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Topic: Freedmen


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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  
  Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmen's Bureau or (mistakenly) the Freedman's Bureau, was an agency of the government of the United States that was formed to aid distressed refugees of the United States Civil War, including former slaves and poor white farmers.
Freedmen and freedwomen turned to the Bureau for assistance in fixing domestic problems such as abandonment and divorce.
Although its efforts were noble, the Freedmen's Bureau could do little to reverse the sociological effects of slavery and had almost no funds or staff to support successful investigations to locate loved ones.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Freedmen's_Bureau   (1342 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Freedmen's Bureau (U.S. History) - Encyclopedia
Freedmen's Bureau, in U.S. history, a federal agency, formed to aid and protect the newly freed fls in the South after the Civil War.
Established by an act of Mar. 3, 1865, under the name "bureau of refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lands," it was to function for one year after the close of the war.
A bill extending its life indefinitely and greatly increasing its powers was vetoed (Feb. 19, 1866) by President Andrew Johnson, who viewed the legislation as an unwarranted (and unconstitutional) continuation of war powers in peacetime.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/F/Freedmen.html   (486 words)

  
 II. Of the Dawn of Freedom. Du Bois, W. E. B. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk
The champions of the bill argued that the strengthening of the Freedmen’s Bureau was still a military necessity; that it was needed for the proper carrying out of the Thirteenth Amendment, and was a work of sheer justice to the ex-slave, at a trifling cost to the government.
The greatest success of the Freedmen’s Bureau lay in the planting of the free school among Negroes, and the idea of free elementary education among all classes in the South.
Then in one sad day came the crash,—all the hard-earned dollars of the freedmen disappeared; but that was the least of the loss,—all the faith in saving went too, and much of the faith in men; and that was a loss that a Nation which to-day sneers at Negro shiftlessness has never yet made good.
www.bartleby.com /114/2.html   (5892 words)

  
 NARA | Prologue | Prologue: Special Issue on Federal Records and African American History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Freedmen's Bureau records provide data about family structure, migration patterns, poverty, and attitudes toward education that are useful not only in gaining a clearer picture of the past but also in understanding the present.
Freedmen's Bureau records provide more than clues to these questions, and they attest to the fact that slavery was the root cause of the Civil War and that the place of the freedmen was one of the ongoing issues in American history.
Records of the Freedmen's Branch of the Adjutant General's Office are a part of the Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group 105, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC (hereinafter, records in the National Archives will be cited as RG ___, NA).
www.archives.gov /publications/prologue/summer_1997_freedmens_bureau_records.html   (2164 words)

  
 Freedmen, The Freed Slaves of the Civil War
Freedmen was the term given to those slaves who became free men after the U.S. Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1862.
Many freedmen, herded into contraband camps, were hired out to loyal Unionist plantation owners for low wages, and others in the Western theater were assigned parcels of confiscated lands for subsistence farming.
Out of this commission's report, was born, on March 4, 1865, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the "Freedmen's Bureau." Despite it's official title it's main purpose was to help the more than four million former slaves, most with any resources or education populating the South after the war.
www.civilwarhome.com /freedmen.htm   (1255 words)

  
 [No title]
THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU by W. Burghardt Du Bois The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line; the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea.
The bill was conservative, giving the new department "general superintendence of all freedmen." It was to "establish regulations" for them, protect them, lease them lands, adjust their wages, and appear in civil and military courts as their "next friend." There were many limitations attached to the powers thus granted, and the organization was made permanent.
The champions of the bill argued that the strengthening of the Freedmen's Bureau was still a military necessity; that it was needed for the proper carrying out of the Thirteenth Amendment, and was a work of sheer justice to the ex- slave, at a trifling cost to the government.
eserver.org /history/freedmens-bureau.txt   (5414 words)

  
 Journal of Women's History--African-American Women, Apprenticeship, and Custody Rights during Reconstruction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Freedmen's Code of 1866, which modified this law to apply to children of newly freed slaves, instructed courts not only to apprentice former slave children, but also to give priority to their former masters in contracting the apprenticeship.
In a deposition to the Freedmen's Bureau, William James stated that his sister "was fully able to support and provide" for her children and argued that the children were his sister's responsibility, and not his own, absolving himself of any obligations as the head of the household.
Freedmen's Bureau records are replete with letters from freedwomen demanding the return of children who had been bound out without their consent.
iupjournals.org /jwh/jwh12-1.html   (9219 words)

  
 New Georgia Encyclopedia: Freedmen's Education during Reconstruction
Of the nearly fifty aid societies working in freedmen's education in the 1860s, only seven were active in Georgia.
Until 1870, while sustaining their own schools, the freedmen—nearly half of the state's population—were also required to pay school taxes for privileges from which they were excluded.
Adult freedmen sought the benefits of literacy for themselves as avidly as they sought schools for their children.
www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.org /nge/Article.jsp?id=h-634   (1091 words)

  
 Freedmen's Bureau   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Freedmen Bureau, as it was commonly called, was to address all matters concerning refugees and freedmen within the states that were under reconstruction.
The Freedmen's Bureau was headed by Commissioner General O. Howard who was appointed by President Andrew Johnson with the consent of the Senate.
The advocates of the Freedmen's Bureau had genuine intentions to aide the African-American population prosper as freedmen, but the lack of funding and support from the federal govenment in conjuction with opposition at the local level tempered the Bureau's success.
valley.vcdh.virginia.edu /HIUS403/freedmen/overview.html   (480 words)

  
 Making History on the Web: Sample Course: Unit 6
Freedmen and women knit together family ties separated by slavery and the war by sending their children to schools and regulating their own affairs with their own institutions.
As eager as the freedmen were for domestic security and cultural independence, they also realized that the full measure of freedom could come only with economic independence.
Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands to Fanny Grymes, re: surviving relatives trying to collect the pension due Henry Brooks, son of Grymes' former slaves and private in the 23rd US Colored troops during the war, 2 March 1871.
www.iath.virginia.edu /seminar/unit6   (445 words)

  
 The Choctaw Freedmen of Oklahoma
There were less than 100 freedmen who left the nation in the 1880s right before adoption, who elected to leave due to many hostilities directed towards them in some localities.
The vast majority of Choctaw Freedmen, remained in the land where they were born, had lived, married, toiled, and buried their dead.
However, a majority of the Freedmen remained steadfast, determined to remain in the land of their birth, as law abiding Choctaw citizens.
www.african-nativeamerican.com /8-chocfreed.htm   (637 words)

  
 News > Cherokee Freedmen caught in high-level dispute
In it, he accused Hanna of tramping on the tribe's sovereignty because she sought assurances that the Cherokee Freedmen, descendants of Africans who were made members of the tribe in a post-Civil War treaty, were allowed to vote.
The Freedmen want a federal judge to hold back the BIA's approval of the election and new constitution until their voting rights are restored.
According to the Descendants of Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes Association, an organization representing African descendants of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole nations, there are 25,000 Cherokee Freedmen.
www.indianz.com /News/archives/000930.asp   (1181 words)

  
 News > Seminole Freedmen lose another court appeal
The decision, written by Judge Harris L Hartz, is the latest in a series of defeats for the Freedmen, descendants of Africans who were made members of the tribe by a post-Civil War treaty.
Although Congress placed no limit on who would be eligible to use the money, the tribe excludes Freedmen from educational, social service and elder programs supported by the fund because the Freedmen were not tribal members when the land was lost in the early 1800s.
The Freedmen of the Cherokee Nation are in a similar situation and cannot vote in elections unless they demonstrate Cherokee blood.
www.indianz.com /News/archives/001391.asp   (724 words)

  
 News-Star OnlineGovernment recognizes Seminole Freedmen 10/26/03
The Freedmen have long been citizens of the tribe but were denied the benefits afforded other members.
The Freedmen are descendants of fl slaves who were freed by the tribe in the 19th century.
Representatives of the BIA gathered with several hundred Freedmen at Friday's meeting in Seminole to explain the benefits that are available to them.
www.news-star.com /stories/102603/New_79.shtml   (284 words)

  
 Freedmen's Bureau   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The greatest successes of the Freedmen's Bureau were in the field of education.
White Southerners were generally hostile toward the bureau and its activities, and in the postwar South, the Freedmen's Bureau became the only guardian of civil rights the former slaves could turn to.
Some fls were settled on public lands under the Homestead Act of 1862, but the bureau's hopes of massive land redistribution in the South did not materialize, thwarted by President Andrew Johnson's restoration of abandoned lands pardoned Southerners.
civilwar.bluegrass.net /SlaveryAndEmancipation/freedmensbureau.html   (314 words)

  
 Freedmen and Southern Society Project
Clothed in the rhetoric of biblical prophecy and national destiny and born of a bloody civil war, it accomplished a profound social revolution.
The Freedmen and Southern Society Project was established in 1976 to capture the essence of that revolution by depicting the drama of emancipation in the words of the participants: liberated slaves and defeated slaveholders, soldiers and civilians, common folk and the elite, Northerners and Southerners.
The Freedmen and Southern Society Project's website has been designated "one of the best sites on the Internet for education in the humanities" and is showcased on EDSITEment, a joint project of the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Council of Great City Schools, and MCI Communications Corp.
www.history.umd.edu /Freedmen   (616 words)

  
 BLACK INDIANS UNITED
Like the Freedmen Descendants of the 5 Civilized Tribes, Inc. of Kansas, the Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund is focused on educating members, and the general public regarding the history, culture and political rights of those particular to the Dawes Freedmen Enrollment.
To promote, assist in collecting, and preserving Oklahoma Freedmen History and Artifacts, to promote the unique cultural diversity of Freedmen Descendants for the general benefit and good of individuals, collective Tribes, representative communities, in the States and Nations.
Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund’s goal is to advance laws and regulations that recognize the Freedmen Descendants in all its Sovereign ty as a nation outlined in the treaties of 1866.
home.kc.rr.com /blackindiansunit   (3031 words)

  
 untitled
Shortly after the Committee on Freedmen was appointed John A. Bingham of Ohio introduced a joint resolution to amend the Constitution "to empower Congress to pass all necessary and proper laws to secure to all persons in their rights, life, liberty, and property.
The freedmen audience of such newspapers must have concluded that the then proposed amendment would further protect their right to keep and bear arms, as well as their right to many other liberties.
The Freedmen's Bureau Act declared that "the constitutional right to bear arms" is included among the "laws and proceedings concerning personal liberty, personal security," and estate, and that "the free enjoyment of such immunities and rights" is to be protected.
www.saf.org /journal/7_14.html   (16929 words)

  
 [No title]
Freedmen's Town was established after news of the Emancipation Proclamation reached Texas in 1865 -- by Freed Slaves who migrated from plantations to create this settlement, which is now the last of its kind left intact in the United States.
The fl founders, allowed to live only in an uninhabitable area near the bayou, filled in the swamplands by pouring dirt, bucket by bucket, until there was firm land to build their houses.
Freedmen's Town has been nominated to the National Trust for Historic Preservation 's 11 Most Endangered Historic Places.
www.houstonprogressive.org /reporter.html   (646 words)

  
 Descendants of Freedmen
The conference supports the primary goal of this Black Indian organization, which is to enhance public awareness of Black Indian Freedmen and Native American cultures by educating our members, supporters, and the general public regarding the history and cultures of the two groups.
Freedmen descendants will also have an opportunity to share their family stories, and present their family photos during the open forum session.
The organization is currently funding two cases on behalf of the Cherokee Freedmen, and Creek Freedmen.
www.freedmenconference.com   (453 words)

  
 Handbook of Texas Online: FREEDMEN'S BUREAU
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, commonly known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established by Congress in March 1865 as a branch of the United States Army.
Because the Freedmen's Bureau was an agency of the United States Army white Texans generally viewed it as an extension of the army of occupation imposed on them by the victorious North, as further evidence of the Northern desire for revenge.
Esther Lane Thompson, The Influence of the Freedmen's Bureau on the Education of the Negro in Texas (M.A. thesis, Texas Southern University, 1956).
www.tsha.utexas.edu /handbook/online/articles/print/FF/ncf1.html   (2213 words)

  
 Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen
In the decades that followed, the freedmen established lives for themselves and made ecomomic gains for themselves faster than the freedmen in the United States.
The Creek freedmen were among the first to stablish schools for fls.
Most of the Freedmen of Indian Territory who were adults when freed, were bilingual, speaking both English and the language of their Indian slave owners.
www.cherokeebyblood.com /blackindians.htm   (4479 words)

  
 Handbook of Texas Online: RECONSTRUCTION
Military views regarding the freedmen posed, at least in the minds of white Texans, a permanent disruption of their labor system and, subsequently, their entire economy.
The bureau was charged with overseeing all matters concerning refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lands, but its principal role was helping the new freedmen make the transition from slavery to freedom.
Throckmorton believed that the army and the Freedmen's Bureau meddled unreasonably in civil affairs and that the army was not doing its duty on the frontier.
www.tsha.utexas.edu /handbook/online/articles/view/RR/mzr1.html   (6198 words)

  
 The Politics of Andrew Johnson
Republicans were quite willing to offer freedmen the same opportunity to acquire land as whites already enjoyed under the Homestead Act of 1862, but not to interfere with planters' property rights.
The freedmen, moreover, entirely lacked capital, and federal land offices were few and poorly managed.
Like his rejection of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill, Johnson’s veto message repudiated not merely the specific terms of the Civil Rights Bill, but the entire principle behind it.
historymatters.gmu.edu /impeach2.html   (1578 words)

  
 Freedmen of the Five Civilzed Tribes, Black Indians
Slave owners in Indian Territory is a list of Slave owners complied from several sources, the 1837 Census before removal, the 1847 census after removal, the 1860 slave schedules and the enrollment cards of Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes.
The 1860 Slave Schedules provides the name of the slave owner, with his slaves, although slave names are not listed ages, gender and race can be a useful tool in locating family groups.
Freedmen Surnames is an alphabetical listing of surnames particular to the Five Civilized Tribes, listed after each name is the Tribe that you will find these names.
freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com /~ewyatt/How_To_Use_Site.html   (514 words)

  
 Freedmen's Bureau Records for Washington D. C.
Freedmen's Bureau Records for Washington D. Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the District of Columbia
Report of Tenants Occupying Tenements under charge of the Bureau Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, District of Columbia, at Seward Barracks, Alexandria, Va. for the seven months ending July 31
Freedmen's Bureau Marriages in Washington, D.C. Freedmen's Bureau Marriages in Washington D.C., pt.
www.freedmensbureau.com /washingtondc   (329 words)

  
 Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes, Black Indians
The data posted to this site are resources for the Freedmen Descendants of the Five Civilized tribes, a means to locate information particular to the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole Freedmen of Indian Territory /Oklahoma.
Researching the Freedmen of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations.
My Choctaw and Chickasaw brothers won't claim me, although my features are much like their on, much like Judas, I or perhaps I should say my Freedmen ancestors were sold out...
freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com /~ewyatt/_borders   (920 words)

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