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Topic: Fritz Fischer (historian)

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  IB Holocaust Project: German Historians
Fischer concluded that the German government had full cooperation and support from all classes of society to the colonization and extermination of Europe.
Fischer stated that National Socialism was just an extension from German hegemony in the past and that is was innate in all of Germany to be militaristic,superior and imperialist.
Fischer was the first in a new generation of German historians to acknowledge what happened in the war.
cghs.dade.k12.fl.us /holocaust/german_historians.htm   (721 words)

 Fritz Fischer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fritz Fischer (March 5, 1908- December 1, 1999) was a German historian best known for his analysis of the causes of World War I.
Educated at grammar schools in Ansbach and Eichstätt, Fischer attended the University of Berlin and the University of Erlangen, where he studied history, pedagogy, philosophy and theology.
After his release from a POW camp in 1947, Fischer became a professor at the University of Hamburg, where he stayed until his retirement in 1978.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fritz_Fischer   (737 words)

 The Origins of the Great War
In the 1920's historians from all over the world reached a sort of mutual agreement on a revisionist interpretation in which none of the great powers was held responsible.
In 1961 this view of the origins of the war was challenged by the German historian Fritz Fischer.
Fischer's books have been the subject of numerous discussions over the years (and they still are), with Fischer sticking to his conclusions, even as some opponents claimed he took historical quotes out of context.
www.greatwar.nl /origins/origins.html   (815 words)

 Nazism and the Working Class | libcom.org
The social historians counterposed to Fischer's line of argument a conception of social dynamics based on an analysis of class relations and on the emergence of forms such as the socialist mass parties.
Historians have studied this field very little; what has stood in the way of historical research has been the old prejudice that the micro-enterprise consisted essentially of pre-capitalist artisanal undertakings, and that the artisans, the micro-entrepreneurs, belonged to the Mittelstand, to the middle classes, and were thus all reactionaries.
Historians generally treat this problem almost exclusively from the viewpoint of ministries of the interior and police headquarters, not least because they rely almost exclusively on police records to study it.
libcom.org /library/nazism-and-working-class-sergio-bologna   (17197 words)

 Historiography of the Causes of WWI
Marxist (Communist) historians believed that the War was the result of the competition of capitalist businessmen, and emphasised the role played by Imperialism.
Fischer's ideas had such a huge effect on historical scholarship that nowadays, the anti-revisionist period is sometimes called 'the Fischer revolution'.
Most recently, some historians have been drawing attention also to the feeling in Austria-Hungary and Russia that, somehow, a war might be the solution for their own internal troubles.
www.johndclare.net /causesWWI_Answer1.htm   (1262 words)

 First World War.com - Feature Articles - German Responsibility For The Outbreak Of The War
In the 1960s a German historian, Fritz Fischer, argued that Germany had to bear the main responsibility for the outbreak of the war.
Fischer's three main theses were: 1) that the German government under the Kaiser's direction deemed a European war inevitable since 1911/12, prepared for war, and decided to seize the next opportunity to start it.
Fischer points out the expansive aims of the industry and Junkers; 2) that the German government and general staff precipitated an escalation of the Austro-Serb crisis in order to launch what they considered a preventive strike against Russia and France.
www.firstworldwar.com /features/germanresponsibility.htm   (2928 words)

 PlanetPapers - Causes of WW1
Fischer suggested that Weltpolitik was a means of diverting attention away from domestic discontentment in hope of producing a wave of patriotism.
Fischer thinks that through Weltpolitik, Germany was attempting to scare Britain into an alliance, but instead a hostile rivalry resulted.
Critics of Fischer, such as Zechlin and Erdmann claim that Germany was aiming for a limited, defensive war.
www.planetpapers.com /Assets/5060.php   (1763 words)

 The New Yorker : critics : atlarge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
They were determined to have the war, Fischer insisted, and deliberately manipulated the situation, including encouraging all those holidays, on the German side, to prevent anyone from acting decisively to stop them.
And yet the new historians of the Great War conclude that the generals did the best they could, in the face of the defensive advantage offered by the machine gun and the rapid-firing rifle, not to mention the more tactically inconclusive but still lethal gas and flamethrower.
Popular historians, searching for a neat resolution of a messy conflict, like to give the war the usual structure of a battle narrative, complete with decisive moments and turning points.
newyorker.com /critics/atlarge/?040823crat_atlarge   (5142 words)

 Review:The Origins of the First World War: Controversies and Consensus
In this, Germany, through government-run publications and the mobilisation of German historians, was largely successful in her attempts to rewrite history, so as to dodge the charge that she had planned and started the war.
Fischer produced two ground-breaking books on German war aims and German planning for war that completely changed the debate on the origins of the 1914-1918 war.
She argues that Fischer was basically right and German attempts to write her guilt out of the history books should be recognised for what they are.
www.history.ac.uk /reviews/paper/hughesMat3.html   (1430 words)

 GHI Bulletin 28 Feature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Fischer's book insisted on Germany's responsibility for the outbreak of the First World War, not sole responsibility, but it did away with the comfortable notion that Europe had slithered into the war.
Fischer made clear, on the basis of archival material on the German side and subsequent research, that there was far more conscious planning.
Historians - and many have written about Brüning, who has remained as controversial as any major figure in history - have always been tempted to say that Brüning's First World War experience as a machine gun captain was incredibly important to him.
www.ghi-dc.org /bulletin28S01/b28stern.html   (6972 words)

 O Pioneers!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Fischer, who did not serve in the Peace Corps, says his role as an outsider helped him take a balanced look at an organization that tends to elicit an emotional response from returned volunteers and observers.
Fischer follows the organization's formation in the early 1960s under the inspirational leadership of R. Sargent Shriver and notes the difficulties of remaining apolitical during the era of the Cold War.
Fischer relied on their reminiscences and Peace Corps newsletters and documents to paint a portrait of the idealism of U.S. citizens meeting the reality of developing areas.
www.northwestern.edu /magazine/northwestern/spring2000/spring00coverstorySide2.htm   (514 words)

 Fritz Fischer - HighBeam Encyclopedia
Fischer's unflattering picture of imperial Germany led to sharp criticism by German conservatives.
Fritz Fischer, Making Them Like Us: Peace Corps Volunteers in the 1960s.
X3D Technologies Presents Garry Kasparov vs. X3D Fritz The First Official World Chess Championship; 'X3D MAN vs. MACHINE' to be played in total virtual reality.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-FischerF.html   (338 words)

 A Libertarian View of the Worst Catastrophe by Jim Powell
Historian Gordon A. Craig noted that the Russians "vented their feelings in the nationalist press in Moscow and the semi-official press in St. Petersburg." It was during this trade war that Russia signed a military alliance with France against Germany.
By 1904, according to economic historian John H. Clapham, average tariffs were 25% in Germany, 27% in Italy, 34% in France, 35% in Austria, 73% in the U.S. and 131% in Russia.
German historian Fritz Fischer, after examining German archives, renewed the debate by presenting his case that after Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated, German officials urged Austria to send Serbia an ultimatum that was so strong, the Serbian government would have defy it.
www.lewrockwell.com /orig4/powell-jim6.html   (11787 words)

 Matthew T. Downey and Fritz Fischer | Responding to the Winds of Change in History Education | The History Teacher, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The historians' first reaction to the reform movement was to craft a history major for future secondary school teachers that provided the necessary content background and understanding to effectively teach the discipline.
Rather, it was to train them to think as historians, to use the processes and resources of historical inquiry and to have a broad and deep understanding of a variety of historical eras and areas.
For example, while elementary teachers may lack the expert knowledge required to think like a professional historian, they should be engaged as undergraduates in historical thinking and should know how to involve their students in doing history as well as in acquiring historical information.
www.historycooperative.org /journals/ht/34.1/downey.html   (3097 words)

 Historians Split on German WWI Role | Germany | Deutsche Welle | 29.07.2004
It took historian Fritz Fischer in the 1960s to point out the unflattering image in the mirror.
Fischer accused Germany of unleashing a preventative war to break the country's prevailing isolationism.
Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Postcare propagandizing the 'adventure' of World War IAfter creating a scandal with his analysis, Fischer was later seen as having opened the door to Germany's recognition of its central role in instigating the bloody conflict.
www.dw-world.de /english/0,3367,1432_A_1279269,00.html   (811 words)

 List of historians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, (1610–1688), Medieval and Byzantine historian and philologist
Jonathan Israel (born 1946), British historian of the Netherlands, the Age of Enlightenment and European Jewry
Fritz Stern, American historian of Germany and Jewish history.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/List_of_historians   (2489 words)

 LexisNexis(TM) Academic - Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Historians continue to debate the causes of World War I. Scholars often maintain that the origins of World War I lay in the rapid ascendance of Germany, the naval competition between Great Britain and Germany, the decline of the traditional order, or in the clash of ideologies and national ambitions.
It was German historian Fritz Fischer who in 1956 rekindled the debate when he published a controversial article on German war aims in Eastern Europe, asserting that German expansion aims were paramount.
Later Fischer went on to charge that since 1911 Germany desired war and provoked the one in 1914.
socsci.colorado.edu /~smithms/WarbyMiscalculation.htm   (6503 words)

 Military History: First World War: Causes
These scholars argue that the German monarchy and ruling classes welcomed the war as a means to implement expansionist goals that had their roots in the nineteenth century.
German historian Fritz Fischer, writing in the post-Second World War period, is perhaps the most influential proponent of this interpretation.
Indeed, Fischer's interpretation has influenced German foreign policy and, in particular, Germany's decision to renounce claims to lost territory in the east.
www.lermuseum.org /ler/mh/wwi/index.html   (837 words)

 Hot topic in Germany: aggression in World War I | csmonitor.com
BERLIN - In 1961, historian Fritz Fischer shocked Germany with his book, "Germany's Grasp for World Power," which asserted that Kaiser Wilhelm II was largely responsible for the outbreak of World War I. To a population that had grown up viewing the war as defensive, Mr.
Much discussed among historians in Germany and the rest of Europe is a theory that sees the period between 1914 and 1945 as a single continuation of violence.
First articulated by British historian Eric Hobsbawm in his 1994 book, "The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century 1914-1991," this school of thought is finding particular resonance in Germany this year.
www.csmonitor.com /2004/0802/p06s03-woeu.htm   (1007 words)

 Hitler's Thirty Days to Power
Unusually for a serious historian, but with more than enough justification in this case, he gives us a long speculation on what in fact was the most probable outcome at the time.
Still, to a surprising degree they were a shoestring operation, supported by generous membership contributions and the time and labor of their members (many of whom, after all, were not otherwise employed at the time).
The historian Fritz Fischer, remember, started a famous “battle of the historians” in the 1960s by arguing, plausibly, that Imperial Germany had entertained hegemonic ambitions comparable to those of the Nazi regime.
pages.prodigy.net /aesir/htdtp.htm   (3066 words)

 American Historical Association   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Although historians at all levels have been involved to some extent in professional development of K–12 teachers, more and more historians are now participating in such collaborative programs because of this important federal initiative.
For example, shifting concepts about race have changed the way historians interpreted key aspects of slavery and reconstruction in United States history, as well as the kinds of evidence and theories they used.
For example, classroom observations are used to assess the extent and quality of the use of primary and secondary sources as evidence.
www.historians.org /teaching/policy/Benchmarks.htm   (2921 words)

 Goldhagen in Germany   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
But it aroused the ire of others, among them historians who spent decades studying the many aspects of the Holocaust which, in their view, colluded to produce what is undeniably the most disastrous collapse of Western morality in the twentieth century.
Historians, seeking for causes of an unprecedented evil, found those by describing the many detailed aspects of the huge bureaucracy involved in the systematic expropriation and expulsion of the Jews from Germany, and finally their extermination in occupied territory.12
To the historians debating Goldhagen, on the other hand, it was incomprehensible that something as widely known and basic as the German crimes in WWII needed to be restated in an angry essay of over seven hundred pages.
www.bu.edu /mzank/Michael_Zank/gold.html   (10192 words)

 Free-ResearchPapers.com - World War 1
Mommsen refutes Fischer's claim that Germany was pursuing nothing but imperialist aims and points out that the German Chancellor, Bethmann, was moderate and not an annexationist.
Historians have thus been forced to work by elimination of improbable causes and by researching bit by bit the various socio/political/economic/cultural aspects of early 20th C. Europe in order to complete the larger, explanatory puzzle.
One may thus conclude that the research of various historians is, overall, vital in assembling the large puzzle that details the causes of the conflict.
www.free-researchpapers.com /dbs/a13/hte443.shtml   (4318 words)

 David L. Stevenson - Penguin Books Authors - Penguin Books
Second, the French historian Pierre Renouvin, who worked on World War I for four decades: although little of his work has been translated, it is a model of lucid organization and balanced judgement.
Third, the equally eminent German historian Fritz Fischer, who lacked Taylor’s and Renouvin’s stylistic and presentational abilities, but whose analysis of Berlin’s objectives in his Germany’s Aims in the First World War shaped my view of the conflict more profoundly than has any other single book.
Fischer insisted that the war resulted from deliberate choices by the German authorities, who bore the main share of responsibility both for starting it and for escalating and prolonging it.
www.penguin.ca /nf/Author/AuthorPage/0,,1000031323,00.html?sym=QUE   (1077 words)

This is a list of historians categorized by their area of study.
William Brandon (1914–2002), historian of the American West and Native Americans.
Li Ao (born 1935) - Historian, author, and politician and broadcaster in the Republic of China on Taiwan
www.splammer.com /?req=list_of_historians_by_area_of_study   (1025 words)

 Maurer | Kaiser Bill and John Bull As Co-Hegemons
During most of the postwar era, including the World War II years, up to 1961, most historians accepted the orthodox interpretation that no single European power was solely responsible for starting the war.
Ironically, it was a German historian, Fritz Fischer, who challenged the notion of collective responsibility with his highly controversial, Griff nach der Weltmacht (“Grab for world power”), which was later published in English as Germany’s Aims in the First World War (1967).
Fischer argued that, eager to divert the German people’s attention away from domestic turmoil and determined to become the dominant European (and even global) power, Berlin initiated the war in 1914 and in the process embraced an expansionist agenda, which included territorial gains in central and eastern Europe.
www.unc.edu /depts/diplomat/AD_Issues/amdipl_16/maurer_prt.html   (1812 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
One of my goals is to try to teach you how to communicate like an historian, and that means learning how to master techniques of analytical writing.
By the way, communicating like an historian does not include the use of cell phones…we are old fashioned and afraid of technology.
Professor Fischer will periodically and randomly take attendance, and lack of attendance will result in a very low participation grade and, consequently, a lower overall grade.
www.unco.edu /history/Fischer354Syllabus.doc   (746 words)

 Amazon.com: Germany's Aims in the First World War.: Books: Fritz Fischer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Fritz Fisher "Germany's War Aims in the First World War" dwells on the tremendous amount of material collected primarily from the archives of the Central powers.
Fischer's works regarding Germany and the First World War is a must for anyone interested in the events and decisions leading up to 1914 and for anyone interested in historiography.
The traditional view regarding the causes of the Great War, as explained by prominent German historians on the subject like Gehard Ritter, was that the leaders of Germany felt surrounded by the allied nations and thus entered the war for defensive reasons.
www.amazon.com /Germanys-Aims-First-World-War/dp/0393097986   (1664 words)

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