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Topic: Freeway Revolt

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In the News (Mon 27 May 19)

  Freeway Revolt
San Franciscans ferociously opposed the plan and on January 23, 1959, the Freeway Revolt culminated in a resolution by the Board of Supervisors to remove a half dozen freeways from the City's master plan.
The freeway revolt helped generate public support for BART and bolstered the objective of reducing dependency on freeways and bridges of the Bay Area.
The Freeway Revolt lived on in the form of ballot initiatives and counter initiatives aimed at reversing the tide of freeway encroachment on San Francisco.
www.mistersf.com /notorious/notfreeway02.htm   (264 words)

 Freeway and expressway revolts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Freeway Revolts (sometimes expressway revolts) refer to a phenomenon encountered in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, where planned freeway construction in many U.S. cities was halted due to widespread public opposition; especially of those whose neighborhoods would be disrupted or displaced by the proposed freeways.
The Century Freeway (I-105), itself the subject of an unsuccessful freeway revolt in Hawthorne, South Central Los Angeles, Lynwood, and Downey that lasted nearly two decades, was truncated at the San Gabriel River Freeway (I-605) instead of its intended terminus at the Santa Ana Freeway (I-5) due to opposition from the city of Norwalk.
The Belt Freeway was to be a freeway encircling the metro Milwaukee area on the south, west and north sides.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Freeway_revolts   (5031 words)

The so-called freeway revolt made national news and inspired similar fights around the country.
The freeway foes sowed the seeds of a generation of activists who argued that cities were places where people lived, centers of human culture – not just places devoted to commerce and industry.
In essence, the freeway revolt was the first outcropping of what would later be called the urban environmental movement.
www.sfbg.com /38/26/cover_freeway.html   (1554 words)

 Peter Norton: "Fighting Traffic"
For example, while new freeways were providing automobiles unprecedented ease of access to cities, substantially less federal money was provided for the downtown streets that had to bear the increased load, and no money at all was available to provide the record numbers of cars with parking.
First, the freeway revolt, and especially its successes, are symptomatic of the possibilities open to political minorities in a relatively decentralized federal system.
A second important concomitant of the freeway revolt were the new sources of authority in urban planning that emerged from it.
etext.lib.virginia.edu /journals/EH/EH38/Norton.html   (9787 words)

 San Francisco's Freeway Plan
The city's "Freeway Revolt," a 1959 Board of Supervisors vote to cancel 7 of 10 routes, killed most of the ones shown in gray.
I-280 was originally to follow the Junipero Serra and Park Presidio freeways toward the Golden Gate Bridge; a junction with an extended I-80 was deleted in the mid-1950s.
The Southern Freeway routing to I-80 at the Bay Bridge was adopted in 1961.
www.kurumi.com /roads/3di/sanfran.html   (670 words)

 Embarcadero Freeway   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Considered a blight to the community, blocking the views of the Bay from groundlevel near the Embarcadero, the 480 served as a reminder of the worst of the Freeway Revolt from the time construction stopped in 1966, to the end of its existance in 1990.
Construction on this route began in 1959, as the height of the Freeway Revolt began.
Contrary to popular belief, there was very little earthquake damage to the Freeway in 1989; but because of the public opposition to its existance, this was used as a convenient excuse to finally demolish the routing in 1990.
www.freehostsltd.com /sites/sanfrancisco/emb.htm   (303 words)

 Caltrans News
Badly damaged in the quake, the half-mile northern section of the freeway was demolished.
In the midst of the debate, the process was slowed by a 1997 ballot initiative that asked for the freeway to be built to its original terminus.
Not to be outdone, the backers of the boulevard put their own initiative on the ballot in 1998, asking voters if the original freeway should be replaced with a shorter freeway ramp and a boulevard.
www.dot.ca.gov /ctnews/jun06/centralartery.shtml   (912 words)

 Interstate 480 California @ Interstate-Guide.com
A freeway revolt in the mid-1960s caused most freeway construction within the city to grind to a halt, and the northern end of Interstate 280 was shifted toward the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.
Interstate 480 was downgraded to California 480 because the Embarcadero Freeway was truncated at the Sansome Street/Battery Street couplet near Broadway in 1965.
The California 480 freeway obstructed views of the bay from the city, and its two levels dominated the skyline of the city as seen from the bay and Yerba Buena Island.
www.interstate-guide.com /i-480_ca.html   (939 words)

 Out of the Shadows
Nearly five years after voters approved a ballot measure to replace a portion of San Francisco’s Central Freeway with a boulevard, and a half century after that very freeway sparked a revolt on freeway construction, the freeway closed.
The freeway is closed, and demolition is set to put the final seal on its fate.
The time spent under the freeway's shadow has run its course, and the celebrating residents are awaiting the day when sun shines on their neighborhood again.
www.newcolonist.com /centralfw.html   (900 words)

 Wisconsin Highways: Milwaukee Freeways
Park Freeway – from the Lake Freeway on the lakefront downtown westerly to a connection with the Stadium Freeway.
Zoo Freeway – from the Fond du Lac Freeway in northwest Milwaukee County southerly to the Airport and Rock Freeways.
According to Cutler, the coalition's main points were that the freeways divided neighborhoods, they were primarily intended for suburban commuters to reach their jobs faster, and to also facilitate the evacuation of industry from the cities to the suburbs.
www.wisconsinhighways.org /milwaukee/index.html   (3927 words)

 Afterword The Politics of Congestion: The Continuing Legacy of the Milwaukee Freeway Revolt
So it is not surprising that it took Milwaukee longer to get its freeway construction program going than most other cities, with the result that a much larger portion of it got "caught" in the anti-freeway backlash that swept the nation in the mid to late 1970s.
So to say that the decision to halt freeway construction in Milwaukee flouted the will of the majority is to miss the fact that those who opposed further freeway construction cared passionately about their cause.
One of the abandoned freeways in Milwaukee was the Lake Freeway South, which was planned to run from the already-completed high bridge over the Milwaukee harbor entrance along a rail right of way through the south lakefront of Milwaukee and the suburbs of St. Francis, Cudahy, South Milwaukee, and Oak Creek.
www.iti.northwestern.edu /whatsnew/news/others/pwhs_afterword.html   (1609 words)

 A 21st Century Problem
The battle over the freeway has been a long one for Levitt, who became involved mid-way in a process which dates to 1992, when a city commission known as the Central Freeway Task Force began to look at different alternatives for the earthquake-damaged freeway.
Eight years later, with one deck of the still damaged and unsound freeway being used daily by countless motorists, another group of residents later known as the San Francisco Neighbors Association became frustrated with the lack of action and moved to put the question of rebuilding the freeway to the voters.
What followed was a series of ballot initiatives asking voters to approve a freeway rebuild, then a plan to replace it with a boulevard, and most recently both.
www.newcolonist.com /sffreeway.html   (820 words)

 Department of Public Works: Octavia Boulevard and Central Freeway to Open   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Construction of the new Central Freeway that now touches down at Market Street is a $26 million Caltrans project that replaced the old freeway extending from the Interstate 80/Highway 101 Interchange to the intersection at Fell Street.
Freeways in San Francisco have been contentious issues since the freeway revolt in the late 1950’s.
The Central Freeway was no exception as the project endured numerous, sometimes raucous public meetings and three citywide ballot initiatives.
www.sfgov.org /site/sfdpw_page.asp?id=37756   (842 words)

 sfbg.com | news
If the freeway is built as planned, they charge, it will be because neighborhoods pitted themselves against each other in a planning war that should never have been locked in at the ballot box.
Essentially, the core pro-boulevard activists were focused on the freeway's impact on Hayes Valley residents and shoppers, and they've said they squeezed all they could from Caltrans, the state highway agency, which has always been reluctant to give up even an inch of roadway.
A pedestrian-friendly street will replace part of the ugly freeway, and 750 to 900 units of housing (about half of which will be affordable to low-income families) are planned for former freeway land in Hayes Valley that was given to the city by Caltrans to help finance the deal.
www.sfbg.com /38/31/news_freeway.html   (1367 words)

The effect of the freeway on the city has been nothing short of tremendous; it has forever changed the cityscape and the way in which it is experienced.
This report seeks to stress the importance of highway aesthetics, explore the issues related the design of the urban freeway and its effects on the urban environment and motorists alike, and consider methods and theories aimed at improving the design of and tempering the negative impacts of high-speed limited-access highways through urban areas.
The history of highway beautification in America, from the first New York City parkways at century’s beginning to the “Freeway Revolt” of the 1960s and 1970s to the federal Enhancements programs of the 1990s, will also be surveyed, and particular attention will be paid to the current well-being of the highway aesthetics movement.
www.mindspring.com /~tbgray/printro.htm   (410 words)

 The Freeway Revolt   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
At that time the freeway reigned supreme in California, but San Francisco harbored the seeds of an incipient revolt which ultimately saved several neighborhoods from the wrecking ball and also put up the first serious opposition to the post-WWII consensus on automobiles, freeways, and suburbanization.
In favor of the freeway were "progressive" supervisors Jack Morrison, Joseph Casey, Jack Ertola, Joseph Tinney and Peter Tamaras.) Mayor Jack Shelley was all for it, as was the Labor Council from which he hailed.
The 101-280 interchange was a mess from 1989 to 1996.
www.bikesummer.org /1999/zine/freewayRevolt.htm   (783 words)

 Interstate 280 California @ Interstate-Guide.com
A victim of the San Francisco Freeway Revolt of the 1960s, Interstate 280 was originally proposed to have a much different northern terminus.
The unbuilt section of Interstate 280 was not constructed at all prior to the revolt, so it was dropped from the plans in its entirety.
Freeway entrances are located just beyond the stoplight, and the viaduct carries traffic to U.S. 101 and beyond.
www.interstate-guide.com /i-280_ca.html   (2172 words)

 California Highways (www.cahighways.org): San Francisco/Bay Area Freeway Development (Part 1—The City of San ...
This freeway would have ran from I-280 near Daly City crosstown to the S edge of Golden Gate Park.
Approximately present-day Route 1 from the Crosstown or Western Freeways to the approach to the Golden Gate Bridge.
The Panhandle Freeway was to be a double deck extension of the Central Freeway, placed between Oak and Fell Streets with the attendant loss of many blocks of housing and the DMV office.
www.cahighways.org /maps-sf-fwy.html   (2215 words)

 Interstate 480 Freeway Plan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Many factors combined to prevent this plan from becoming reality, most notably the severe public outcry against freeway construction in the city with the famous San Francisco "Freeway Revolt," the first and probably only instance of a major city protesting all new freeway construction during this frenetic period of highway construction.
Until its demolition in 1990, the hated Embarcadero Freeway was the most striking example of this interurban freeway plan.
However, this freeway stub was the beginning of a much larger plan to build a direct freeway link between the Bay and Golden Gate Bridge.
www.ocf.berkeley.edu /~dlkriske/highway/480   (2974 words)

 California Highways (www.cahighways.org): Routes 97 through 104
While the eventual freeway version of it (a west routing past town) was new alignment, the corridor followed Washington Boulevard, which was former Route 65 and 99E.
The following portions of this are constructed to freeway standards: (1) from I-5 to to 5 miles north of Chowchilla; (2) from 2 miles south of Merced to 2 miles north of Atwater; and (3) from 1 mile north of Livingston to Sacramento.
When the Bayshore Freeway was constructed here, part of the SF Bay was filled in for the freeway lanes (and is now occupied by the freeway and by the Sierra Point Parkway); the Brisbane Lagoon now is seperated from the rest of the Bay.
www.cahighways.org /097-104.html   (15202 words)

 Denis ::: The Freeway Revolt ::: 17 Windscreen.tv   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Denis ::: The Freeway Revolt ::: 17 Windscreen.tv
The Freeway Revolt : December, 2002 : Denis
This plan was strongly opposed by San Franciscans and after 10 years of so called Freeway Revolt the plan was cancelled in 1964.
www.windscreen.tv /index.php?id=17   (88 words)

 Georgia Highway 414 (Interstate 420)
This new suburban freeway, featuring many hills and curves, was one of the most significant parts of I-420 to be completed, and the road was named Lakewood Freeway for the classic and now defunct Lakewood Amusement Park and surrounding suburb on the eastern end of the freeway.
As part of the original Atlanta freeway plan, which originally even included a connection to what is now I-575, I-420 for a time was very much in progress.
Problem was that the progress by GDOT in building and completing all of the proposed new freeways in Atlanta combined with the social unrest of the era, resulted in the Atlanta Freeway Revolt, a descendent to the earlier San Francisco Freeway Revolt that resulted in the cancellation of Atlanta's most unpopular freeway projects.
www.southeastroads.com /psr/ga414_profile.htm   (563 words)

 metro(spokane): Birth of a Freeway...
In San Francisco, the citizens managed to rally to protest a number of freeway projects that would have changed their city’s personality dramatically.
Most open minded people in the areas the freeway passes through are all for it, most negativity stems from waiting 20 + years for the damn project to happen and skepticism that it ever would.
Simply put, at this point in time, if all the money from the freeway was poured into transit, it wouldn’t benefit my business or my small part of the bigger community nearly as much as a freeway would.
metrospokane.typepad.com /index/2005/01/birth_of_a_free.html   (3435 words)

 Junipero Serra Freeway   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The Junipero Serra Freeway's existing portion in The City is San Francisco's most overlooked and engimatic highway.
Although never finished due to the 1959 Freeway Revolt, its style as the main gateway for Peninsula-Marin travel is truly ironic, especially because many of its features are unique to this highway.
The second and final interchange on this stub freeway, Brotherhood Way, is a very congested cloverleaf with two ramps missing, as Brotherhood is a connector to Alemany and therefore could be considered one route.
www.freehostsltd.com /sites/sanfrancisco/serra.htm   (330 words)

 San Francisco CITYSCAPE :: the online journal of bay area urban design [ Features: Freeway Revolt Map ]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The Freeway Revolt may have been San Francisco's proudest, and certainly in urban planning terms, its most definitive moment.
Joshua Switzky of the San Francisco Planning Department put together this package of maps of the city's postwar freeway plans for a presentation at the recent American Planning Association conference in San Francisco.
Second, we didn't want the city to be a blank canvas; the whole point of this exercise is to show the impact these freeways would've had, so we've laid them over a detailed rendering of not just the city's streets, but its parks, civic institutions and neighborhoods.
www.sfcityscape.com /features/freeway_map.html   (592 words)

 CA 480: The Embarcadero Spur that's gone   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Reason for decomissioning: Because I-480 wasn't completed to US 101 (the fact that the Park Presidio section was scrapped earlier made it a violator already, like I-495) due to the Freeway Revolt of San Francisco, it was demoted to CA 480.
So CA 480 was destroyed only because of hate of freeways, not because of the fact that the route was damaged.
Also, before they decided to demolish CA 480, Caltrans and San Francisco were given a choice of creating an at-grade "urban boulevard" (like West Street in Manhattan, which was under the shadow of the former West Side Elevated Highway).
members.tripod.com /~chris295/ca480.htm   (249 words)

 San Francisco Apartments Finders, San Francisco Apartment Locators, San FranciscoApartment Locator Finder
Caltrans tried to minimize displacement (and its land acquisition costs) by building double-decker freeways, but the crude state of civil engineering at that time resulted in construction of some embarrassingly ugly freeways which ultimately turned out to be seismically unsafe.
In 1989, the Loma Prieta earthquake destroyed the Embarcadero Freeway and portions of the so-called Central Freeway.
Similar to the freeway revolt in the city decades earlier, a "skyscraper revolt" forced the city to enact height restriction limits on tall buildings.
sanfrancisco.supremeapartments.com /sanfrancisco_history.htm   (2847 words)

 Interstate 480
The widely unpopular Embarcadero Freeway, which would have provided a freeway connection between the Golden Gate and Bay bridges.
Among the proposals in the February 1966 plan by the state department of Highways and Public Works was Alternative FW, the "Aquatic Freeway" plan.
The advantages to the plan: minimal right-of-way would be taken, and most of the freeway would remain out of sight.
www.kurumi.com /roads/3di/i480.html   (923 words)

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