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Topic: Fourth Great Awakening

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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  William G. McLoughlin - Awakenings - Generational Dynamics
The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s was not just a religious revival; it was also an act of rebellion against the older generation that favored control by the British in return for protection.
Awakenings begin in periods of cultural distortion and grave personal stress, when we lose faith in the legitimacy of our norms, the viability of our institutions, and the authority of our leaders in church and state.
The conversion of great numbers of people from an old to a new world view (a new ideological or religious understanding of their place in the cosmos) is a natural and necessary aspect of social change.
www.generationaldynamics.com /cgi-bin/D.PL?d=ww2010.i.awakening060919   (4131 words)

  Great Awakening - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Great Awakenings are commonly said to be periods of religious revival in Anglo-American religious history.
Examples of such precursors to a Great Awakening are the Spiritualism movement, which preceded the Third Great Awakening, and the Beatnik movement, which preceded the Fourth.
Although the Great Awakenings influence and are influenced by religious thought from throughout the world, the cycle of Great Awakenings appear to be unique to the United States.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Great_Awakening   (767 words)

 Encyclopedia: Fourth Great Awakening   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The Fourth Great Awakening is a religious awakening that some scholars believe took place in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
The Vietnam Conflict was to play a major role in the course of the Fourth Great Awakening, as it led a great number of people to question the values of the older "technocrat" generations, and seek to develop new and better avenues of spiritual and ethical thought.
The Fourth Great Awakening also saw the rise of nontraditional churches with conservative theology such as megachurches and a growth of parachurch organizations.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Fourth-Great-Awakening   (1479 words)

 CSP - 'Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607-1977' by William G. ...
Our Revolution came after the First Great Awakening on American soil had made the thirteen colonies into a cohesive unit (e pluribus unum), had given them a sense of unique nationality, and had inspired them with the belief that they were, "and of right ought to be," a free and independent people.
Great awakenings (and the revivals that are part of them) are the results, not of depressions, wars, or epidemics, but of critical disjunctions in our self-understanding.
Great awakenings are not periods of social neurosis (though they begin in times of cultural confusion).
www.csp.org /chrestomathy/revivals_awakenings.html   (1091 words)

 Definition of Fourth Great Awakening
The Fourth Great Awakening is a possible example of a Great Awakening, or a period of revolution in American religious thought.
Some reactionary sects that oppose the ideas of the Fourth Great Awakening are Fundamentalist sects that are largely unchanged from their formation in reaction to the Third Great Awakening.
The Fourth Great Awakening saw enormous decline in mainstream Christian sects such as the Lutheran and Episcopalian churches.
www.wordiq.com /definition/Fourth_Great_Awakening   (603 words)

 AEI - Short Publications
The main theological features of the First Great Awakening were the justification of mass, emotional revival meetings, the emphasis on "new birth" as the central objective of the revivals, the emergence of the ethic of benevolence as an aspect of "new birth," and the weakening of the Calvinist doctrine of predestination.
During the political phase of the Second Great Awakening, which began in 1840 and continued until 1870, the temperance movement was successful in getting many state and local governments to license the sale of alcoholic beverages.
The winning camp of the Third Great Awakening has come to be called "modernist." Modernists applied scientific principles to the study of the Bible, on the assumption that it was an historical document written by men who were trying to understand God's will within the context of their own times and civilizations.
www.aei.org /publications/pubID.18982,filter.all/pub_detail.asp   (5134 words)

 Great Awakening - Encyclopedia.com
Great Awakening An American revivalist movement, which was a response to the growing formalism of early 18th-century American Christianity.
Though revivals began in New Jersey in 1719, the preaching of the Puritan scholar Jonathan Edwards (1703–58), and the resultant conversions in the 1730s gave it widespread recognition and influenced the founders of Methodism, the Wesleys.
It came to be known as the Great Awakening.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1O48-GreatAwakening.html   (1006 words)

In the end, the Great Awakening gave individuals and congregations greater independence to worship God free of religious hierarchy, especially the emerging Baptist denominations, which preached the autonomy and independence of the local church.
A Second Great Awakening rose 100 years later over concerns of societal deterioration, and gave us the many denominations that to this day make up American Protestantism, most notably the Baptists, and was characterized by the rise of Evangelicalism.
For the forces unleashed by the Great Awakening, the president's acquittal was a setback of monstrous proportions, representing a defeat surpassing even that of the Scopes Trial.
www.howardsmead.com /4thGA.htm   (957 words)

 The strange passion for equality: The Spectator 16/09/2000 - reviews of 'The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of ...
For the great bulk of the text shows that he really has in mind nothing more than a widening of political opportunities and a concern for those with least opportunity, income or power.
He discerns four "great awakenings" in US history and and traces their religious as well as their political roots.
The novelty of Fogel's approach is his view that we have now entered a fourth awakening in which there is much less need for cash redistribution or traditional welfare services and much more need to combat the spiritual discrepancies between relatively affluent middle America and the underclass.
www.samuelbrittan.co.uk /text54_p.html   (1754 words)

 Book Review: The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism by Robert William Fogel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The inequities that produced each of the “awakenings” were themselves the result of the impact of technological change, manifested in economic institutions, on human cultural and physiological evolution.
The firstawakening” was a response to the perception that the moral and political corruption of Britain was infecting the American colonies.
The “Fourth Great Awakening” is Fogel’s speculative title for the recent focus of evangelicals on the spiritual development of the individual in the face of certain perceived “inequities” in the possession of “spiritual assets,” such as purposefulness, self-esteem, discipline, motivation, dedication to family and community, and intellectual curiosity.
www.fee.org /vnews.php?nid=256   (832 words)

 Journal Time With Ray Waddle | The Voice, February 2005 | Synod of Living Waters
Probably the best-known case for a rising spiritual tide is made by Nobel economist Robert William Fogel in The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism (2000).
He contends that all previous Great Awakenings had an inevitable political phase that gave the nation a deeper sense of equality and greater social benefits.
He thinks the Fourth Awakening will too: Now in its fifth decade, it is leading the nation in a pro-life, pro-family, anti-tax direction, and awakening more people to issues of spirituality (not just Christianity) and ethics.
synodoflivingwaters.org /the_voice/0502/06-1-journal.html   (757 words)

 History of Great Awakenings - Spirit Meditation - Meditation Health Spas - Great Awakenings - Spiritual Enlightenment
The study of the history of Great Awakenings, although on a significantly larger scale, is comparable to gaining insight into the spiritual enlightenment of a single person.
The history of Great Awakenings pinpoints several main cycles of change in the commonly accepted religious beliefs that were associated with the specific timeframes.
Awakening into Awareness - Free ezine and online mentoring based upon an extraordinary experience of spontaneous awakening: a sudden, direct insight into the nondualistic nature of reality.
www.askalana.com /new-age/awakening.html   (371 words)

 Eastern Economic Journal: Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism, The
According to Robert Fogel, The Fourth Great Awakening is the most recent of four long-term cycles or waves in American religious-political history.
The rise of a movement against extensive government is seen as part of a broader cyclical wave of religious revivalism-the fourth awakening.
The major flaw of the book is the disappearance of the political aspects of the fourth awakening as Fogel projects into the future.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3620/is_200204/ai_n9053775   (768 words)

 Strategic Issues Today
We are in the Fourth Great Awakening and it is tied to the Fourth Industrial Revolution --the Computer-Electronics-Information Age, which began in the early 1970s and is just reaching its peak in this decade.
* The Fourth Great Awakening began, also in part to Nuclear War angst, etc., with the Hippies and their Age of Aquarius nonsense, which led the Beetles to Hindu fakirs and others to Buddha and was also being expressed by odd California cults.
Even before that, the established church had been the fourth co-equal branch of government since the first kingdoms of Mesopotamia in the 4th millenium BC (where the military caste had been the fifth branch).
www.siri-us.com /backgrounders/Archives-USDefenseIssues/Fundamentalism.html   (2360 words)

 Our Sunday Visitor Newspaper and Magazines
The Fourth Great Awakening, as he crowns it, is now focused on "spiritual reform," the redistribution of "immaterial assets." These are inner resources such as a strong work ethic, a sense of community and a healthy resistance to hedonistic impulses; they constitute the new egalitarian agenda.
Such a conservative awakening would be seen as a threat to large and important groups in society, and wouldn’t get far, he reasons.
Nonetheless, his theory is that the great disruption of moral and civic values dating to the 1960s may soon be swept into the dustbin of cultural history.
www.osvbooks.com /periodicals/show-article.asp?pid=337   (1614 words)

 I'm O.K., You're O.K. - New York Times
The second great awakening, starting in the early 1800's and peaking at midcentury, preached the struggle against sin as the path to grace, and gave rise to the temperance and abolitionist movements.
The third great awakening, stretching from 1890 to 1930 and beyond, was born in the flood of displaced farm workers and new immigrants to the cities and led to the reforms associated with the Progressives, the New Deal and, eventually, the Great Society.
Fogel's fourth great awakening began in the 1960's and shapes politics today.
query.nytimes.com /gst/fullpage.html?res=9F04E3D91E3AF93BA35753C1A9669C8B63&sec=&pagewanted=print   (945 words)

 The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism
In the end, this reader was not persuaded that there were in fact four Great Awakenings or that the fourth was coherent enough to influence social policy.
The term, Great Awakening, is a construct of a much later period, coined, it appears, by Joseph Tracy in his book The Great Awakening of 1841 (Jon Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith, Harvard University Press, 1990, pp.
As the Awakenings cycled through their lifespan, one trend that should be obvious is that the Third had little to do with religion, at least in the sense of human awareness and response to God, and the Fourth seems to be entirely concerned with what might best be called social work.
www.eh.net /bookreviews/library/0618.shtml   (1846 words)

 Road to the Middle Class: Chapter 12 The Fourth Great Awakening - by Christopher Chantrill
Colonial North America began with a Puritan Awakening; the United States was born of the First Great Awakening; the Civil War was provoked by a Second Great Awakening, and the century of the welfare state was inspired by a Third Great Awakening.
Following each Awakening or revival is another period of secularization, as the newly formed high tension cults and sects slowly reduce their distance from the surrounding culture and as the members of the sects become more powerful and want to connect with and influence the surrounding society.
According to Stark’s theory, the Fourth Great Awakening should represent an unusually large crop of cults and sects that are filling the gap left by the secularizing main-line churches that provide for their members only weak and unconvincing general compensators for the desires that people experience for rewards not available in this world.
www.roadtothemiddleclass.com /chpt114p1_chapter_12_the_fourth_great_awakening.html   (1531 words)

 From awakening to war National Interest, The - Find Articles
With preachers inveighing against corruption in London, this Great Awakening was instrumental in giving momentum to the American Revolution and the creation of a republic of free citizens.
The Fourth (and current) Great Awakening, beginning about 1960--the year I was first elected to Congress--eschewed the "Social Gospel" in favor of a return to emphasizing the importance of personal conversion, de-emphasized sacramental worship in favor of individual experiences of God's presence, and stressed a more literal, experiential reading of the Bible.
While opposed to secular humanism at home, the religious perspective of the Fourth Great Awakening has merged with the belief held by many secular thinkers of the likelihood, if not the in-evitability, of the triumph of Western civilization, defined in terms of democratic values.
findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2751/is_84/ai_n16689828   (705 words)

 The Second Great Awakening
The noise of the meetings was so great that some said "the noise was like the roar of Niagara." Revival camp meetings swept through Kentucky, Tennessee and many of the southern states.
The Second Great Awakening had a tremendous effect on American society by spawning a large number of social reform movements.
The Second Great Awakening resulted in the establishment of numerous societies to aid in spreading the gospel, including the American Bible Society (1816), American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1810), American Sunday School Union (1817), American Tract Society (1826), and the American Home Missionary Society (1826).
www.knoxvillerevival.com /Revivals/secondgreatawaken.htm   (965 words)

 democracy.org - Bookstore
Using "Great Awakening Theory" and "Political Re-alignment Theory" Fogel proposes that since its inception the United States has been driven by the ethic of egalitarianism, and that ethic continues to hold sway.
Great context into daily lives (eating dinner at 4 P. M., Abigail asking for needles so she could sell them for cash reserves, the rigors of travel).
Great summary chapters on Pragmatisms, Pluralisms, and Freedoms that stand alone but are greatly enhanced by the context that comes before.
www.democracy.org /oldsite/books-gene-edgar.html   (1418 words)

 NCPA - Social Issues - Effects Of Religious Awakenings   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The First Great Awakening, from the 1730s to the 1790s, hastened the disestablishment of churches (Episcopalian in the South; Congregational in New England) and weakened the influence of religion on American political life.
The Second Great Awakening -- about 1800 to 1840 -- encouraged reform movements, from temperance, abolition of slavery and immigration (the nativist movement to end immigration by Catholics), to anticorruption campaigns and public education.
The Third Great Awakening, 1890 to 1930, ended with the substitution of a belief in secular modernism for religious enthusiasm.
www.ncpa.org /pd/social/pd010501f.html   (359 words)

 The Reviewer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The original Great Awakening began around 1730 with revival meetings, conversions and a renewed "ethic of benevolence." Its political ascendance "provided much of the popular ideological foundation" for the American Revolution.
The "winning camp" of this "awakening" argued that poverty was not a personal failure but a failure of society.
This ethic superseded the Second Great Awakening's belief in equality of opportunity and its programme of access to inexpensive western land, universal primary education, women's suffrage and abolition.
www.therevieweronline.com /old/index.php?itemid=268   (1734 words)

 Opposition to the Great Awakening in New England   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Traditionally, historians have described opposition to the Great Awakening as common criticism of six behaviors: enthusiasm, itineracy, censoriousness ("rash judging"), physical reactions to sermons, lay-exhorting, and separatism.
The Great Awakening was commonly criticized for the religious enthusiasm of the revivalists.
The Great Awakening brought to the surface a division in New England Protestantism.
www.craniumnexus.net /opposition.html   (8680 words)

 First Great Awakening vs. Second Great Awakening
The website at http://www.sullivan-county.com/immigration/2nd_awakening.htm says that the FGA was based more on spontaneous groupings, rather than the planned, organized groupings that took place at the SGA.
And whereas the FGA's effect (I argue) was significant in the creation of a culture which readied the Colonies for war with England, the SGA's effect seems to be on things like the temperance movement and women's rights.
The Third Great Awakening led by Billy Graham, Oral Roberts, and Brother Shambock sowed the seeds for the Revolution Phase III (The Civil Rights Movement).
www.westerncivforum.com /index.php?topic=4.0   (473 words)

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