the volume of seawater as freshwater, with a leftover brine concentrate.
At present, some companies are developing forward osmosis systems to treat wastewater and to clean leachate from landfills.
The researchers will have to be careful to ensure that most of the NH used in the forward osmosis process is ultimately removed, because in order to be suitable for drinking, freshwater should contain <2 mg-NH /L, Trussell says.
pubs.acs.org /subscribe/journals/esthag/40/i11/html/060106tech.html   (968 words)

 NAMS 2006: Program
Sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants is most often anaerobically digested for further degradation of the recalcitrant organic solids and for stabilization of the biosolids.
The objective of this study is to determine if forward osmosis (FO) is an effective way to reduce the volume of the centrate.
In FO an osmotic pressure gradient is used as the driving force to extract water from the raw wastewater, thereby reducing the volume and concentrating the waste stream.
www.che.utoledo.edu /nams/2006/viewpaper.cfm?ID=1524   (566 words)

 ES&T Online News: Water desalination takes a step forward
The pressure is needed to oppose the natural tendency of freshwater to move across such a membrane via osmosis to dilute the seawater.
This membrane is used to purify water for drinking, but it is “not optimized for seawater desalination.” Using this commercial system, the researchers removed 95–99% of the salt from the water moving across the membrane, producing 2.1–21.2 gallons of drinking water per square foot per day (gfd).
The researchers will have to be careful to ensure that most of the NH used in the forward osmosis process is ultimately removed, because in order to be suitable for drinking, freshwater should contain less than 2 milligrams of NH per liter, Trussell says.
pubs.acs.org /subscribe/journals/esthag-w/2006/may/tech/pp_desalination.html   (1023 words)

 Navigator Development Group, Inc   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Through the process of an advanced forward osmosis technique, these systems can remove bacteria, viruses and chemical poisons to supply drink during a crisis or in time of need.
HTI uses a process known as forward osmosis in the filtration systems.
Two of the products, which use forward osmosis are the HydroPack®, a hands-free hydration bag, and the HydroFlow Backpack System, which is incorporated into a CamelBak®, M.U.L.E.®, This backpack filter system provides clean fluid on demand through a bite tube for constant hydration.
www.ndgi.com /products/hydrotech.shtml   (485 words)

 TCS Daily - Just Add Water
It's a membrane that employs an advanced forward osmosis technique to remove bacteria, viruses, chemical poisons and other nasty stuff.
Forward osmosis is different from reverse osmosis, which uses hydraulic pressure to force liquid through a membrane.
With forward osmosis, you have no moving parts, and the pressure is what is called osmotic potential, which simply takes advantage of the natural tendency of any two substances to want to mix together when placed in contact.
www.tcsdaily.com /073103E.html   (800 words)

 [No title]
An analysis was done on the effectiveness of a dual stage leachate treatment site using six pass forward osmosis in the first stage and reverse osmosis in the second stage.
Reverse osmosis is based on the same principles as forward osmosis except the water is forced, under pressure, to pass through a semipermeable membrane from the high concentration NaCl solution into the low concentration pure water.
Samples of raw leachate, leachate after it has passed through the first forward osmosis step, leachate after it has passed through all six steps of the forward osmosis stage, and permeate after full treatment were drawn.
www.chem.orst.edu /courses/ch361-464/ch461/461specproj.htm   (1882 words)

 Reverse osmosis moves forward.(Innovative Technologies) - Environmental Health Perspectives - HighBeam Research
As described in the 12 March 2004 issue of the Journal of Chromatography A, Joel Pedersen, an environmental chemist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and his colleagues used gas chromatography--mass spectrometry to look for 19 compounds in effluent samples collected from reclaimed wastewater plants in California.
"Large-scale reverse osmosis may not be economically feasible in some areas." Salts, contaminants, and biofilms can clog the pores of membranes, raising maintenance costs.
Moreover, "reverse osmosis membranes are not infallible," says Snyder.
www.highbeam.com /doc/1G1-136511508.html   (622 words)

 System Cleans Up Almost Any Water
The osmosis filtration process removes 99.9 percent of all bacteria and viruses, according to developer Hydration Technologies Inc. of Albany, Ore. The bags have been tested by Special Operations troops in Iraq and Afghanistan.
According to Darsch, the HydroPack works using "forward osmosis," a scientific principal that says molecules will always distribute themselves equally within a liquid, unless there's something preventing that.
The osmosis process is greatly enhanced by a powder made of electrolyte salts and sugar, which acts like a sponge to draw the hydrogen and oxygen molecules through the membrane wall and into a sterile chamber, while the contaminants are blocked.
www.military.com /NewContent/0,13190,SS_062104_Water,00.html   (968 words)

 RDECOM Magazine | in the field | TITLE
Drinking water can be purified using reverse osmosis, where it is forced by a powered pump through a semi-permeable membrane to remove contaminants from a solution within 15 minutes.
The same membranes are used in the self-hydrating pouch in a process called forward osmosis.
The prototype has the same multi-laminate foil used in the Meal, Ready-to-Eat, a resealable plastic zipper at the water intake side of the inner pouch and an outer membrane pouch holding the food or beverage.
www.rdecom.army.mil /rdemagazine/200408/itf_pouch.html   (652 words)

 Seapack - Portable Desalination Units - Sea Pack - Seapack Technology
Water is driven across the membrane, not by hydraulic pressure, but by osmotic pressure created by a standard sport drink syrup on the clean side of the membrane.
Unlike reverse osmosis pumps there are no complicated mechanical parts to break and no expensive filters to maintain.
The nominal pore size of the SeaPack forward osmosis membrane is 3-5 angstroms.
sea-pack.com /seapack-technology.html   (306 words)

 Reverse Osmosis Articles - Reverse Osmosis Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Anne Cuffe The number of gallons being flowed through water coolers has nearly doubled in the last half a decade, due to the growing concerns about the safe..
Forward thinking with Reverse Osmosis Christopher King Reverse Osmosis is a system of filtration that is highly effective at removing even the smallest particles from a liquid.
Steve Joseph When trying to understand the concept of reverse osmosis water filtration, it is important that one first understands what ordinary osmosis is. Osmosis is..
www.osmosis1.com /articles   (81 words)

 Virus Water Filter @ Survival Unlimited .com - No Pumping Required !! Emergency Water Filter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
It will not clog because it uses osmosis to filter the water and also pump as high as 20' into a clean container of your choice without any power.
This forward osmosis system holds many advantages over complex Reverse Osmosis systems that use hydraulic pressure to drive water through a filter by using natural osmotic processes that passively draw water through the membrane filter.
This is the perfect solution for the forward field hospital or remote medical clinic, where sterile fluids are required.
www.survivalunlimited.com /viruswaterfilter.htm   (1031 words)

 Forward Osmosis for Desalination
How it works is the flow-to side of the osmosis membrane contains a water solution that has been super saturated with ammonia and carbon dioxide, which then allows the salt water to pass through with little energy expended, leaving most of the salts on the other side.
The ammonia and carbon dioxide are then removed from the fresh water, with moderate heating, to be recycled into the next batch.
Net energy savings are considerable, as no high pressure is needed like in conventional reverse osmosis setups.
technocrat.net /d/2006/6/5/4124   (689 words)

 Senator Pete V. Domenici - Press Releases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The theory is that the electric field imposed for the electrodialysis process will disrupt the concentration polarization around the hollow fiber RO membranes thus lowering the effective osmotic barrier.
* Elimelech, Yale University, "Membrane Optimization to Maximize Fresh Water Recovery with a Novel Forward Osmosis Process" -- The goal is to test, optimize, and enhance the performance of forward osmosis as a desalination technique by use of a novel driving solute and module design to minimize concentration polarization.
It is desired to minimize the use of hazardous chemicals that must be shipped with portable desalination units.
domenici.senate.gov /news/printrecord.cfm?id=217381   (1185 words)

 The Warrior
Forward osmosis hydrates ration components from any available water source.
The prototype pouch is designed to take water from any available freshwater source—rivers, lakes, ponds or puddles—to hydrate beverages or dry ration foods to reduce combat weight and logistics of potable water.
We have a jump schedule, and I look forward to it,” Stalker said, who has no immediate plans of retiring.
www.natick.army.mil /about/pao/pubs/warrior/04/julyaug/index.htm   (4716 words)

 Seapack - Portable Desalination Units - Sea Pack - Seapack Home
The SeaPack employs a proprietary membrane filter that is hydrophilic (attracts water), allows water to pass through, yet blocks very small contaminants due to the tight construction of the membrane.
With over fifteen years of research, scientists have developed the world's first commercially viable forward osmosis membrane for emergency desalination.
This membrane has been used by NASA, the US Department of Defense, branches of the US military and is now available to the public for use in emergency desalination situations.
www.sea-pack.com /index.html   (229 words)

 Water -- From Air, From Sea, From Waste Water
Cheaper, better water desalination using 'forward osmosis' - A forward osmosis system developed at Yale causes water flow through a membrane with a high-concentration solution of ammonia (NH) and CO on the gathering side, which are then boiled off.
Lebanon may start using the sun to get fresh water - Lebanon might soon look toward the sky for its freshwater but the drops won't be coming from the clouds.
Oxen power desalination unit - Desalination unit in remote India is run with the help of a pair of oxen using an indigenously developed reverse osmosis membrane.
www.freeenergynews.com /Directory/Water/index.html   (1553 words)

 Gotta Love The Military - Domelights Central
"If an Apache helicopter was deployed forward and recorded real-time video of the enemy, the helicopter can send the video back to an individual soldier to observe," he said, with obvious enthusiasm and excitement for the new uniform system.
One soldier, fresh from a year in South Korea, says he is so lonely he looks forward to receiving junk e-mail, spam and survey requests in his in-box.
If the animal is caught and its owner does not come forward, Heinrich said it will likely be sent to one of several facilities in Texas for exotic animals.
www.domelights.com /forums/index.php?showtopic=903   (7486 words)

 [No title]
New advances in reverse osmosis may mean cleaner--and healthier--reclaimed wastewater.
As described in the 12 March 2004 issue of the Journal of Chromatography A, Joel Pedersen, an environmental chemist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and his colleagues used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to look for 19 compounds in effluent samples collected from reclaimed wastewater plants in California.
When the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPR Korea, or North Korea as it is still commonly known) makes headlines, it usually concerns the country's nuclear ambitions.
www.ehponline.org /docs/2005/113-1/forum.html   (3409 words)

 Experimental Design and Trials of a New Desalting Process: Forward Osmosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The process involves the phenomenon of forward osmosis (FO), where lower chemical potential solutions may be used to induce the separation of water from brine or seawater across a membrane.
FO has the potential to substantially reduce energy requirements for desalting, and hence would be a more sustainable process than current technologies.
From these results, the future promise of FO as a method for supplementing Metropolitan Adelaide’s water supply is considered.
www.icms.com.au /chemeca2005/abstract/113.htm   (286 words)

 UNR Membrane Research Group
Combined Direct Osmosis, Osmotic Distillation, and Membrane Distillation for Treatment of Metabolic Wastewater", Journal of Membrane Science, 257 (2005) 111–119.
Childress, A.E. and Deshmukh, S.S., "Effect of Humic Substances and Anionic Surfactants on the Surface Charge and Performance of Reverse Osmosis Membranes", Desalination.
Childress, A.E. and Elimelech, M., "Effect of Solution Chemistry on the Surface Charge of Polymeric Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes", Journal of Membrane Science.
wolfweb.unr.edu /homepage/amyec/unr_mrg.pub.htm   (807 words)

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