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Topic: Fossil water

  Water table - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In areas with a high water table, tunnels and basements are less common due to the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the water, and the risk of flooding.
Fossil water is groundwater that has remained in an aquifer for millennia, and occurs mainly in deserts.
Fossil water is non-renewable by present day rainfall due to their depth below the surface, and any extraction ('mining') causes a permanent change in the water table in such regions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Water_table   (633 words)

When we refer to fossil water in an aquifer, it is water trapped since the ice age and there is no certainty how long it would take to replenish them, thus it safe to conclude that mining their water is only a temporary solution.
Water scarcity: In general a country with less than 1,700 cubic meter per capita is regarded as experiencing water stress, while less than 1000 cubic meter is regarded as water shortage.
Water scarcity or availability is based on measurements of stream flow within countries in question, with evaporation calculated based on local climate and subtracted from the total.
www.mideastnews.com /WaterWars.htm   (5943 words)

 Fossil water - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fossil water or paleowater is groundwater that has remained in an aquifer for millennia.
The Ogallala and Nubian aquifers are among the most notable of fossil water reserves.
Extraction of fossil water is sometimes referred to as mining because it is a non-renewable resource.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fossil_water   (134 words)

 Hagerman Fossil Beds NM: Water Resources Scoping Report (Water Resource Issues)
Irrigation water from the Bell Rapids Irrigation Project is the main causative agent for massive landslides that threaten large sections of the Monument.
Water quality of this well appears to be good with the exception of iron-reducing bacteria that are creating sulphur smelling water and iron staining on sinks, toilets, showers etc..
The surface geologic strata are composed of alluvial sand/gravel and soils.
www.nps.gov /hafo/watermgt/chap3.htm   (4736 words)

 Fossil Creek Controversy Research, Flagstaff Analytical Lab
Fossil Creek is representative of many of the drainages in the Transition Zone that begin at the Mogollon Rim.
North of Fossil Springs the area is characterized by steep-walled canyons cut into flat-lying Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, while south of the springs the canyon is composed of Tertiary volcanic rocks.
Due to diversion of spring water for power generation, modern travertine deposits in the natural channel only form where baseflow is returned to the natural channel.
www.rmrs.nau.edu /analyticallab/CPResearch4-2.htm   (1190 words)

 Fossil Fuels on Earth | AlienZoo.com
On one level, the pumping of fossil fuels in massive quantities from the crust of the Earth is causing the weight of the planet's surface mass to change dramatically.
Water cannot filter into the underground chambers left by the removal of oil and gas in most cases and, if it does, ground water is displaced from previously stable concentrations.
Six molecules of water and six molecules of carbon dioxide are transformed with the aid of solar energy into one molecule of glucose and six molecules of oxygen (the basic air and food building blocks of all living animals).
archive.alienzoo.com /politicsandlaw/fossilfuels.html   (2823 words)

 Peace River Water Levels
Fossil hunting is good, lots of shallow areas and sandbars.
Fossil hunting is so-so, will start to get good once the river level is at normal or below.
When the water is at these levels and higher, you need to stay in the middle of the river, stay away from downed trees (strainers).
www.canoeoutpost.com /Peace/prwaterlevel.htm   (686 words)

 National Park Service: Fossil Butte National Monument
Fossil Butte National Monument preserves a butte at the lake's center and its invaluable, fascinating record of the past.
The fossils of Fossil Lake are remarkable for their abundance and the broad spectrum of species found here - more than 25 kinds of fish, many varieties of insects, plants, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Fossil Lake, 50 miles long and 20 miles wide at its maximum, nestled among mountains in a lush green forest of palms, figs, cypress and other subtropical trees and shrubs.
www.nps.gov /fobu/expanded/fos.htm   (623 words)

Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the U.S. Coal found in the eastern U.S. typically has high-sulfur and is found in deep deposits (underground shaft mined); conversely, western coal is of low-sulfur content and found near the surface (strip or open-pit mined).
Natural gas is the easiest of the fossil fuels to burn as it mixes well with air and burns cleanly with little ash.
High-pressure water and steam flows from tube headers or drums through tubes in the furnace walls or in tube bundles mounted in the exhaust gas duct.
www.eas.asu.edu /~holbert/eee463/FOSSIL.HTML   (1595 words)

 NAU helping to restore Fossil Creek
Several agencies are involved in restoring the riparian habitat of Fossil Creek by removing the dam that fed water to the historic Childs-Irving power plants.
After water flows are restored to Fossil Creek, and once the facilities are completely decommissioned, APS will transfer full control of the area to the U.S. Forest Service, which will maintain it for wildlife habitat, endangered species protection and creek-side recreation.
When the dam was built in the early 1900s, a series of canals, pipes and tunnels diverted the water to the power plant at Childs and later a second plant at Irving, which generated electricity for the mining community of Jerome.
www4.nau.edu /insidenau/bumps/6_16_04/fossil.htm   (635 words)

 What is Surface Water?
Water on Earth is known by different terms, depending on where it is and where it came from.
Precipitation, evaporation/transpiration, and runoff (surface runoff and subsurface infiltration) are the primary phases in the hydrologic cycle.
Ocean water is too saline to be economically useful, while glaciers and icecaps are "inconveniently located." Click here to see a chart with these data.
imnh.isu.edu /digitalatlas/hydr/concepts/surfhyd/srfwtr.htm   (1052 words)

 Fossil Springs Adventure Homepage
On a scale of 1-10, where 10 is the hardest, steepest hike, the hike to Fossil Springs is a 2 or 3.
Much of the water is diverted at this point to a man-made flume, which carries the water several miles to Irving Power Plant.
Water is diverted from the creek by way of a man-made flume.
www.phx.devry.edu /fac/gbryan/newweb/hiking/fossil/fossil.htm   (665 words)

 New dwarf buffalo discovered by chance in the Philippines
Water buffalo are members of the cattle family and are placed in the genus Bubalus, which includes four living species.
The fossil could not be dated with certainty, but the authors estimate that it probably lived during the Pleistocene ("Ice Age"), probably between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago, but it is possible that it is younger.
This drawing shows the extinct dwarf water buffalo in proportion to the tamaraw (a dwarf water buffalo that lives on the Philippine island of Mindoro); a full-sized water buffalo; and a human being.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-10/fm-ndb100606.php   (1383 words)

 Using Fossils
However, suppose I collect a bunch of fossils from that rock layer near Bloomington, and I think that the bed is about the same age as some rocks in Missouri.
A rock with plant fossils (leaves, stems, etc) and with fossil bones, is almost certainly laid down on land or in fresh water.
Fossil graptolites are usually in fine-grained dark shales that were deposited in deep water.
igs.indiana.edu /geology/fossils/usingfossils/index.cfm   (980 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Libya's thirst for 'fossil water'
Coastal aquifers became contaminated with sea water, to such an extent that the water in Benghazi (Libya's second city) was undrinkable.
After weighing up the relative costs of desalination or transporting water from Europe, Libyan economists decided that the cheapest option was to construct a network of pipelines to transport water from the desert to the coastal cities, where most Libyans live.
With fossil water available in most of Libya's coastal cities, the government is now beginning to use its water for agriculture.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/science/nature/4814988.stm   (1128 words)

 AQUASTAT - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A debated question is whether irrigation, mostly the one based on costly water transfer, remains justified in a situation of water scarcity where the only source of water is non-renewable groundwater and where economic returns from other sectors (oil industry) would allow an easy access to the international food market.
Important water abstraction, either for local agricultural projects or for water transport to the coast, will cause a significant water level decline in the aquifer, due to the non-renewable character of the water sources.
The planned use of transport water for irrigation along the coast of Sirt where brackish aquifers exist at a shallow depth may also result in waterlogging and salinity problems if appropriate irrigation and drainage techniques are not applied.
www.fao.org /ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/countries/libya/index.stm   (3267 words)

 NASA - "Fossil Water" in Libya
Water residing in reservoirs appears at the bottom of this image in dark blue.
Water hiding in aquifers can actually be cleaner than water resting in above-ground reservoirs because the process of percolating through soil and rock can remove impurities.
When geologic changes seal the aquifer off from further "recharging," the water inside is sometimes called "fossil water." Radiocarbon dating has revealed that some Libya's aquifer water has been there for 40,000 years, since before the end of the last ice age.
www.nasa.gov /multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_562.html   (304 words)

 Fossil Fuel Storage Water Heaters at DoItYourself.com
Fossil fuel storage water heaters are the most common hot-water systems.
A standard fossil fuel water heater uses house air for combustion and exhausts its combustion byproducts by natural draft.
A system is available in which a tankless gas water heater is installed outdoors and piped inside to the old electric storage tank, which is disconnected from its power supply.
www.doityourself.com /stry/fossilfuel   (556 words)

 Fossil Creek Reservoir evolves to public space
Water stored at Fossil Creek is used primarily for three purposes: delivery to stockholders for agricultural or municipal use, regulation of flows along the Cache la Poudre River and water exchanges.
Water flows to the reservoir from the Cache la Poudre and then returns to the river downstream.
Water in the reservoir is exchanged for water upriver or in other reservoirs.
www.northfortynews.com /Archive/A200605FossilCreekReservoir.htm   (882 words)

 NPS: Nature & Science» Geology Resources Division
The fossils are among the most nearly perfectly preserved remains of ancient plant and animal life in the world.
The fossils of Fossil Lake are remarkable for their numbers and the broad spectrum of species found here: more than 20 kinds of fish, 100 varieties of insects, and an as yet uncounted number of plants.
Fossil Butte National Monument today is a semi-arid landscape of flat-topped buttes and ridges dominated by sagebrush, other desert shrubs, and grasses.
www2.nature.nps.gov /geology/parks/fobu   (1666 words)

 [No title]
This can be generated with water heated to boiling in a flask.
Participants divided into groups studying the elements of a petroleum-free community: food, water, shelter, health and medicine, and alternate energy sources.
Electricity is produced at a coal-fired fossil plant by the process of heating water in a boiler to produce steam.
www.lycos.com /info/fossil--water.html   (238 words)

 E&WR - Water-Energy Interface: Power Generation
Water use represents the total water withdrawal from a source and water consumption represents the amount of that withdrawal that is not returned to the source.
Although thermoelectric generation is the second largest user of water on a withdrawal basis, it was only responsible for about 3% of the total of 100 BGD freshwater consumed in 1995 compared to 81% for irrigation as shown in the following figure.
Water quality requirements for cooling systems can be less restrictive than many other applications such as drinking water supplies or agricultural applications, so opportunities exist for the utilization of lower-quality, non-traditional water sources.
www.netl.doe.gov /technologies/coalpower/ewr/water/power-gen.html   (1190 words)

 EO Newsroom: New Images - "Fossil Water" in Libya
Libyans weighed the costs of bringing water up from the aquifers against transporting water from Europe and desalination of salt water, and chose the aquifers as the most cost-effective option.
Water residing in reservoirs appears twice in this image, in the upper right and at the bottom.
When geologic changes seal the aquifer off from further “recharging,” the water inside is sometimes called “fossil water.” Libya’s aquifer is one of these “fossils.” Radiocarbon dating has revealed that some Libya’s aquifer water has been there for 40,000 years, since before the end of the last ice age.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17242   (367 words)

 Fuel Cell Works Supplemental News Page
Although the substance is plentiful, it exists in the form of chemical compounds such as water or hydrocarbons that must be transformed to yield hydrogen.
His reasoning is that producing hydrogen from fossil fuels would rob the hydrogen economy of much of its logic that it should replace fossil fuels without putting a strain on the environment.
Currently, four new methods of engendering hydrogen without using fossil fuels are under development: via photo catalysis, microbe, splitting water with electricity generated by alternative sources, such as wind, or with high-temperature nuclear reactors.
www.fuelcellsworks.com /Supppage3145.html   (1229 words)

 [No title]
Trilobites are prized fossil finds anywhere, but silica shale is known for them.
Bryozoans are often called "moss animals." These creatures filtered their food from the surrounding sea by waving soft tentacles through the water.
Fossil fragments of bryozoans often look like a piece of linen cloth.
www.olanderpk.com /xfer/fossil_find.html   (326 words)

 Delaware Geological Survey
The belemnoid animal was most closely related to the squid as it had an internal shell covered by a leathery skin, tentacles that pointed forward, and a siphon that expelled water forward thus moving the animal backward by jet propulsion.
The chambered shell had a blade-like forward extension that is seldom preserved as a fossil.
The most common fossilized part of the internal shell is called the "guard" or "cigar" consisting of a massive, generally brown-colored, subcylindrical structure called the rostrum that encloses the chambered shell and extends to the rear where it tapers to a conical apex.
www.udel.edu /dgs/Education/stfossil.html   (393 words)

 Fossil creek park: parks: recreation: departments: City of Fort Collins
The dog park was hopping with canines and their owners, while at the interactive water feature residents enjoyed dipping their toes in the cool water.
Fossil Creek Park is the fifth community park to open in Fort Collins, and the first to open since Rolland Moore Park, which occured in 1984.
Fossil Creek Park, the city's newest and largest community park, is designed to serve as an escape from the urban environment while still remaining close to the city.
www.ci.fort-collins.co.us /parks/fossil-creek.php   (504 words)

 LAND, ENERGY AND WATER (ideal US population size)
To supply this much water to the crop, not only must 10 million liters (1,000 mm) of rain fall per hectare, but it must be evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season.
Of the total water currently used in the United States, 81% is used in agriculture while the remainder is needed for industry and for public use (USWRC, 1979).
In the future, the rate of U.S. water consumption is projected to rise both because of population growth and because of greater per capita use (USWRC, 1979; CEQ, 1983).
www.dieoff.com /page136.htm   (4880 words)

 CBS News | Water Scorpion Fossil Found in Scotland
Martin Whyte, a lecturer in the Department of Geography at the University of Sheffield, discovered the fossil of a hibbertopteroid _ a type of scorpion _ in Scotland's Midland Valley.
According to Whyte's analysis of the fossil, the creature was a six-legged water scorpion measuring 5 feet long and 3 feet wide.
The length of its stride indicates that the animal was crawling extremely slowly.
www.cbsnews.com /stories/2005/12/01/ap/tech/printableD8E755TO3.shtml   (381 words)

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