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Topic: French North Africa

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 French colonial empires - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Early French attempts to found colonies in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro (the so-called France Antarctique) and in 1612 at São Luís (the so-called France Équinoxiale), and in Florida were unsuccessful, due to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance and prevention.
Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention.
The French colonial empire began to fall apart during the Second World War, when various parts of their empire were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria and Lebanon, the US and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany in Tunisia).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/French_North_Africa   (2172 words)

 French colonial empires -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
In (A republic in northwestern Africa on the coast of the Atlantic; formerly a French colony but achieved independence in 1960) Senegal in (An area of western African between the Sahara Desert and the Gulf of Guinea) West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in 1624.
In 1849, French concession in (The largest city of China; located in the east on the Pacific; one of the largest ports in the world) Shanghai was established, which existed until 1946.
The French also expanded their influence in (An area of northern Africa between the Sahara and the Mediterranean Sea) North Africa, establishing a protectorate on (A republic in northwestern Africa on the Mediterranean coast; achieved independence from France in 1956) Tunisia in 1881.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/f/fr/french_colonial_empires.htm   (3323 words)

 French colonial empire
Early French attempts to found colonies at Rio de Janeiro and in Florida were unsuccessful, due to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance.
Nor was the French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in 1798-1801 successful.
When this ended with French defeat and withdrawal in 1954, the French almost immediately became involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in their oldest major colony, Algeria (see Algerian War of Independence).
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/f/fr/french_colonial_empire.html   (1512 words)

 North African Campaign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
At this point General Bernard Montgomery took over as commander of Allied forces in North Africa and, after victory in the battles of Alam Halfa and Second El Alamein, began to the push the Axis forces back, going as far as capturing Tripoli.
In an attempt to pincer German forces, American forces landed in Vichy-held French North Africa under the assumption that there would be little to no resistance.
But not in Algiers, where the French resistance Putsch of November 8, had succeeded in neutralizing the French XIX Army Corps of Algiers before the landing, and in arresting the Vichyist generals (Juin, Darlan, etc.).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/North_African_Campaign   (761 words)

 North Africa
When the French were defeated in North Africa Germany quickly took advantage of the situation and occupied the rest of France.
North Africa was a place where the allies were able to engage Germ any with relatively good odds.
North Africa was a disaster for the Axis.
www.cs.ndsu.nodak.edu /~lugert/wwii.htm   (2595 words)

 Vichy France, Free French, Operation Torch
The French Army was disgraced during the German invasion of 1940.
French civil administrators hold the real power in North Africa, and the Department of State recommends that the Allied invasion commanders transition authority back to these administrators as soon as militarily practicable.
The Gaullists seek continued French participation in the war against the Axis, liberation of the patrie and empire, and restoration of French military forces—unified under Gaullist political influence.
mason.gmu.edu /~ssledge/situation1.htm   (1095 words)

 Operation Torch Delayed   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Vichy French officially condemn their people in North Africa for going over to the Allies, while quietly sounding those Allies out to find out if they would be able to send troops to help defend Vichy France against the German invasion that they are pretty sure is coming.
In mid-February, as the fallout from North Africa spreads, Mussolini sends a multi-division force across the border between Italy and the unoccupied zone of Vichy France, ostensibly to intercept a shipment of Vichy arms bound for Corsica.
French resistance groups and a few local Vichy troops form the backbone of a mainly spontaneous French reaction to the Italian invasion.
hometown.aol.com /althist1/PODSept99/Torch.htm   (3981 words)

 North Africa
This was to use the means that would be accumulated in England by the fall of 1942, plus additional forces from the United States, to invade North Africa, where, it was hoped, French forces might lend support to the operation.
In North Africa the Germans and their Italian allies controlled a narrow strip along the Mediterranean coast between Tunisia and Egypt with an army numbering some 100,000 men under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.
Their position was enigmatic, since the loyalties of the French forces had become split among factions following their defeat in 1940.
www.worldwar2history.info /North-Africa   (1042 words)

 French History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Furthermore, French plans for the air defence of North Africa highlight the central importance of imperial defence and control of Mediterranean communications to France's military planners.
In this respect, the greater expectation of eventual Italian hostility after 1935 was vital in the re-orientation of French imperial defence planning with regard to the maghreb colonies.
In spite of the increasing awareness of the strategic importance of French North African security, the limited additions to French air strength in this region bore witness to the limitations of the French air rearmament effort, notably in the Pierre Cot era during 1936-1937.
www.le.ac.uk /history/bon/resources/FRENCH_HIST/Abstracts/Abs8.html   (324 words)

 OPERATION TORCH: North African Invasion
The campaign to capture North Africa was made necessary because by the summer of 1942, Adolf Hitler had suceeded in defeating most of Europe, was driving the Russian army toward Moscow and along with Italy controlled most of the Mediteranean.
The French units in North Africa were divided between those loyal to the Vichy Government and the "Free French." The land forces, overall, made almost no resistence.
The landings in North Africa were all begun within an hour of each other, were unprecidented in scale and began in total darkness on unfamiliar shores.
www.uscg.mil /hq/g-cp/history/OperationTorch.html   (3018 words)

 North Africa
Islam swept North Africa very early in its history, spreading west from Egypt starting in the 8th century A.D. At first it was spread into the cities through conquest, but once the nomadic Berbers began to convert to Islam, it spread through their contacts all across North Africa.
In much of North Africa, there is a general preference for marriage between the children of two brothers, with the cousins playing little role in the choice of a marriage partner.
As elsewhere in North Africa, following Islamic dress regulations is seen as supporting indigenous culture and, according to one researcher, asserting that choices can be made as to which parts of European culture ought to be adopted.
www.law.emory.edu /IFL/region/northafrica.html   (3680 words)

 Berbers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
People living in North Africa, from Morocco's west coast to the oasis Siwa in Egypt, from Tunisia's north tip to the oases in mid-Sahara.
Berbers are making up a clear majority of the population of North Africa in terms of race and in terms of identity, a considerable minority.
The influx of Arabs to North Africa, has been far too small up through history to, defend the large numbers of people now claiming to be Arabs.
i-cias.com /e.o/berbers.htm   (760 words)

 [No title]
The invasion of French North Africa on 8 November 1942 was the first action of World War II by U.S. ground forces against the European Axis.
It was in North Africa that officers, nurses, and enlisted men of the Army Medical Department perfected the techniques and developed the organizations that were to save thousands of lives in Italy and France.
It was this experience in North Africa that gave both ground and air surgeons some idea of the immense capabilities of air evacuation, which continued to be used increasingly through the rest of the war.
history.amedd.army.mil /booksdocs/wwii/MedSvcsinMedtrnMnrThrtrs/chapter3.htm   (16248 words)

 French P-63s   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The first unit to fly the type was Groupe de Chasse II/9 Auvergne, which was based in North Africa and received its planes in July of 1945.
When the French were first faced with the Viet Minh insurgency in IndoChina, the US government initially would not allow the use of US-supplied Republic P-47 Thunderbolts in that conflict.
The French had to use instead the Bell P-63C Kingcobras that had been supplied at the end of the war.
home.att.net /~jbaugher1/p63_17.html   (480 words)

 A Different War: Marines in Europe and North Africa (Operation Torch)
The Vichy French, especially members of the naval service, were known to be bitter toward the British Royal Navy, and hostile toward the activities of the Free French, represented by General Charles de Gaulle.
There was a slight American presence in North Africa during the period, working among the French in an effort to ease the way for the landing force.
Unlike the French army, the French navy had not been hammered by the Axis and was still full of fight and prepared to resist.
www.nps.gov /wapa/indepth/extContent/usmc/pcn-190-003125-00/sec5.htm   (1670 words)

 Jean-Francois Darlan
After Petain signed the armistice with Nazi Germany, Darlan ordered the French fleet to colonial bases in North Africa and instructing members of the navy to remain loyal to the Vichy government.
The decision infuriated General Charles De Gaulle and the French Resistance who claimed that Darlan was a fascist and a Nazi collaborator.
In the meantime General Giraud, at first shocked to discover that the local French would not follow him, had become convinced that Darlan was the only French official in the region who could lead North Africa to the side of the Allies.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /FRdarlan.htm   (1619 words)

 Adventist World Radio -- Africa Region   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
AWR-Africa was heard one hour a day in two languages, French and English, on Africa No. 1, Moyabi, Gabon, from October 1983 until 30 September 1994.
AWR then began broadcasts to Africa from the AWR station in Forlì, Italy in Arabic and French, and on leased transmitters in Slovakia and Germany in Arabic, Dyula, Kiswahili, English and French.
French programs were added later in the year.
www.awr.org /awr-africa   (135 words)

 Decision To Invade North Africa
In fact the invasion of North Africa had been a main topic of discussion between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and their chief military advisers, known collectively as the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS), at the first of the Allied wartime conferences held in Washington (ARCADIA) during the week before Christmas 1941.
Recent intelligence reports from Vichy and North Africa had convinced him that this was a matter of such great political import that the success or failure of TORCH might well depend on the decision made.
Even in retrospect, it is debatable whether the decision to invade North Africa was the soundest strategic decision that could have been made at the time and under the existing circumstances.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/books/70-7_07.htm   (9726 words)

 New FH2 map idea - Free French armor vs.Germans in Tunisia 1943 - FileFront Gaming Forums
In response to the Free French armor force the Vichy French Military in North Africa requested armored units be shipped to North Africa to counter any Allied invasions in their area.
There were actually two independant French forces in Tunisia: Leclerc's Free French column was operating on the south east with the British, and former Vichy forces were operating in the west with Americans.
M10s were certainly used by French forces from late 1943 on in Italy and until the end of the war, however.
forums.filefront.com /showthread.php?p=2310824#post2310824   (1670 words)

 Triumph of Operation Torch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Allied invasion of North Africa was a necessary first step on the road to victory in Europe.
On November 8, 1942, the military forces of the United States and the United Kingdom launched an amphibious operation against French North Africa, in particular the French-held territories of Algeria and Morocco.
The Allied move against French North Africa benefited enormously from the fact that the attention of Axis political and military leaders remained focused elsewhere.
www.thehistorynet.com /wwii/bloperation_torch   (1299 words)

 Invasion of North Africa; battle of Tunisia (from World War II) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
More results on "Invasion of North Africa; battle of Tunisia (from World War II)" when you join.
It is bounded by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the east and north.
The smallest North African country, Tunisia is located at the eastern end of the Maghreb (the northern tip of Africa), forming a wedge of territory between Algeria and Libya.
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-210442?tocId=210442&ct=eb   (1116 words)

 BBC - WW2 People's War - Allied Landings in French North Africa - A1057628
Outcome: The Allied forces achieved dominance of French North Africa and hemmed in the Axis forces in Tunisia.
Eisenhower was finally persuaded that the Mediterranean option was justified by the medium-term benefits of a successful operation - control of the Mediterranean and the resources of French North Africa - as well as the short-term benefit of tying down German forces.
The war in North Africa would only be concluded the following spring, after further British advances from the east.
www.bbc.co.uk /dna/ww2/A1057628   (745 words)

 Art Bulletin, The: Roger Benjamin Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa, 1880-1930 - Book ...
Orientalist Aesthetics, an account of a variety of representational projects staged in and on behalf of French North Africa, is in many ways an important contribution to the literature on Orientalism.
The book ponders key institutional and ideological factors, including the representation of the region in Parisian expositions in 1900 and the 1930s, French governmental stipends, and the establishment of the Villa Abd-el-Tif (designed as a sort of Algerian Villa Medici), and the foundation of the National Museum of Fine Arts in Algiers in 1930.
As he himself states: "the overwhelming voice, when it comes to painting in North Africa, is a 'French' one, as I have translated it" (p.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0422/is_1_86/ai_114244260   (1350 words)

 H-France Reviews   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Among the earliest representations of French colonialism on film is a fifty-second reel shot by a collaborator of the Lumière Brothers in the Vietnamese province of Annam in 1897.
Perhaps the cinematographer intended this film to display French munificence; a French viewer in 1897 might well have understood the message to be that France was taking care of its newly adopted children in Indochina.
This relatively short book is full of detail; for example, I particularly enjoyed the accounts of French filmmakers looking for battle-scene extras in Morocco, expecting to have to explain to the locals what a camera was and instead finding seasoned performers with numerous film credits already to their name.
www.uakron.edu /hfrance/vol2reviews/white2.html   (1707 words)

 The Elegant Chef North Africa Cooking
lthough North Africa is a single topographic unit, it is an area rich in geographic, political, social, economic, and cultural diversity.
      The roots of North African cuisine go back over 2000 years and are attributed originally to the Berbers, a Christian nomadic people.
Various versions of the same dish are found, sometimes with a different name or a slight change in ingredients.
theelegantchef.com /north_africa.html   (252 words)

 Babel : arabic: French speakers in North Africa.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
I heard that French is very useful in Morocco, Tunisa, Algeria, and even Egypt.
Some have even said that French is more common in cities in North Africa than even maghribi arabic.
Speak french in north africa - Maria, Monday, December 13, 2004 at 10:44
lexicorient.com /cgi-bin/babel-arabic/robboard.cgi?action=display&num=2309   (87 words)

 French North Africa on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Middle East and Africa: Maghreb - Euro-Med Pact Drives Reforms - Merger Moves In Morocco And The Promise Of Privatisation In Algeria Give Hope For A More Vibrant Banking Sector In The Maghreb Region, Writes Jon Marks.
Between Europe and Africa: modernity, race, and nationality in the correspondence of Miguel de Unamuno and Joan Maragall.(Ensayo crítico)
Under Morocco's sheltering sky: the timeless magnetism of the desert lures modern travelers into the mysticism of an ancient North African land.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/x/x-f1renchn1o.asp   (572 words)

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