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Topic: Free radical


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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  
  Free-radical theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In biochemistry, the free radicals of interest are often referred to as "reactive oxygen species" (ROS) because the most biologically significant free radicals are oxygen-centred; however it should be noted that not all free radicals are ROS and not all ROS are free radicals.
This involvment is not at all surprising as free radical damage is an important aspect of phagocytosis, inflammation, and apoptosis.
The free radical theory of disease states that disease is associated with abnormal levels of oxidation and the generation of free radical damage.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Free-radical_theory   (724 words)

  
 Radical middle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Various groups have adopted "radical middle" as a term to describe a third way philosophy which includes their belief that, in affirming the core principles involved on both sides of a dilemma, the dilemma or disagreement can be rendered moot.
The political application of radical middle philosophy is represented by a cluster of loosely related terms and movements: radical middle, radical centrist, responsive communitarian, third-way, etc. As a relatively grass-roots movement, especially in the United States, there is no definitive statement of radical middle politics.
While the term radical center has been used in various ways since at least the 1970s, it first had a major influence in the 1990s due to the Reform Party and Ross Perot, who were frequently described as representing the radical middle due to their attempts to partisanize those portions of the American electorate.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Radical_centrism   (1724 words)

  
 Free Radical Encyclopedia Article @ LaunchBase.org (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In chemistry, Radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration.
Free radicals may also be involved in Parkinson's disease, senile and drug-induced deafness, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's.
The free radical theory of aging proposes that free radicals underly the aging process itself.
www.launchbase.org /encyclopedia/Free_radical   (1698 words)

  
 Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry: Free Radical Metabolites
Free radicals are constantly formed in the body during normal metabolic processes, and biological systems have evolved to live with them, control them and even utilize them.
The evidence for formate -derived radical metabolites in vivo, during acute sodium formate poisoning is provided by ESR spin trapping of the radicals from the metabolism of formate, which are detected in bile and urine as radical adducts.
Recently, free radicals have been a special focus as the final causative molecules in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury caused by P. aeruginosa infection, although there is no direct evidence of free radical generation in lung injury caused by P. aeruginosa in vivo.
dir.niehs.nih.gov /dirlpc/freer.htm   (1703 words)

  
 Free Radical Introduction
Free radicals are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired electron(s).
A free radical prefers to steal electrons from the lipid membrane of a cell, initiating a free radical attack on the cell known as lipid peroxidation.
Free radicals are commonly associated with the inflammatory response and are hypothesized to be greatest twenty-four hours after completion of a strenuous exercise session.
www.exrx.net /Nutrition/Antioxidants/Introduction.html   (2206 words)

  
 Polymer Synthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The tendency for this free radical to gain an additional electron in order to form a pair makes it highly reactive so that it breaks the bond on another molecule by stealing an electron, learing that molecule with an unpaired election (which is another free radical).
In free radical polymerization, the radical attacks one monomer, and the electron migrates to another part of the molecule.
In this reaction, the active center of the radical "grabs" one of the electrons from the double bond of the monomer, leaving an unpaired electron to appear as a new active center at the end of the chain.
plc.cwru.edu /tutorial/enhanced/files/polymers/synth/synth.htm   (1188 words)

  
 Antioxidants and Free radicals
Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules.
Because it is not possible to directly measure free radicals in the body, scientists have approached this question by measuring the by-products that result from free radical reactions.
A placebo controlled study done on mountaineers demonstrated less free radical damage and decline in anaerobic threshold in those athletes supplemented with vitamin E. Although difficult to generalize, this finding suggests that supplementation with vitamin E might be beneficial in those triathletes who are adapting to higher elevations.
www.rice.edu /~jenky/sports/antiox.html   (1404 words)

  
 Free Radical Mechanisms Menu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Free radical substitution of hydrogen atoms in methane by chlorine atoms.
Free radical substitution of hydrogen atoms in methane by bromine atoms.
Free radical substitution of hydrogen atoms in the methyl group in methylbenzene by chlorine atoms in the presence of UV light (sunlight).
www.chemguide.co.uk /mechanisms/frmenu.html   (137 words)

  
 Free Radical Halogenation Mechanism
Free radical halogenation is a reaction that substitutes a chlorine or a bromine for a hydrogen on an alkane.
A point of note about free radical processes is that the intermediates are so highly reactive and short lived that usually you obtain a mixture of products, even though there is preference for forming more highly substituted free radical intermediates.
Free radical chlorination, though, would not be quite as selective, and there would be a greater amount of the chlorination of the primary carbon than in the bromination reaction.
www.chemhelper.com /frhalog.html   (649 words)

  
 How Antioxidants Work and Which Foods Help
They are "free" because they are missing a critical molecule, which sends them on a rampage to pair with another molecule.
When free radicals are on the attack, they don't just kill cells to acquire their missing molecule.
Free radicals trigger a damaging chain reaction, and that's the crux of the problem.
www.webmd.com /content/article/104/107639.htm   (670 words)

  
 Free Radicals and Antioxidants, K1
Free radicals are atoms or molecules that are highly reactive with other cellular structures because they contain unpaired electrons.
Free radicals are natural by-products of ongoing biochemical reactions in the body, including ordinary metabolic processes and immune system responses.
Free radicals can cause damage to parts of cells such as proteins, DNA, and cell membranes by stealing their electrons through a process called oxidation.
www.stanford.edu /group/hopes/treatmts/antiox/k1.html   (312 words)

  
 The Original, Patented Free Radical Scavenger
Free radicals are causal factors in nearly every known disease, from heart disease to arthritis to brain disorders to cataracts to the aging process itself.
Contemporary scientists now believe that free radicals are causal factors in nearly every known disease, from heart disease to arthritis to brain disorders to cataracts to the aging process itself.
Some free radicals are beneficial in the body, such as nitric oxide, which acts as a neurotransmitter when the immune system is functioning properly.
www.healthysource.com /antioxidant.html   (3019 words)

  
 IAS Bulletin Article: The Free Radical Theory of Aging   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Denham Harman, the "father" of the free radical theory of aging, has defined "aging" as the increased probability of death as the age of an organism increases, and diverse adverse physiologic changes accumulate.
Their experiments "found that pyritinol exerts a pronounced scavenger action against hydroxyl radicals which was confirmed by the electron spin resonance spectroscopic technique in spin trapping experiments." (40) PYR protected both serum albumin and brain cytosol protein from OHR attack (40).
Reiter, R. et al (1996) "Melatonin in the context of the free radical theory of aging: Ann NY Acad Sci 786: 362-78.
www.antiaging-systems.com /extract/freeradical.htm   (5380 words)

  
 Understanding Free Radicals and Antioxidants
Free radicals are very unstable and react quickly with other compounds, trying to capture the needed electron to gain stability.
Of particular importance is that free radical damage accumulates with age.
The antioxidant nutrients themselves don’t become free radicals by donating an electron because they are stable in either form They act as scavengers, helping to prevent cell and tissue damage that could lead to cellular damage and disease.
www.healthchecksystems.com /antioxid.htm   (796 words)

  
 Free Radical Test Kit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Carol Ann Ryser M.D. The Free Radical Test is the world's first and only non-invasive urine test that measures the amount of free radicals or oxidants in the body within five minutes.
The free radical theory of aging says that it is the primary cause of aging itself.
It is only when free radicals become unconfined and excessive and start attacking normal, healthy tissue that disease takes place.
www.naturalhealthconsult.com /Monographs/Freeradical.html   (650 words)

  
 Free Radical - Men and Women Health Report
Free radicals were protesting in the 1960's and early 1970's, but they pretty much quieted down when Nixon resigned.
However, the type of errant free radicals that cavort in your body causing all sorts of long-term damage can only be disarmed and silenced through antioxidants.
Free radicals invade the body in a multitude of ways: pollution, poor food, smoking, and even from excessive exercise.
www.feel21.com /site/reports.cfm?id=antioxidants.html   (757 words)

  
 Free-radical model too radical
Tert-butoxyl radical is easy to make in a lab, and was believed to be a good model for oxygen free-radicals in general.
The Virginia Tech researchers began to explore the properties of t-butoxyl radical when the department acquired a new laser system and the researchers wanted to study chemistry that had been well studied and reported in the literature so they could learn how to use the system.
The paper, "Oxidation of tertiary amines by tert-butoxyl radical: Model studies for radical reactions in biological systems (Medi 28)," by Friedline, Tanko, student Christopher Wohl, and professor Neal Castagnoli, all of Virgnia Tech, and N. Kamrudin Suleman of the University of Guam, will be presented on Sunday, March 23, at 4:10 p.m.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2003-03/vt-fmt031703.php   (673 words)

  
 Explaining the methylbenzene - chlorine free radical substitution mechanism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
To show that a species (either an atom or a group of atoms) is a free radical, the symbol is written with a dot attached to show the unpaired electron.
The phenylmethyl radical takes one of the chlorine atoms to form (chloromethyl)benzene (which is what we want to make), but in the process generates another chlorine radical.
The over-all process is known as free radical substitution, or as a free radical chain reaction.
www.chemguide.co.uk /mechanisms/freerad/tolcl2tt.html   (950 words)

  
 FREE RADICAL RESEARCH — OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR FREE RADICAL RESEARCH - EUROPEAN REGION -- ...
Free Radical Research aims to publish high-quality research papers, hypotheses and reviews in all areas in the fields of reactive species / redox biochemistry/ redox signalling/ antioxidants / oxidative damage.
Free Radical Research considers all manuscripts on the strict condition that they have been submitted only to Free Radical Research, that they have not been published already, and that they are not under consideration for publication or in press elsewhere.
Authors who fail to adhere to this condition will be charged with all costs which Free Radical Research incurs and their papers will not be published.
www.tandf.co.uk /journals/authors/gfrrauth.asp   (882 words)

  
 BBC NEWS | Health | Doubt cast on free radical theory
The researchers say their findings may have profound implications for the way conditions linked to free radicals are treated.
The researchers discovered that it is not free radicals that give white blood cells their destructive power, but enzymes which effectively digest foreign invaders.
This, they postulate, shows that free radicals are by no means the toxic particles that had been assumed.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/health/3485508.stm   (556 words)

  
 Reason magazine -- November 2001, Free Radical: Christopher Hitchens interviewed by Rhys Southan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Hitchens: Karl Marx was possibly the consummate anti-statist in his original writings and believed that the state was not the solution to social problems, but the outcome of them, the forcible resolution in favor of one ruling group.
In my memory, the demand of the student radical was for the university to stop behaving as if it was my parent, in loco parentis.
The revolutionary, radical forces in British life were being led by the conservatives.
reason.com /0111/fe.rs.free.shtml   (4479 words)

  
 Medical College of Wisconsin - Free Radical Research Center   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The Medical College of Wisconsin Free Radical Research Center is a spin-off from the National Biomedical EPR Center, which was founded by Professor Harold Swartz in 1975 and subsequently funded as a Biotechnology Research Resource by the National Institutes of Health.
The ESR Center Free Radical collaboration became a vital research component in many NIH-funded grant applications at the Medical College of Wisconsin and other institutions in the U.S. In September 2000, the Medical College of Wisconsin Free Radical Research Center was created as part of the
The Medical College of Wisconsin Free Radical Research Center is unique because this center is closely associated with the EPR Research Resource and with an MRI facility.
www.mcw.edu /display/router.asp?docid=1401   (520 words)

  
 New Free Radical game from Ubisoft - Ferrago   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
UK developer Free Radical, the studio behind the TimeSplitters series and most recently the psychic-shooter Second Sight from Codemasters, have today announced a brand new publishing deal with French publishing house Ubisoft, covering a brand-spanking new game.
An original 'IP' of the Second Sight order is promised by Free Radical, for the PC and 'next-generation' consoles, and it will be published between mid-2006 and early 2007.
Neither the name nor the premise of Free Radical's new opus was revealed in the publisher's press release, however Ubisoft are promising a 'mature-themed' action game which will present the player with moral choices.
www.ferrago.com /story/6906   (205 words)

  
 Free Radical Vinyl Polymerization
Polymers made by free radical polymerization include polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl acetate) and branched polyethylene.
This whole process, the breakdown of the initiator molecule to form radicals, followed by the radical's reaction with a monomer molecule is called the initiation step of the polymerization.
Radicals are unstable, and eventually they are going to find a way to become paired without generating a new radical.
www.pslc.ws /mactest/radical.htm   (1028 words)

  
 Free Radical
The Oklahoma Library Association placed Free Radical on its master list for the Sequoyah Young Adult Book Award.
In Free Radical, Luke helps set up a session to help his mom and the victim’s family.
In some meetings, the victim and the offender are joined by family, as happened in Free Radical.
www.clairerudolfmurphy.com /index.2ts?page=radical   (503 words)

  
 Frequently Asked Questions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Yes we are, but rather than disappoint people with long development times and broken promises, we prefer not to talk about our future products until we have something to show, and a good idea about how long it will take us to get it finished.
Free Radical is wholly owned by its founders and currently has no plans to become a Plc.
If you think you fit this description then feel free to send your CV to jobs@frd.co.uk.
www.frd.co.uk /faq.html   (360 words)

  
 - The Free Radical Online   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
"The Free Radical is simultaneously infuriating and enlightening, but always provocative.
It is an entertaining forum for the colorful exchange of ideas, a place where advocates of the free society can argue about everything from theory to strategy."
The Free Radical is published bi-monthly in New Zealand.
www.freeradical.co.nz   (339 words)

  
 Taylor & Francis Journals: Welcome
Official Journal of the Society for Free Radical Research - European Region Visit the organisation site
Free Radical Research publishes articles on the chemistry of free radicals, the production of free radicals by xenobiotics and biological systems, free radical damage to cells and tissues, and defence mechanisms against free radical damage.
The journal's purpose is to facilitate the rapid publication of emerging ideas and developments through significant research papers and hypotheses as well as short communications and reviews.
www.tandf.co.uk /journals/titles/10715762.asp   (106 words)

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