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# Topic: Four wheel drive

 cars - Four wheel drive Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. When a part-time four wheel drive system is enabled, the transfer case connects both the front and rear drive shafts with the transmission. The sum of the output angular velocity of the two output shafts (connected to the wheels) is linearly related to the angular velocity of the input shaft (connected to the transfer case). www.carluvers.com /cars/Four-wheel_drive   (1535 words)

 Four Wheel Drive - Wikicars Four-wheel drive, 4WD, 4x4 ("four by four"), all wheel drive, and AWD are terms used to describe a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously. Four-wheel drive (4WD or 4x4 for short) was the original term, often used to describe truck-like vehicles that required the driver to manually switch between a two wheel drive mode for streets and a four-wheel drive mode for low traction conditions such as ice, mud, or loose gravel. The term 4x4 (read either four by four or four times four) is used to denote the total number of wheels on a vehicle and the number of driven wheels; it is often applied to vehicles equipped with either full-time or part-time four-wheel-drive. wikicars.org /en/Four_Wheel_Drive   (2820 words)

 Four-wheel drive - WOI Encyclopedia Italia Four-wheel drive, 4WD, 4x4 ("four by four"), all-wheel drive, and AWD are terms used to describe a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously. Four-wheel drive (4WD or 4x4 for short) is the original term and is often used to describe truck-like vehicles that require the driver to manually switch between a two-wheel drive mode for streets and a four-wheel drive mode for low traction conditions such as ice, mud, or loose gravel. This generally refers to all-terrain vehicles with four wheels and does not indicate the number of driven wheels; a "four wheeler" may have two or four-wheel drive. www.wheelsofitaly.com /wiki/index.php/Four-wheel-drive   (3131 words)

 How Four Wheel Drive Works The benefit of four-wheel drive is easy to understand: If you are driving four wheels instead of two, you've got the potential to double the amount of longitudinal force (the force that makes you go) that the tires apply to the ground. When four-wheel drive is not engaged, the locking hubs are used to disconnect the front wheels from the front differential, half-shafts (the shafts that connect the differential to the hub) and driveshaft. When four-wheel drive is engaged, the transfer case locks the front driveshaft to the rear driveshaft, so each axle receives half of the torque coming from the engine. www.ajeepthing.com /how-4wd-works.html   (2220 words)

 YEHEY!Lifestyle Motoring - Protips An all-wheel drive vehicle (AWD) is designed with a driveline that also sends power to all four wheels (usually on a full-time basis) but only through a single-speed transfer case without low-range capability. All-wheel drive has its place and it has its purpose but for those who wish to take their vehicles off-road and venture miles beyond the nearest Starbucksâ”four-wheel drive with a low-range transfer case is the only way to go. First, in two-wheel-drive mode, the front wheels are disengaged from the driveline to lessen wear and tear since the driveline is not dragged by the rotation of the front wheels. www.yehey.com /lifestyle/motoring/article2.aspx?id=7245   (919 words)

 Introduction to All Wheel Drive systems A permanently engaged four wheel drive system needs to have three differentials to enable it to apply power to four wheels and be able to turn without resistance: The front, rear and center diffs. An all wheel drive system is always engaged and is actually simpler because it eliminates the need of these convenience "features" and their associated parts, which are the usual source of problems. When four wheel drive is not engaged, which is typically the majority of the time, one is left with a hopelessly understeery vehicle, because the front still assumes a rear end that has to scrub off excess speed. home.comcast.net /~eliot_www/awd.html   (6007 words)

 Four (4) Wheel Drive NSW & ACT :: Representing 90+ clubs throughout NSW and the ACT Four Wheel Drive NSW and ACT Inc works for access to public and private lands for responsible 4WD and AWD touring and camping on behalf of its member clubs. Four Wheel Drive NSW and ACT works for access to public and private lands for responsible 4WD and AWD touring and camping on behalf of its member clubs. Four Wheel Drive NSW and ACT clubs provide driver training and this Association is an RTO operating and managing the training and assessment of our drivers. www.4wdnsw-act.asn.au   (2129 words)

 U Auto Know - Four-Wheel Drive Repair* - Car-X Auto Service All-wheel drive systems are designed to function on all types of surfaces, both on- and off-road, and most of them cannot be switched off. Four-wheel and all-wheel drive systems are most useful in low-traction situations, such as in snow and on slippery hills. The transfer case on a part-time four-wheel drive system locks the front-axle driveshaft to the rear-axle driveshaft, so the wheels are forced to spin at the same speed. www.carx.com /UAutoKnow/HowYourCarWorks/UnderCar/FourWheelDriveRepair/tabid/175/Default.aspx   (2011 words)

 Halfbakery: Fluid Coupling Four Wheel Drive Drive one element (the pump), and from this element, drive the other two elements (the turbines). Overall, I think it could be a simple, elegant solution to the problem of driving both axles and still allowing a vehicle to turn, though. These same basic units (a fluid coupling, no stator) were used in some Chrysler cars of the late 1940's (Fluid Drive) backed by a two speed manual gearbox (some had provisions to shift on their own). www.halfbakery.com /idea/Fluid_20Coupling_20Four_20Wheel_20Drive   (1345 words)

 Four Wheel Drive Glossary Thus, if one wheel is on ice, and requires almost no power to spin freely, an open differential will send only that much power to the wheel on the other side of the axle, too, although the other wheel may have plenty of traction. To isolate the front wheels from the rest of the front driveline, front axle disconnects use a sliding sleeve to connect or disconnect an axle shaft from the front differential side gear. When one wheel is slipping, both types use the separating force generated by the specially-designed differential pinion gears, combined with the static load, to bypass the pinion gears and transfer a greater proportion of power directly from the ring gear to both axle shafts. www.4crawler.com /4x4/Glossary.shtml   (2614 words)

 Four-Wheel Drive Porsches It was certainly a highly ingenious design, with an almost frictionless drive system based on doing away with a conventional transmission and having electric motors in the wheel hubs, fed with current from a heavy array of storage batteries. Hart is at the wheel, and Ferdinand Porsche, who delivered the car personally, is the chap with the bowler hat and wing collar sitting facing the same way as the driver. It was a six-wheeler, with the wheels on both rear axles driven, and all wheels braked. www.carkeys.co.uk /features/classichistoric/965.asp   (942 words)

 Four Wheel Drive When four-wheel drive is not engaged, the locking hubs are used to disconnect the front wheels from the front differential, half-shafts (the shafts that connect the differential to the hub) and driveshaft. These differentials have a unique gearset: As soon as it senses a decrease in torque to one wheel (which occurs when a tire is about to slip), the gearset transfers torque to the other wheel. The brake traction control system applies significant torque to the wheel that wants to slip, allowing the Torsen differential to apply two to four times that increased torque to the other wheel. home.wanadoo.nl /xavira/4wd/4wd.htm   (2740 words)

 Is It Time For A Four-Wheel Drive? Four-wheel drives were gas-guzzlers, prohibitively expensive, noisy, inconvenient to operate, uncomfortable to travel in and rough riding. Older vehicles with part-time four-wheel drive may require drivers to stop their vehicles before shifting from two-wheel drive to four-wheel drive. They always operate with power going to all four wheels, so drivers benefit all the time from four-wheel traction and don't have to shift or push a button to activate it. www.basspro.com /webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/CFPage?mode=article&objectID=30225&storeId=10151&catalogId=10001&langId=-1   (1367 words)

 Lahore Four Wheel Drive Club - Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Drive is delivered to the wheels by separate half-shafts fitted with universal joints or cv joints. Popular dual-fuel conversion for large petrol cars and four wheel drives because LPG is very cheap in Australia, 20c to 25c/L v. Drive is carried to the hub by gears. www.4wd.org.pk /Glossary.htm   (1851 words)

 MySpace.com - Four Wheel Drive - EUROPE - Bluegrass / Americana / Folk - www.myspace.com/4wdbluegrass Four Wheel Drive would like to thank US unembedded war photographer professor Thorne Anderson for his wonderful pictures on our site and in the booklet of our new cd 'Another Town'. Four Wheel Drive is probably the most talked-about and lauded European bluegrass group of this past decade that has achieved great popularity without diluting or jazzing up too much this intriguing subgenre on the big Americana tree. The earliest roots of the Four Wheel Drive story can be found in the late 80's when the Dutch mandolin player Paul Van Vlodrop was asked to gather a group of musicians to play background music for an American theatre play. www.myspace.com /4wdbluegrass   (1018 words)

 Four-Wheel, Front-Wheel, All Wheel Drive -- Huh? The limited-slip type differential is generally an optional feature and makes the drive wheels function more like they're on a single axle (while still enabling them to rotate at different speeds when the vehicle rounds a corner). The important note about all-wheel drive is that it does not necessarily mean four-wheel drive, as it can engage either front wheels or rear wheels. Four-wheel drive systems are generally heavier-duty than all-wheel drive systems, and are more suited for off-road driving where terrain requires the complete engineering of four-wheel drive. www.thecarguy.com /articles/drivesys.htm   (1067 words)

 ConsumerReports.org - Winter driving: Winter driving safety, winter tires Automakers are capitalizing on that passion for all-wheel drive by offering it on a growing number of sedans, wagons, and minivans. Many all-wheel-drive vehicles are based on front-drive cars, which, in turn, tend to do better in snow than rear-drive cars because the weight of the engine and transmission sits directly over their drive wheels. Cost: about \$400 for four winter tires plus another \$200 or so for an extra set of wheel rims to ease the switch to winter tires. www.consumerreports.org /cro/cars/new-cars/news/2005/winter-driving-405-winter-driving-safety-winter-tires/index.htm   (491 words)

 Four Wheel Drive Differentials make the Difference! Because your four wheel drive off road vehicle is often faced with difficult driving situations, your differential is under much more stress than normal highway driving. J and H 4 Wheel Drive Specialists, LLC J and H Four Wheel Drive Specialists, LLC. dwp.bigplanet.com /jandh4wheeldrive/differential   (304 words)

 Caltrans Winter Driving Tips Winter driving on roads and highways in the snowcapped mountains of California can be a pleasant adventure or it can be frustrating, tiring and sometimes even hazardous. R1: Chains, traction devices or snow tires are required on the drive axle of all vehicles except four wheel/ all wheel drive vehicles. R2: Chains or traction devices are required on all vehicles except four wheel/ all wheel drive vehicles with snow-tread tires on all four wheels. www.dot.ca.gov /hq/roadinfo/wntrdriv.htm   (857 words)

 AAMCO - Service Advice > Drive Train The transfer case is attached to the transmission and connects to both the front and rear axles on a four-wheel drive vehicle. A drive shaft and universal joints (U-joints) connect the transmission to the rear axle on most rear wheel drive vehicles. Metal-to-metal noise in the wheels, or steering that veers in one direction or the other, are typical symptoms of a malfunctioning wheel bearing. www.aamco.com /serviceadvice/drive_train.html   (610 words)

 Four-Wheel Drive Tire Pressure, Axle Control & Glossary - Truck Trend Four-wheel drives often come with better tires for adverse conditions and, in some cases, with better brakes (either upgraded to four discs or with ABS standard), but 4WDs weigh more as well, with some of that weight added over the already heavier front end. Where four-wheel drive is mentioned hereafter, much of the information will apply to all-wheel drive as well (keep in mind gearing is where we make the distinction). In vehicles derived from front drives, many are front drive normally and add rear drive as required: The amount of output transferred to the rear is often a function of strength--the Saturn VUE four-cylinder can direct 69-percent power to the rear, while the V-6 sends a maximum of 57 percent. www.trucktrend.com /features/tech/163_0206_four_wheel_drive/index.html   (2561 words)

 4Wd Training Course Introduction ::  Driver's Training Program, 4-Wheel Drive Training, Four Wheel Driving Training :: ... Staff working in remote locations may be required to drive four-wheel drive vehicles as part of their employment. Therefore all drivers working in these remote locations are requested, as part of their induction, to successfully complete a four-wheel drive training course prior to starting in their new position. The safe use of four wheel drive recovery equipment and associated four wheel driving techniques, together with basic maintenance and fault finding, equips participants to safely drive and recover a four wheel drive vehicle in the on and off-road environment. www.fourwheeldriveindia.com /training/4wd_intro.htm   (251 words)

 Four Wheel Drive Hardware Buys Performance Products Four Wheel Drive Hardware, which mails three catalogs selling after-market Jeep parts and accessories, has several new models in its catalog garage. Four Wheel Drive Hardware will manage the two companies separately for now, says president/CEO Barry Ryan, who with the sale assumed that title at Performance as well. Because Four Wheel and Performance serve different segments of the aftermarket industry, overlap between the companies is minimal. bg.catalogagemag.com /ar/marketing_four_wheel_drive_2   (443 words)

 Four Wheel Drive Awareness Clinics The Oklahoma Trailchasers Four Wheel Drive Club Inc. is proud to bring you the UFWDA 4WDA clinics. The United Four Wheel Drive Association (UFWDA) and its regional and state 4WD drive associations realized back in 1991 that there was a need for 4WD education clinics. These clinics are now a reality and have taught thousands of novice four wheelers on the components of their 4x4 vehicle, proper off-highway driving techniques, proper vehicle recovery, courtesies related to 4-wheeling, and accents environmental awareness by way of the Tread Lightly philosophy. www.trailchasers.com /Library/four_wheel_drive_awareness_clini.htm   (470 words)

 Tecnologia - 4WD (Four Wheel Drive) Apparently, 4-wheel drive brings traction and grip to higher level because the tractive effort is shared by 4 wheels instead of two. A modern 4-wheel drive system must has 3 differentials - one in the front axle to distribute torque between the left and right front wheels, one in the rear axle again responsible for torque distribution, the third one, calls Centre Differential, distributes torque between front and rear axles. During cornering, the outside wheels have to travel faster than the inside wheels, therefore we need a differential to distribute different torque to the wheels. p104.ezboard.com /fforumtuningptfrm33.showMessage?topicID=9.topic   (3921 words)

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