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# Topic: Frequency distribution

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 Learning Resources: Statistics: Power from Data! Frequency distribution tables The distribution of a variable is the pattern of frequencies of the observation. Frequency distributions are portrayed as frequency tables, histograms, or polygons. This relative frequency of a particular observation or class interval is found by dividing the frequency (f) by the number of observations (n): that is, (f ÷ n). www.statcan.ca /english/edu/power/ch8/frequency.htm   (1706 words)

 Statistical Representation of Data - FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement of data whereby the data is grouped into different intervals, and then the number of observations that belong to each interval is determined. The relative frequency distribution is similar to the frequency distribution, except that instead of the number of observations belonging to a particular interval, the ratio of the number of observations in the interval to the total number of observations, also known as the relative frequency, is determined. The cumulative frequency distribution is obtained by computing the cumulative frequency, defined as the total frequency of all values less than the upper class limit of a particular interval, for all intervals. library.advanced.org /10030/2sroffd.htm   (432 words)

 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS Frequency distribution: A distribution showing the number of observations associated with each score value in a set of data that is quantitative in nature. A histogram is a pictorial representation of a frequency distribution in which the scores (X) are plotted on the X-axis of a graph and the frequency (or relative frequency) of occurrences is plotted on the Y-axis. A frequency polygon is a pictorial representation of a frequency distribution in which the scores (X) are plotted on the X-axis of the graph and the frequency (or relative frequency) of occurrences is plotted on the Y-axis. otel.uis.edu /yoder/freq_h.htm   (850 words)

 MMU - Research Design, Biol Sci:Pre-design: Frequency distributions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Understanding frequency distributions is important because they are at the centre of many statistical analyses, particularly those that have a theoretical, rather than an empirical, basis. Describes the frequency distribution of the number of 'successes' expected from a fixed number of independent trials, when the probability of an individual success is assumed to have a known and fixed probability. Assume that the weight data approximate to a normal distribution (using a goodness of fit test this can be demonstrated), with a population mean of 70 g and a population standard deviation of 10 g. obelia.jde.aca.mmu.ac.uk /new_rd/contents/freqdist.htm   (1781 words)

 Analysis of Birth Weight and Infant Mortality - Frequency Distribution of Birth Weight The frequency distribution of birth weight is strikingly Normal (or bell-shaped), with an extended lower tail. In a typical population, 2 to 5% of births are in the residual distribution. The residual distribution is shown twice in Figure 2, once as the lower tail of the whole distribution, and then enlarged by itself in the bottom panel. eb.niehs.nih.gov /bwt/subcfreq.htm   (867 words)

 I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) For such a distribution, the histogram would be perfectly symmetrical around the centre; in other words, the tallest column (i.e., the most frequent value) will occur exactly in the centre of the diagram and the other columns (frequencies) will fall away on either side of the central value equally on either side. The most frequent result is in the centre (3 heads), and the frequencies decline as one moves away from the centre (indicated by the decreasing height of the columns). Normal distributions are particularly important for a number of reasons (as we shall see), not the least of which is that many of the important characteristics we wish to study (including all inherited characteristics) are normally distributed. www.mala.bc.ca /~johnstoi/maybe/maybe5.htm   (4967 words)

 FREQUENCY ANALYSIS The frequency distribution is a record of the number of scores that fall within each response category. The frequency distribution, then, has two elements: (1) the categories of response, and (2) the frequency with which respondents are identified with each category. The standard error is an estimate of the potential for discrepancy between the sample mean and the population mean Because the population mean is usually unknown, the standard error cannot be calculated directly, but is estimated by dividing the standard deviation by the square root of the number of cases in the sample. marketing.byu.edu /htmlpages/books/pcmds/FREQ.html   (2192 words)

 Distributions Often a frequency distribution is shown graphically as in figure 1. There is even variation among the distributions that we call "normal." For example, some normal distributions are more spread out than the one shown in figure 5 (their tails begin to hit the X axis further from the middle of the curve --for example, at 10 and 90 if drawn in place of figure 2). This distribution is not symmetric: the tail in the positive direction extends further than the tail in the negative direction. cnx.org /content/m10868/latest   (1390 words)

 Frequency Distributions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) For example, a frequency distribution could be used to record the frequency of each word type in a document. Frequency distributions are generally initialized by repeatedly running an experiment, and incrementing the count for a sample every time it is an outcome of the experiment. Once we construct a frequency distribution that records the outcomes of an experiment, we can use it to examine a number of interesting properties of the experiment. nltk.sourceforge.net /tutorial/probability/section-freqdist.html   (562 words)

 Frequency distribution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A frequency distribution is said to be skewed when its mean and median are different. The kurtosis of a frequency distribution is the concentration of scores at the mean, or how peaked the distribution appears if depicted graphicallyâ€”for example, in a histogram. Frequency distributions are also used in frequency analysis to crack codes and refer to the relative frequency of letters in different languages. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Frequency_distribution   (333 words)

 The effects of Robertsonian fusions on chiasma frequency and distribution in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) ... The effects of Robertsonian fusions on chiasma frequency and distribution in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) from a hybrid zone in northern Scotland Chiasma distribution in both groups is notably different: the telocentric bivalents show a typical P-D pattern whereas the metacentrics have a basically distal one (Table 2). An analysis of chiasma frequency and distribution was performed in males from several localities within the hybrid zone, showing different homozygous and heterozygous combinations of the four Rb metacentrics (Table 1). origin.www.nature.com /hdy/journal/v87/n3/full/6888770a.html   (3759 words)

 Lab 7 Frequency Distribution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Your task for this part of the lab is to create a frequency distribution table for each of these variables and to compare them to get a feel for some of the features of distributions. A frequency distribution is an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located in each category on the scale of measurement. In the sections we saw that one way to summarize and simplify an entire distribution of scores is by organizing the scores in a frequency distribution table. lilt.ilstu.edu /cliu/Teaching/PSY138_Spring06/7_Lab.HTML   (1481 words)

 Statistics: Frequency Distributions Graphs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The frequency is placed along the vertical axis and the class midpoints are placed along the horizontal axis. A frequency polygon of the cumulative frequency or the relative cumulative frequency. The vertical axis the cumulative frequency or relative cumulative frequency. www.richland.edu /james/lecture/m170/ch02-def.html   (499 words)

 NLTK Tutorial: Probability   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The individual frequency distributions are indexed by the condition. Typically, we create a frequency distribution by running the experiment on training data; and then use the frequency distribution to estimate the experiment's probability distribution. Although MLE is the simplest probability distribution, it has a tendency to over-estimate the probabilities of sample outcomes that only occur a few times (and to under-estimate the probabilities of samples that never occur). nltk.sourceforge.net /tutorial/probability/nochunks.html   (2089 words)

 Ed 602 - Lesson 3 - Frequency Distributions A cummulative frequency distribution can be created from a frequency distribution by adding an additional column called "Cummulative Frequency." For each score value the cummulative frequency for that score value is the frequency up to and including the frequency for that value. In the cummulative frequency distribution for the high temperatures data below, notice that the cummulative frequency for the lowest temperature (43) is 3, and that the cummulative frequency for the temperature 44 is 3+3 or 6. Finally, notice that the cummulative frequency for the highest value (51 in the current case) should be the same as the total of the frequency column (30 in the case of the temperature data). www.mnstate.edu /wasson/ed602lesson3.htm   (1055 words)

 Ed602 Lesson 4 Cumulative relative frequency distribution – shows the proportion of scores from this point and lower, this number times 100 is a rough estimate of the percentile rank if there are not duplicate scores. Percentile rank – the percentage of scores in a distribution that are equal to or less than that score. and the frequency of scores in the class interval is given by the height of the bar. www.mnstate.edu /smithb/ed602a/lessons/lesson4.html   (901 words)

 Allele frequency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. In population genetics, allele frequencies show the genetic diversity of a species population or equivalently the richness of its gene pool. The frequencies of all the alleles of a given gene often are graphed together as an allele frequency distribution histogram. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Allele_frequency   (823 words)

 Letter Frequencies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) In other words, if the sender has tried to disguise a letter by replacing with a different letter, you can still recognise the original letter because the frequency characteristics of the original letter will be passed on to the new letters. To apply frequency analysis, you will need to know the frequency of every letter in the English alphabet, or the frequency of letters in whichever language the sender is using. Please note, these frequencies are averages, and E will not always constitute 12.7 % of all the letters in a text, and may not even be the most common letter. www.simonsingh.net /The_Black_Chamber/frequencyanalysis.html   (241 words)

 Frequency Table   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) A frequency table is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores as well as the percentage of scores in each interval are displayed. A frequency table for the tournament players from the example dataset "chess" is shown below. davidmlane.com /hyperstat/A55234.html   (52 words)

 Learning Resources: Statistics: Power from Data! Cumulative frequency The cumulative frequency is calculated using a frequency distribution table, which can be constructed from stem and leaf plots or directly from the data. The cumulative frequency is calculated by adding each frequency from a frequency distribution table to the sum of its predecessors. Remember, the cumulative frequency (number of observations made) is labelled on the vertical y-axis and any other variable (snow depth) is labelled on the horizontal x-axis as shown in Figure 2. www.statcan.ca /english/edu/power/ch10/frequency.htm   (1335 words)

 Quantumlike Chaos in Frequency Distribution of Base A, C, G, T in Drosophila DNA The important result of the present study is that the observed fractal frequency distributions of the bases A, C, G, T of Drosophila DNA base sequence exhibit long-range spatial correlations or self-organized criticality generic to dynamical systems in nature. A representative sample for the frequency of occurrence of base A in successive blocks of length 50 bases is plotted in Figure 1 for 10, 100, 1000 and 4500 segments for the total sequence consisting of 225000 bases used in the study. The apparently irregular fractal fluctuations of the frequency distribution of bases A, C, G, T in Drosophila DNA base sequence self-organize spontaneously to generate the robust geometry of logarithmic spiral with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure. amselvam.tripod.com /drosoph/freqdst.html   (8822 words)

 Wigner Distribution v STFT The objective of this paper is to investigate and compare the timbre representation potential of the STFT and the Wigner Distribution in the context of timbre morphing. However, the Wigner distribution cross terms can be reduced through the use of an appropriate smoothing window, thereby providing the basis for improved timbre feature analysis and processing. It is the purpose of this paper to present some preliminary results which indicate the superiority of the Wigner Distribution as a joint time-frequency representation which may be used as a basis for timbre morphing. www.geocities.com /Vienna/Choir/4746/paper1.html   (3355 words)

 Frequency Distribution - Dev Shed Frequency Distribution C programming forum discussing all C derivatives, including C#, C++, Object-C, and even plain old vanilla C. These languages are low level languages, and used on projects such as device drivers, compilers, and even whole computer operating systems. Description: Frequency Distribution Program — Write a program that will process an input file and determine the frequency distribution for the length of words in the file. Output should consist of a summary of the distribution list and output should be directed to the screen as well as an output file. forums.devshed.com /c-programming-42/frequency-distribution-102498.html   (1176 words)

 Frequency Distribution Tables   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) To make a frequency distribution table (fdt) simply list each raw score (x) observed followed by a count (also called absolute frequency) of the number of individuals with that score. An additional column called the relative frequency is often useful since it notes the percentage of the group with a particular raw score. When the data set is large and scores very spread out it is often necessary to create an intervaled frequency distribution table. www.geolog.com /msmnt/mfdt.htm   (301 words)

 How to Use the FREQUENCY Function The FREQUENCY function returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array. For a given set of values and a given set of bins (or intervals), a frequency distribution counts the number of values that occur in each interval. In a column in a worksheet, type the data set from which you want to obtain a frequency distribution. support.microsoft.com /?kbid=100122   (603 words)

 Gaussian Distribution or Frequency Curve - National Curve Bank The Gaussian Distribution, also called the Frequency Curve, Bell Curve, or Normal Distribution, is one of the most widely studied topics in all mathematics. The strength of the Gaussian Distribution is that it is often a very good approximation. That is to say, the logarithm of their earnings has a normal distribution, which is now sometimes called the Bell curve (though earlier it was known as the Gaussian distribution, originally discovered by de Moivre). curvebank.calstatela.edu /gaussdist/gaussdist.htm   (404 words)

 Frequency Distribution and Fruit Reach and frequency were a huge topic in online advertising as recently as a year ago. A major reason is the industry reach and frequency champion, David Smith, CEO of Mediasmith, stopped fighting for it. You're delivering a very high frequency to a very small part of the audience, and a very low frequency to a very large part of the audience. www.clickz.com /showPage.html?page=3496141   (905 words)

 Tendon Involvement in Pedal Infection: MR Analysis of Frequency, Distribution, and Spread of Infection -- Ledermann et ... Tendon Involvement in Pedal Infection: MR Analysis of Frequency, Distribution, and Spread of Infection -- Ledermann et al. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency and distribution of tendon involvement in pedal infection and the frequency of www.ajronline.org /cgi/content/full/179/4/939   (4478 words)

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