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Topic: Functional tonality

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In the News (Wed 22 May 19)

  Tonality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tonal music composed in other scale systems is referred to as microtonal, and while microtonal music draws from tonal theory, it is generally treated separately in text books and other works on music.
In tonal music chords which are moved to different keys, or played with different root notes are not perceived as being the same, and thus transpositional equivalency and far less still inversional equivalency are not generally held to apply.
The belief was that tonality had "snapped" because of expansion of vocabulary, decreased functionality, increased use of leading tones, alterations, modulations, tonicization, the increased importance of subsidiary key areas, use of non-diatonic hierarchical methods, and/or symmetry in interval cycles.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tonality   (4614 words)

Tonality is the character of music written with hierarchical relationships of pitcheses, rhythms, and chordss to a "center" or tonic.
The belief was that tonality had "snapped" because of expansion of vocabulary, decreased functionality, increased use of leading tones, alterations, modulations, tonicization, the increased importance of subsidary key areas, use of non-diatonic hierarchical methods, and/or symmetry.
While tonality is the most common form of organizing Western Music, it is not universal, nor is the seven note scale universal, many folk musics and the art music of many cultures focuses on a pentatonic, or five note scale, including Beijing Opera, the folk music of Hungary, and the musical traditions of Japan.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/t/to/tonality.html   (3495 words)

 Tonality -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Tonal music may simply be contrasted with (Click link for more info and facts about atonal) atonal music, music which does not feel as if it has a center.
The basic seven notes of a scale are notated in the (The sharps or flats that follow the clef and indicate the key) key signature, and whether the piece is in the major or minor is either stated in the title, or implied in the piece.
In the early 20th century the vocabulary of tonal theory is decisively influenced by two theorists: composer (United States composer and musical theorist (born in Austria) who developed atonal composition (1874-1951)) Arnold Schoenberg whose work "Harmonielehre" describes in detail chords, chord progressions, vagrant chords, creation of tonal areas, voice leading in terms of harmony.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/t/to/tonality.htm   (3524 words)

 The Tonal Centre - Tonality
Tonality is a word that has been given many definitions, and most of these are very broad - but that is because it is a concept which is easily obscured by its subtelty, and forgotten because of its pervasiveness.
Tonality describes the relationships between the elements of melody and harmony - tones, intervals, chords, scales, and the chromatic gamut; but particularly those types of relationship that are characterised as hierarchical, such that one of the elements dominates or attracts another.
These alternative tonalities are not generally recognised in conventional music theory, but here's hoping that some of the examples I give can convince you that there is a lot more for the tonal composer to experiment with, and the tonal theorist to analyse, than just the major and the minor scale.
dspace.dial.pipex.com /andymilne/index.shtml   (496 words)

 Music Theory--Harmony
In tonal music of this period the effect of a tonic is created largely by the interaction of different harmonies with one another.
In functional harmony, in order for a pitch to be a tonic, it must be the focal point of a group of pitches that fall into either of two patterns: the major scale or the minor scale (see Scale).
Unlike traditional tonal music, jazz and 20th-century popular music utilize these chords as basic elements, along with other dissonant chords such as eleventh and thirteenth chords, triads with an added sixth, chromatically altered chords, and suspensions (chords substituting a note of the previous harmony for one of their own).
www.geocities.com /musicman110_2000/harmony.html   (2627 words)

 TONALITY FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The traditional form of tonal music begins and ends on the tonic of the piece, and many tonal works move to a closely related key, such as the dominant of the main tonality (for example sonata_form).
The belief was that tonality had "snapped" because of expansion of vocabulary, decreased functionality, increased use of leading_tones, alterations, modulations, tonicization, the increased importance of subsidiary_key areas, use of non-diatonic hierarchical methods, and/or symmetry in interval_cycles.
While tonality is the most common form of organizing Western_Music, it is not universal, nor is the seven note scale universal, much folk music and the art music of many cultures focus on a pentatonic, or five note scale, including Beijing Opera, the folk music of Hungary, and the musical traditions of Japan.
www.whereintheworldisbush.com /tonality   (4522 words)

 Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the Renaissance, harmony is more the result of consonances incidental to the smooth flow of polyphony, while in the early Baroque era the order of these consonances becomes important, for they begin to be felt as chords in a hierarchical, functional tonal scheme.
Around 1600 there is considerable blurring of this definition: for example one can see essentially tonal progressions around cadential points in madrigals, while in early monody the feeling of tonality is still rather tenuous.
Another distinction between Renaissance and Baroque practice in harmony is the frequency of chord root motion by third in the earlier period, while motion of fourths or fifths predominates later (which partially defines functional tonality).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Baroque_music   (1885 words)

 Some useful concepts part 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Functional harmony - describes harmony where chords have specific roles, ie, dominant chords, subdominant chords, etc. have varying degrees of strength in the cadence and in relation to each other depending upon context.
If functional harmony and/or traditional voice leading is not present, then tonality cannot generally be expressed.
Tonal centers may still be present in non-tonal/functional harmony.
www.cwu.edu /~compose/PostTonal_3.html   (498 words)

 Article by Robert Carl
In cadential areas in particular, materials often project the qualities they assume in a tonal setting, e.g., fifths and fourths are more consonant than seconds and sevenths, etc. As in tonal music, stable chords are constructed from combinations of more consonant intervals, while less stable chords derive from more dissonant configurations.
3 shows a sample, in which a descending chordal progression is transposed and inverted in patterns derived from functional harmony, and in which the overall sound seems to derive as much from a modal underpinning as from intervallic choice.
This is not to suggest that Karchin must next compose traditionally tonal music; he is not like some of the earlier generation of serialists who became disenchanted with the system and rejected it outright.
www.stokar.com /Karchin/LKarticle.htm   (1581 words)

 A Comparison of Free Jazz to 20th-Century Classical Music
Just as 20th-century classical music extends and separates itself from the tonal language of traditional classical music, so too free jazz "frees" itself from the conventions of functional tonality: "In traditional jazz, the primary purpose of the theme or tune is to provide a harmonic and metrical framework as a basis for improvisation.
Next, the different means of expression in free jazz utilized in the absence of functional tonality will then be considered, followed by an analysis of the new approaches to overall formal structure used to encapsulate these means of expression--which, as is also often true of 20th-century composition, are merely extensions of traditional forms.
Though extensions of tonality and conscious employments of chromaticism were well absorbed into the style of improvisation that became known as free jazz, the high degree of constructionism inherent to serial music may have proven too difficult for spontaneous expression: "The qualities and creative principles of the newest European music...
ccrma-www.stanford.edu /~blackrse/freejazz.html   (7368 words)

 An Introduction to English-Language Folksong Style (II)::
Tonality, Modality, Hoarmony, and Intonation in LaRena ...
Scholars who first analyzed the tonal structures of English-language traditional songs at the beginning of the twentieth century were struck by their resemblance to the so-called "church modes" which had been used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
By and large, the use off-natural relative to a final on g can be considered to complicate a melody relative to major tonality, for thereby each of the triads on degrees 1,4 and 5is not uniformly major, and hence triadic symmetry around the finalis or tonic is sacrificed.
Despite these rather rare ambiguities, the tonal structures of LaRena's melodies are very clearly projected, except, of course, where the tune itself is tonally ambiguous, as in a circular melody.
cjtm.icaap.org /content/18/v18art4.html   (4843 words)

 The Blues
Functional Tonality when combined with Christianity came in the form of Hymns.
These Hymns though simpler and less chromatically complex than the Chorales of Bach, were firmly rooted in the typical triadic forms of 18th Century tonality.
For their own good (sic) the slaves were converted to Christianity and were exposed, in the form of hymns, to Functional Tonality "in the raw".
members.aol.com /aaocompose/20thCentury3.html   (1519 words)

 wikien.info: Main_Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Hugo Riemann () defined tonality as, "the special meaning [functions] that chords receive through their relationship to a fundamental sonority, the tonic triad."
Hence these series become various types of tonalities." (p.11f) "But one will say, 'What is the principal behind these scales, and what, if not acoustic phenomena and the laws of mathematics, has set the order of their tones?' I respond that this principle is purely metaphysical [anthropological].
Consequently, he argues, melodically tonal melodies resist harmonization and only reemerge in western music after, "harmonic tonality was abandoned," as in the music of Claude Debussy: "melodic tonality plus modulation is [Debussy's] modern tonality." (page 23)
www.alanaditescili.net /index.php?title=Tonality   (3792 words)

 Study Abstract: 12 Tone Matrices   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In response to the demise of the tonal system of composing music, musicians in the early twentieth century looked for new approaches to composing that would restore a sense of coherence to music.
As a natural consequence of the increasing chromaticism of the time, the previous system of "functional tonality" which gave music much of its sense of order began to lose its effectiveness.
A mathematical system for achieving a sense of order was needed; complete equality of all twelve chromatic pitches and the emancipation of dissonance were also important objectives of the new system.
www.wsu.edu /~dpalmen/mathlessons/html/serialmusic/studyabstractsm.html   (137 words)

 George Crumb | the WRITINGS | music: does it have a future?
Sonata-structure was, of course, intimately connected with the evolution of functional tonality, and tonality itself, independently, represents another germinal concept of great potency.
Although we must be impressed by the enormous accruement of new elements of vocabulary in the areas of pitch, rhythm, timbre, and so forth, I sense at the same time the loss of a majestic unifying principle in much of our recent music.
Not only is the question of tonality still unresolved but we have not yet evolved anything comparable to the sure instinct for form which occurs routinely in the best traditional music.
www.georgecrumb.net /future.html   (2952 words)

 Marcus Maroney - Sounds Like New: As A Fan of Inversion Symbols...
The large percentage of students we will instruct are going to mostly perform music composed using functional tonality, and it's essential that we show them the inner workings of the music.
Tonal music is about direction created by dissonance and resolution, and being able to recognize and communicate where dissonances are happening, what type they are, and where they should resolve in an ensemble setting is a must.
I always tell my students that they are learning how to distinguish all the colors in the tonal palette of the composer, just as art majors learn how to distinguish burnt umber from red-orange.
maroney.blogs.com /sounds_like_new/2005/07/as_a_fan_of_inv.html   (1165 words)

The expansion of classical tonality in the nineteenth century was a result of several related developments, the most important of which were an increasing emphasis on chromatic elements, extending the range of classical tonal functions, and a decreasing structural dependence on tonal regions which would support the central tonality.
Musicology 7 (1982):120-30; "Bartók's Notation: Tonality and Modality." TEMPO 145 (1983):4-9.
Thus, a tonic I chord is functionally equivalent to i(b3), bIII(b5), biii(b3+b5), bV(b3+b5), bv(b5), VI(#3), and vi; its subdominant relatives comprise bVI(b5), bvi(b3+b5), bI(b3+b5), bi(bb3+b5), II(#3), ii, IV, iv(b3); and its dominant relations are III(#3), iii, V, v(b3), bVII, and bvii(b3).
courses.wcupa.edu /abauer/topics.html   (10918 words)

Even thirty years ago when "uptown music" was in vogue, tonality was the elephant in the room.
It was always titillating to listen to a new, 12-tone piece and discover the inevitable hints of tonality tucked away or skirted by in little corners and interstices.
What interests me is the space between where functional tonality ends and something else begins.There is a lot of tension and drama in that place.
www.newmusicbox.org /page.nmbx?id=53hf10   (133 words)

 Commentary Magazine - The New Tonalists   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
...The effect of their music was "tonal" in the limited sense that it was not atonal, but it did not constitute a genuine return to functional tonality...
...Instead, composers adopted widely varied styles which, though recognizably modern in their use of the expanded language of post-Debussyan tonality, were also rooted in the melodic and rhythmic inflections of specific cultures...
...Charles Wuorinen, for instance, wrote in 1979 that the tonal system "is no longer employed by serious composers of the mainstream," while the pianist and critic Charles Rosen claimed that those who continued to use tonality were "retreating from the ideal of original invention that has been imposed on art since the Renaissance...
www.commentarymagazine.com /Summaries/V104I6P55-1.htm   (3136 words)

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