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# Topic: Fracture mechanics

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 Fracture mechanics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fracture Mechanics was invented during World War I by English aeronautical engineer, A.A.Griffith, to explain the failure of brittle materials. Fracture mechanics is the analysis of flaws to discover those that are safe (that is, do not grow) and those that are liable to propagate as cracks and so cause failure of the flawed structure. Fracture mechanics as a subject for critical study has barely been around for a century and thus is relatively new. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fracture_mechanics   (1372 words)

 Fracture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The word fracture is often applied to bones of living creatures, or to crystals or crystalline materials, such as gemstones or metal. Depending on the substance which is fractured, a fracture reduces strength (most substances) or inhibits transmission of light (optical crystals). In metallic materials, the plastic deformation is a well understood mechanism that stems from the atomic structureslip in crystalline structures. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fracture   (379 words)

 EMA 519: Fracture Mechanics Introduction to the mechanics of fracture of linear and nonlinear materials. Introduction to fracture mechanics of nonlinear materials: the J-integral; the Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren (HRR) crack tip fields; the J_Ic fracture criterion; J_Ic testing; J-controlled crack growth and the crack growth resistance (JR) curve; application of J to anisotropic and heterogeneous materials. Fracture, like fatigue, is a failure mode that frequently occurs without warning and with catastrophic results to life and property. www.engr.wisc.edu /ep/ema/courses/ema519.html   (952 words)

 Fracture Mechanics Fracture mechanics is considered as mechanics of fracture mechanisms and not as a theory of macrocracks only. The principal topics of fracture mechanics are: 1) brittle fracture; 2) mixed mode fracture; 3) elasto-plastic fracture; 4) fatigue. Brittleness and plasticity of the components affect the fracture mechanisms and strength parameters of the composites. www.kokch.kts.ru /igor/fm.htm   (774 words)

 About the Fracture and Fatigue Division Society for Experimental Mechanics is to advance the state of knowledge in the areas of fracture mechanics and fatigue through the timely sharing of research results. Society for Experimental Mechanics is concerned with the development and dissemination of research in fracture mechanics and fatigue. A new era in fracture and fatigue research is demonstrated by research topics that incorporate increasingly complex phenomena, such as the prediction of crack growth in composites and other nonmetals, research on dynamic fracture mechanics, and research on interfacial cracking phenomena. www.sem.org /TDIV-AbouttheFractureandFatigueDivision.htm   (1359 words)

 NRL - Fracture Mechanics Fracture mechanics is a field which recognizes that all structures are manufactured with, or will ultimately contain, flaws that govern the eventual failure of the structure. Fracture mechanics provided, for the first time, the capability to calculate the strength of structures containing defects that inevitably occur in fabrication or during service operation. Fracture mechanics has been applied throughout the world for the design of any structures where sudden, catastrophic failure would cause loss of life or other serious consequences. www.nrl.navy.mil /content.php?P=FRACTUREMECH   (237 words)

 The Hendrix Group - Fracture Mechanics and Brittle Fracture The field of fracture mechanics is that methodology that quantifies the relationships among flaw size, stress and material toughness so that the severity of flaws can be assessed in equipment and structures on a fitness-for-service basis. The surface of a brittle fracture is perpendicular to the principle tensile stress. At a certain stress fracture occurs in Component A. The fracture is associated with little plastic deformation; therefore, it is a brittle fracture. www.hghouston.com /Fracture.html   (877 words)

 Fracture Mechanics Tests Fracture mechanics testing techniques are typically utilized for evaluation of the effects of metallurgical or environmental variables on EAC where the specimen contains a sharp crack. One of the most common and relatively simple techniques for incorporation of fracture mechanics techniques for the evaluation of EAC is through the use of constant load or constant deflection specimens. In the case of constant load specimens, a load is applied to a fracture mechanics specimen using a directly applied dead weight or through a pulley or lever system to magnify the dead weight load. www.corrosionsource.com /handbook/testing/fracmech.htm   (759 words)

 Fracture Mechanics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Fracture mechanics is a relatively new field that enabled the safe use of high strength alloys in the Apollo program, jet aircraft and other sophisticated applications. Fracture mechanics and knowledge of graphite structure in cast iron valve bodies were used to develop a life analysis for plant valves that had been overloaded. Stress and fracture mechanics analyses were performed as well as simple fracture tests that showed the system to be unsafe. www.metalconsult.com /fracturemechanics.html   (816 words)

 FRACTURE MECHANICS MODELING   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Deflection, microcracking and bridging are toughening mechanisms in fracture of brittle matrices that affect surface roughness. Characterization of fracture surfaces is an area of investigation that provides understanding about the relationship of geometry and microstructure to the mechanical behavior of mortar and concrete. Mechanisms involved in fracture such as microcracking, aggregate deflection, bridging and roughness induced closure are indicated by physical evidence or artifacts during or after the separation of the material with a macrocrack. archnt2.tamu.edu /anichols/index_files/pubs_data/bmc-5/bmc-5.htm   (2722 words)

 eFunda: Introduction to Fracture Mechanics After the fundamentals of fracture mechanics were established around 1960, scientists began to concentrate on the plasticity of the crack tips. Thereafter, many experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the models of fracture mechanics. Recent trends of fracture research include dynamic and time-dependent fracture on nonlinear materials, fracture mechanics of microstructures, and models related to local, global, and geometry-dependent fractures. www.efunda.com /formulae/solid_mechanics/fracture_mechanics/fm_intro.cfm   (533 words)

 STRUCTURAL: Chapter 10: Fracture Mechanics (UP19980818)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) The engineering field of fracture mechanics was established to develop a basic understanding of such crack propagation problems. Fracture mechanics deals with the study of how a crack or flaw in a structure propagates under applied loads. Solving a fracture mechanics problem involves performing a linear elastic or elastic-plastic static analysis and then using specialized postprocessing commands or macros to calculate desired fracture parameters. www.uic.edu /depts/accc/software/ansys/html/guide_55/g-str/GSTR10.htm   (1707 words)

 Fracture Mechanics - R. J. Sanford For a first course in the Mechanics of Fracture at the graduate level (or senior undergraduates with a background in engineering mechanics). The attention of Principles of Fracture Mechanics is on the mathematical principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics and their application to engineering design. The book is a self-contained manual on the mechanics aspects of the theory of brittle fracture and fatigue and is suitable for either self-study or classroom instruction. www.wam.umd.edu /~sanford/fracmech.html   (202 words)

 Expert in: Fracture Mechanics Professor Expert has devoted most of his professional career in research and development of fracture mechanics concepts, as well as the application of these concepts to industrial products such as aerospace structure, nuclear power plants, chemical and oil plants, and automobiles. He is particularly interested in the application of dynamic fracture mechanics for designing crack arresters in airplane fuselages, nuclear power plants, oil and gas transmission lines, and civil structures. He was the Honoree of the International Conference on Dynamic Fracture Mechanics in 1984 and the International Symposium on Fracture Mechanics and Life Management of Materials and Structures in 1995. www.intota.com /viewbio.asp?bioID=604214&perID=716035   (423 words)

 Fracture Mechanics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Fracture mechanics provides a methodology evaluating the structural integrity of components containing such defects, and demonstrating whether they are capable of continued, safe operation. VIPER performs a probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluation of a BWR pressure vessel to determine the probability of failure associated with a specific vessel in-service inspection program. SI is a highly recognized company in the application of fracture mechanics to the evaluation of flawed components. www.structint.com /tekbrefs/sib96154   (1073 words)

 DANotes: Fracture Mechanics: Plasticity As with materials' other mechanical properties, fracture toughness is tabulated in the literature, though not so extensively as is yield strength for example. Material at the centre of the component however, is not free to deform laterally as it is constrained by the surrounding material. We now examine yielding fracture mechanics to see how we might handle the inevitable interaction between the two failure mechanisms of LEFM and plastic collapse. www.mech.uwa.edu.au /DANotes/fracture/plasticity/plasticity.html   (768 words)

 Fracture Mechanics Fracture mechanics approaches require that an initial crack size be known or assumed. Fracture mechanics approaches are used to estimate the propagation life. Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) is based on the application of the theory of elasticity to bodies containing cracks or defects. www.key-to-steel.com /Articles/Art45.htm   (1173 words)

 Technology > Fracture Mechanics Intended for a first course in the mechanics of fracture at the graduate level (or senior undergraduates with a background in engineering mechanics) the focus of the book is on the mathematical principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics and their application to engineering design. Valuable self-contained text, supplementing standard fracture mechanics texts by focusing on analytical methods for determining crack-tip stress and strain fields, presents the only proven solution technique for the second-order nonlinear partial differential equation governing a mode I elastoplastic crack problem. The appearance of the surface, particularly the topography, depends on both the type of material broken and the conditions under which it was broken, such as stress, temperature, or environment. www.libreriauniversitaria.it /BUS/r_TEC01300/p_1/Fracture_Mechanics.htm   (475 words)

 EN222: Mechanics of Solids - Fracture Mechanics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Many of the techniques of fracture mechanics rely on the assumption that, if one gets sufficiently close to the tip of the crack, the stress, displacement and strain fields always look the same (differing only in magnitude).  The fields near a crack tip are a fundamental result in fracture mechanics. The objective of linear elastic fracture mechanics is to predict the critical loads that will cause a crack in a solid to grow.  For fatigue applications or dynamic fracture, the rate and direction of crack growth are also of interest. Conducting a fracture test or fatigue test is (at least conceptually) straightforward – you make a specimen (for fracture tests a sharp crack is usually created by initiating a fatigue crack at the tip of a notch); and load it in a tensile testing machine. www.engin.brown.edu /courses/En222/Notes/Fracturemechs/Fracturemechs.htm   (4597 words)

 Summary: fracture mechanics of bone   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) I asked why there seemed to be so little in the literature regarding the use of fracture mechanics concepts, although a number of people have measured (or attempted to measure) the fracture properties of bones. Fractures in life are either sudden and catastrophic events (where impact properties may have been more relevant to study) or slow progressive 'stress fracture' phenomena. Perhaps fracture mechanics can be used to improve our ability to predict failure loads, but there may be even bigger challenges to overcome before clinical fractures can be reliably predicted. isb.ri.ccf.org /biomch-l/archives/biomch-l-1997-05/00160.html   (2656 words)

 DISLOCATION BASED FRACTURE MECHANICS Fracture mechanics is developed in this text from its dislocation foundation. It is written for the graduate student and the new investigator entering the fracture field as well as the experienced scientist who has not used the dislocation approach. The dislocation mechanics needed to find the dislocation density fields of crack tip plastic zones is developed in detail. www.worldscibooks.com /materialsci/3062.html   (246 words)

 Fracture Mechanics Fracture mechanics help to explain why there is a right and a wrong way to work stone in the process of tool making. The two most important factors affecting the fracture mechanics of rocks are the graininess of the rock and the rock's elasticity. The second factor affecting the fracture mechanics of rocks is their elasticity. id-archserve.ucsb.edu /Anth3/Courseware/LithicTech/3_Fracture_Mechanics.html   (632 words)

 DANotes: Fracture Mechanics: Introduction Fracture Mechanics is the study of cracks and crack-like defects - such as might occur in welds for example - with a view to understanding and predicting the cracks' growth tendencies. Fatigue is recognised as a mechanism of crack growth terminated by catastrophic fracture - hence the S-N diagram which may be used to predict failure. Fracture mechanics in the absence of plastic effects is known as www.mech.uwa.edu.au /DANotes/fracture/intro/intro.html   (1477 words)

 Bookworkz:: Fracture Mechanics of Concrete: Applications of Fracture Mechanics to Concrete, Rock and Other ... FRACTURE MECHANICS OF CONCRETE AND ROCK This book offers engineers a unique opportunity to learn, from internationally recognized leaders in their field, about the latest theoretical advances in fracture mechanics in concrete, reinforced concrete structures, and rock. Over the past few years, researchers employing techniques borrowed from fracture mechanics have made many groundbreaking discoveries concerning the causes and effects of cracking, damage, and fractures of plain and reinforced concrete structures and rock. Yet, despite the field's growth and the growing conviction that fracture mechanics is indispensable to an understanding of material and structural failure, there continues to be a surprising shortage of textbooks and professional references on the subject. www.bookworkz.com /construction/engineering/0471303119.html   (424 words)

 Third Edition Book   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications is very well done, the writing is clear, and there are many illustrations that help clarify the text." Appl. In addition to these enhancements, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, Third Edition also includes detailed mathematical derivations in appendices at the end of applicable chapters; recent developments in laboratory testing, application to structures, and computational methods; coverage of micromechanisms of fracture; and more than 400 illustrations. This reference continues to be a necessity on the desk of anyone involved with fracture mechanics. www.srt-boulder.com /book.htm   (346 words)

 Fracture mechanics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) A central concept is the Griffith criterion: Crack growth is energetically favourable when the decrease in the potential energy (during an incremental crack growth) is equal (or exceeds) the energy absorbed by the fracture process. A particular useful tool in fracture mechanics modelling is the J integral. Then, crack growth can be stopped and reinitiated, so that the fracture energy can be determined from the growth of a truly sharp crack (in contrast to crack initiation from a machined notch). www.risoe.dk /afm/personal/bsqr/fracture.htm   (350 words)

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