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Topic: Frequency probability

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  Bayesian probability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bayesianism is the philosophical tenet that the mathematical theory of probability applies to the degree of plausibility of a statement.
The Bayesian approach is in contrast to the concept of frequency probability where probability is held to be derived from observed or imagined frequency distributions or proportions of populations.
According to the frequency probability definition, however, the laws of probability are not applicable to this problem.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bayesian_probability   (1657 words)

 Frequency probability - Wikip├ędia
Statistical regularity has motivated the development of the relative frequency concept of probability.
The former insisted that statistical procedures only made sense when one uses the relative frequency concept.
The frequentist position is the one you probably heard at school: perform an experiment lots of times, and measure the proportion where you get a positive result - this proportion, if you perform the experiment enough times, is the probability.
su.wikipedia.org /wiki/Frequentism   (252 words)

 Probability & Relative Frequency
The probability of an event is the proportion of time that the event will occur in the long run.
The relative frequency is the observed number of successful events for a finite sample of trials.
The difference between the relative frequency of 54% and the probability of 50% is due to small sample size.
www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu /plantsci/adv_genetics/genetics/prob/prob.htm   (152 words)

 Frequency (or probability) distributions
Frequency distributions are charts which show the frequency with which data values in a certain situation occur.
It is important to note that where these frequency distributions are used for estimating probability of events happening or not occurring, it is the area bounded by the curve and the limits chosen for the situation, and is not the height of the distribution.
Frequency distributions are very useful for displaying data, for assessing probabilities and also for assessing statistical errors that occur as a result of sampling using small sample sizes.
www.managers-net.com /frequencydistribution.html   (773 words)

 Probability Definitions
The probability of an event is a measure of the chance that the event occurs.
The relative frequency of an event E is defined as the proportion of n trials which result in E. If the number of trials n is large, the proportion of trials resulting in E is a good estimate of the true probability that E will occur.
Exercise #1 demonstrates the relative frequency and a priori definitions of probability using an urn with 10 balls.
www.stat.wvu.edu /SRS/Modules/ProbDef/probdef.html   (797 words)

 Basic Probability   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In this particular case, the probability of a "one" is equal to the probability of a "two" is equal to the probability of a "three" is equal to the probability of a "four" and so forth.
Using the relative frequency interpretation of probability, the probability that a student passes the statistics exam is.90.
With a fair coin flipped twice, the probability of a head is one half and the probability of a tail is one half.
www.utah.edu /stat/introstats/web-text/Basic_Probability/testa.html   (5265 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The relative frequency of each class is shown by drawing a rectangle whose base is the class interval on the horizontal axis and whose height is the corresponding relative frequency divided by the base (one in this example).
Thus, on a probability histogram or polygon, the area under the curve between any two points on the horizontal axis is equal to the probability of the value of the variable lying between these two particular values.
The Poisson probability function is given by EMBED Equation.3 [4.8] where f(x) is the probability of x occurrences in a given interval, (is the average number of occurrences in an interval, an e is the base of the natural logarithm and equals approximately 2.718282.
www.sussex.ac.uk /economics/documents/statlec3_2004.doc   (4053 words)

 Probabilitas Bayes - Wikip├ędia
Bayesianism ngarupakeun philosophical tenet that the mathematical theory of probability applies to the degree of plausibility of statements, or to the degree of belief of rational agents in the truth of statements; when used with Bayes theorem, it then becomes Bayesian inference.
Whereas a frequentist and a Bayesian might both assign probability 1/2 to the event of getting a head when a coin is tossed, only a Bayesian might assign probability 1/1000 to personal belief in the proposition that there was life on Mars a billion years ago, without intending to assert anything about any relative frequency.
The general outlook of Bayesian probability, promoted by Laplace and several later authors, has been that the laws of probability apply equally to propositions of all kinds.
su.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bayesian_probability   (964 words)

 Statistics Glossary - probability
Relative frequency is another term for proportion; it is the value calculated by dividing the number of times an event occurs by the total number of times an experiment is carried out.
Probability is conventionally expressed on a scale from 0 to 1; a rare event has a probability close to 0, a very common event has a probability close to 1.
Like all probabilities, a subjective probability is conventionally expressed on a scale from 0 to 1; a rare event has a subjective probability close to 0, a very common event has a subjective probability close to 1.
www.stats.gla.ac.uk /steps/glossary/probability.html   (1632 words)

 Untitled Document
The probability that a child is living with one parent is the probability that a child is living with just his or her mother or just his or her father.
The probability of not being born on Friday the 13th is 1 - 1/214 = 213/214, by Rule 1.
In this case the value of 0.60 would be a relative frequency probability because it was arrived at by repeated observations of her "guessing" ability.
www.stat.psu.edu /~richards/f03/stat100/ch15sol.html   (1725 words)

 Revision Centre - GCSE Maths - Statistics and Probability - Cumulative Frequency Graphs
If we divide a cumulative frequency curve into quarters, the value at the lower quarter is referred to as the lower quartile, the value at the middle gives the median and the value at the upper quarter is the upper quartile.
The interquartile range is a method of measuring the spread of the middle 50% of the values and is useful since it ignore the extreme values.
If we draw a cumulative frequency curve, we see that the lower quartile, therefore, is about 17 and the upper quartile is about 37.
www.revisioncentre.co.uk /gcse/maths/cum_freq_graphs.html   (438 words)

 Cryonics Institute -- Feature Article: Cryonics: The Probability Of Rescue
Probability concepts often seem simple, and indeed not only experts but ordinary people apply them usefully every day; they are indispensable to survival, let alone successful living.
Mises definition of probability of an event with reference to an experiment: the probability is the postulated limiting relative frequency of occurrence of the event in an infinite sequence of "identical" experiments whose results are indifferent to place selection.
Consider a probability that is "well known" on the basis of a very long series of observations--perhaps the probability of heads on a coin toss, which we tried to show was based on total human experience with giving random shoves to symmetrical bodies.
www.cryonics.org /probability.html   (8476 words)

 Frequency probability: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com - All about Frequency probability   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Since the 18th century, there has been a debate among statisticians featured the frequentists versus the Bayesians.
It's not immediately clear which of these is the correct set of 'experiments' to use.
See also: Statistics -- statistical regularity -- probability axioms -- personal probability -- eclectic probability -- Probability
www.encyclopedian.com /fr/Frequentism.html   (354 words)

 Mod3 Page5
I can transform the frequency distribution into a relative frequency distribution by dividing the frequency of each type of fruit by the total number of fruits in the cooler.
If you think of the width of each bar as equal to one, then the area (width X height) of each bar is equal to the probability of selecting a fruit of that type at random from the cooler.
For example, if I close my eyes and pick a fruit at random from the cooler, the probability that the fruit will be an apple is equal to 0.25, which is equal to the proportion of fruits in the cooler that are apples.
www.bc.edu /bc_org/avp/cas/psych/statres/03mod/05.html   (327 words)

Example: probability of rolling a six with six-sided die.
Example: probability of eating a meal during the day.
Note that these two probability distributions have different shapes.
www.uwsp.edu /geo/faculty/ozsvath/lectures/Data%20Distributions.htm   (386 words)

 Frequency probability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A statistician who uses traditional methods of inference is therefore referred to as a frequentist statistician.
Frequentism is still, by far, the most commonly held view among working statisticians and probability theorists.
This school is often associated with the names of Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson who described the logic of statistical hypothesis testing.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Frequency_probability   (162 words)

 The Effect of Differences in Gene Frequency on Probability of Paternity. Reading PL, Reisner EG . 1985;30(4): 1130-1139.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Effect of Differences in Gene Frequency on Probability of Paternity.
Abstract: Knowledge of gene frequencies in populations is required for the calculation of probability of paternity.
It was found that when the absolute probability of paternity is high, the average differences induced were small, but at lower probabilities the changes can be large.
www.astm.org /jforensicsci/PAGES/604.htm   (186 words)

Ultimately, one has to face the fact that probability cannot be usefully defined in terms of the frequency of occurence of some event over a large (or infinite) number of trials.
In the jargon of probability theory, the frequentist interpretation of probability is wrong.
Probability theory is the special case of quantum mechanics in which ones algebra of observables is commutative.
math.ucr.edu /home/baez/bayes.html   (8656 words)

This is the realm of the mathematics of probability.
The most probable result (most likely) is a body fat measurement between 24.1 and 31 with a 41% probability of a student being in each of either of these intervals.
For relative frequency probability calculations, as the sample size increases the probabilities get closer and closer to the true population parameter (the actual probability for the population).
www.comfsm.fm /~dleeling/statistics/notes04.html   (1869 words)

 Frequency probability - Wikipedia
Prior to and during the 1950's and 1960's, there was a debate among statisticians which featured the frequentists versus the Bayesians.
The Bayesians supported the use of degrees of belief as a basis for a new form of statistical practice.
Statistics -- statistical regularity -- probability axioms -- personal probability -- eclectic probability
nostalgia.wikipedia.org /wiki/Frequency_probability   (168 words)

 Interpretations of Probability   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Such paradoxes can be resolved by using non-Kolmogorov probability models, developed on the basis of purely classical interpretations of probability: frequency and ensemble.
Frequency models describe violations of the law of large numbers.
Natural models with negative (frequency and ensemble) probabilities are developed in the framework of so called p-adic analysis.
www.vsppub.com /books/mathe/bk-IntPro.html   (236 words)

 Risk & Insurance: The world of PRA models: when certainty does not exist, frequency and probability is the best we ...
The analysis is expressed as some function of the probability of the failure for each of the components of the system.
The hazard is a measure of the physical intensity of the peril (earthquake, wind, surge, etc.) at a particular location and the associated probabilities of these intensities.
Beyond the realm of natural catastrophes and outside the domain of all forms of technical assessment is the probability of technological failure due to human mismanagement or irresponsible behavior.
www.findarticles.com /cf_sccfrm/m0BJK/6_14/100390108/p1/article.jhtml   (1460 words)

 Introduction To Probability Models   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The distribution of a random variable is the collection of possible outcomes along with their probabilities.
This may be described by a table, a formula, or a probability histogram.
If we repeat an experiment many times, we can calculate the sample histogram, which is a bar chart showing the number of times each value of X was observed.
www.math.csusb.edu /faculty/stanton/m262/intro_prob_models/intro_prob_models.html   (174 words)

 The Consequences of Token Frequency, Transitional Probability, and Non-Random Distributions of Lexical   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In the present study, I compare and contrast the utility of token frequency (including "string" frequency; Krug 1997) versus transitional probablility statistics in an attempt to predict the frequency-of-occurence of word boundary palatalization as it occurs in a large corpus of naturally-occurring data.
Chomsky and halle 1968, Vogel and Kenesei 1990:340), may be emergent from the non-random distribution of speech segments in discourse.
Statistical notions such as transitional probablity that accurately reflect this non-random distribution have been implicated in the segmentation of speech sounds by both children and adults (Saffran, Newport and Aslin 1996).
www.unm.edu /~hdls/hdls-2/nathanbush.html   (196 words)

 Frequency-Dependent Probability Measures for Record Linkage William E. Yancey   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Also, since it is the rareness of the matching field value in the set of record pairs which leads to the above largeness of the value-specific factor, the probability estimates will be based on a small number of sample values, making the estimate more statistically suspect.
One solution is to average the value-specific factors of high weight, to try to reduce the error variance and to moderate the size of the upweighting.
The value-specific conditional probabilities partition the binary conditional probabilities in the sense that
www-2.cs.cmu.edu /~pradeepr/bibl/p8/p8.html   (190 words)

4-1 Chapter 5 Queer Uses for Probability Theory Chapter 6 Elementary Parameter Estimation Fig.
Appendix A Other Approaches to Probability Theory Appendix B Formalities and Mathematical Style Appendix C Convolutions and Cumulants Appendix D Dirichlet Integrals and Generating Functions Appendix E The Binomial -- Gaussian Hierarchy of Distributions Appendix F Fourier Analysis Appendix G Infinite Series Appendix H Matrix Analysis and Computation Appendix I Computer Programs
426 Chapter 5 QUEER USES FOR PROBABILITY THEORY Extrasensory Perception 501 Mrs.
omega.albany.edu:8008 /JaynesBook.html   (429 words)

 Monthly Forecast of Spot Gold
The difference in frequency value of two adjacent bars indicates the ease with which the market is expected to move between these two prices.
The likelihood of seeing a particular price level reached during a projected period is measured by a combination of two factors: the contour of the frequency chart and its probability value.
The difference in frequency value of two adjacent bars indicates the ease with which the market is expected to move between them.
members.fortunecity.com /qindex/gold.html   (378 words)

 MAT 113, Solution to Hat Check and Three Dice Activities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
What is the relative frequency probability that no one gets their hat returned correctly?
What is the theoretical probability no one gets their hat returned correctly?
What is the relative frequency probability for a Total of 12?
www.nku.edu /~agard/M113F04/HO-HatCheck&ThreeDiceSolution.htm   (138 words)

 Relative Frequency and Probability
Develop the idea of the probability of an event as being the long run relative frequency of an event.
The relative frequency of pairs occurring in a sample tells us the proportion of samples drawn that contained pairs.
In our special case, this long run relative frequency is 0.4974, which is exactly the probability of selecting a sample with a pair; that is, the proportion of all samples of size six drawn with replacement from a population of size 50 that contain a pair is 0.4974.
www2.msstate.edu /~harvill/schelp/lott.html   (889 words)

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