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Topic: Functionalism architecture

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  Architecture - duno.com reference
Vitruvius states: "Architecture is a science, arising out of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning: by the help of which a judgement is formed of those works which are the result of other arts." He adds that an architect should be well versed in fields such as music and astronomy.
In every usage, an architecture may be seen as a subjective mapping from a human perspective (that of the user in the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the elements or components of some kind of structure or system, which preserves the relationships among the elements or components.
In many ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians' and Mesopotamians' architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural, while in other ancient cultures such as Iran architecture and urban planning was used to exemplify the power of the state.
www.duno.com /term/Architecture   (4077 words)

  Functionalism (architecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building.
The place of functionalism in building can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad, where 'utilitas' (variously translated as 'commodity', 'convenience', or 'utility') stands alongside 'venustas' (beauty) and 'firmitas' (firmness) as one of three classic goals of architecture.
In the early years of the 20th Century, Chicago architect Louis Sullivan popularized the phrase 'form follows function' to capture his belief that a building's size, massing, spatial grammar and other characteristics should be driven solely by the function of the building.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Functionalism_(architecture)   (546 words)

 Architecture in Norway   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Because of their important function on the farms they were strongly built and have survived as some of the finest examples of Norwegian architecture.
Functionalism was the international style, but in individual projects the Norwegian functionalists blended national traditions with the new mode.
Architecturally, the Police Headquarters has been followed up by several similar structures in which a sub-division of the building's main body, as in the example with the open hand, creates open spaces which can be covered in glass.
www.reisenett.no /norway/facts/culture_science/architecture_in_norway.html   (6366 words)

 Functionalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Functionalism in the philosophy of mind is the doctrine that what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way it functions, or the role it plays, in the system of which it is a part.
Functionalism is the doctrine that what makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function, or the role it plays, in the cognitive system of which it is a part.
If functional characterizations of intentional states are intended to capture their “narrow contents”, however, then the inputs and outputs of the system will have to be specified in a way that permits individuals in different environments to be in the same intentional state.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/functionalism   (9380 words)

 Medina (background) - Architecture as a Human Science
In their efforts to marry functionalism and structuralism, Muka ovský and Honzík appeal repeatedly to a sense of the imagination that clearly sinks its roots in an intuition of the vital continuity between nature and human nature.
From this base, the concept of function expands into the cultural sciences; a specific case of this expansion would be functional [structural] linguistics which takes language to be a tool of expression whose individual forms (for example, ordinary speech or written texts) are the result of the adaptation of discourse to particular expressive needs.
The situation in architecture is the same as in other areas; but the need to transcend original functionalism in the direction of the openness and multi-dimensionality of functions as involved in human goals is more pressing and more widely felt in architecture than in any other field.
www.focusing.org /apm_papers/honzwor.html   (8826 words)

 ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
From the evolution of the architecture something that has been of preoccupation character is the meaning of the spaces in the last century.
Soon the functionalism is reversed the form no longer "followed" the function but that, "dictated it." The international style in "uníformalismo." The main characteristics of this phenomenon are that this fact infringes the norms of the functionalism, the form follows the function.
The architecture and the design have evolved of the common elaboration of the function concept in the debate on the meaning de los buildings and the objects.
architecture.arqhys.com /history/desing.html   (497 words)

 Structure and Meaning
Human architecture is always more dictated by cultural, metaphysical and aesthetic aims than by pure functionality and reason.
Animal architecture teaches us that a proper way towards an ecologically sound human architecture, which is urgently called for today, is not through regressing back to primitive forms of construction, but through extreme technological sophistication.
He was Professor of Architecture at Helsinki University of Technology (1991-97) and Dean of the Faculty of Architecture 1993-96, and has taught in various universities in Europe, North and South America and Africa.
www.design.upenn.edu /arch/news/Human_Settlements/essential.html   (998 words)

 Gothic Reviver - The World and I Magazine
Modern architectural debate was partly anticipated in the theories of France's most passionate champion of Gothic architecture.
In those days, academic training in architecture was as much a necessity to a young professional starting out as it was to a beginning artist.
Thus in the section from "Architecture," which consists of a history of French architecture, the reader stumbles over Viollet-le-Duc's characterization of Romanesque churches as "sad and somber, crude in appearance." It is clearly the view of writer so taken with the soaring complexities of Gothic architecture that he sees everything else through the Gothic prism.
www.worldandi.com /public/1991/january/bk15.cfm   (2533 words)

 Yve-Alain Bois - Against Functionalism
Bruno Reichlin, director of the School of Architecture of the University of Geneva and a respected Le Corbusier scholar, was one of the show's two organizers.
And finally Le Corbusier's continual concern for the relations between architecture and its site was demonstrated in his numerous travel sketches, as well as in the drawings for the Villa Schwob, which, from the outside, changes its aspect radically according to point of view, and, from the inside, has apertures that frame the landscape.
Impressed by the political status given to architecture in Russia, Le Corbusier later decided to overlook the painful fact that he was not allowed to visit the building site of the Centrosoyuz and agreed to participate in the invitational competition for the Palace of the Soviets in 1931-32.
www.egs.edu /faculty/bois/bois-against-functionalism.html   (3805 words)

 Organic architecture
Until we have not referred now to a single one of the main tendencies of the rationalist architecture: the functionalism characterizes to the functional architecture the search of rational structures that fundamentally serve the function as habitability of the buildings, as much in an individual sense as social.
The functionalism, flees from the useless decorative and the necessity considers to integrate the architectonic work in the deep space, varying the concept of the sustenance wall and insulating that happens to become a simple one chewed of crystal, surrounding but no insulating.
However, the modern architects conceive the organic architecture like the fusion of the different parts or elements of a building in an all-organic one that imitates the nature and are inserted in her like integral part of the same one.
architecture.arqhys.com /history/organic.html   (265 words)

 Cubist Architecture in Prague   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
We consider the teaching of modern architecture on the individualization of materials, that is, the derivation of artistic form from the natural and physical qualities of the material to be materialistic and aimless, limiting the free creation of the architect to the interpretation of the material.
Architectural beauty can only be a constructed beauty expressed through the materials, but residing in an almost dramatic counterweight to the material.
For Janák and others reacting against Sezession-style architecture in the years before World War I, the banner of cubism was an important way of calling attention to the need for a new emphasis in the development of a truly Czech style.
www.mala.bc.ca /~johnstoi/praguepage/cubismlecture.htm   (3236 words)

 Uel B decifering
Most of them dispute the functional problems because they disagree on what is a desirable way of life, or because they fail to understand how a ' way of life ' may be formulated or ' translated' into an architectural frame.
The functionalism of the 'twenties and 'thirties took this as its point of departure, and gave us the first systematic attempt at an examination of the actual building tasks.
It is also interesting to notice that generally the history of art and architecture has again been introduced into the curriculum, not for the purpose of copying, but because it seems somewhat imprudent to throw the experiences of several thousand years overboard.
www.auburn.edu /~bassesg/html/intentions_in_architecture.htm   (3293 words)

 Embassy of the Slovak Republic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The architectural concept of the Embassy of Slovakia's new chancery is firmly rooted in the ideas and ideals of the architecture of functionalism in Slovakia.
Slovak functionalism of the wider modern movement of the inter-war years was a search for and a definition of the national identity through the aesthetics of honesty of expression, modernism, and progress.
This architectural design was selected as the winner in a national competition underwritten by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic in 1995 with construction starting on April 6, 2000.
www.czslha.org /embassy_of_the_slovak_republic.htm   (786 words)

 Functionalism (from architecture) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
in architecture, the doctrine that the form of a building should be determined by practical considerations such as use, material, and structure, as distinct from the attitude that plan and structure must conform to a preconceived picture in the designer's mind.
The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements of civilized people and thus embraces both utilitarian and aesthetic ends.
The architecture and building techniques used by the Spanish for their missions are still around to be seen today.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-31861?tocId=31861   (774 words)

 ماهنامه معماری ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Architecture must evolve from, express, and be adapted to its natural environment.
Architecture must be loyal to the building's design and purpose.
There is no significant characteristic on the facades to distinguish between the architecture building as a place which is full of activity and the business school for instance.
www.parc.ir /archive/no5/article   (716 words)

 The Home of Qdesign. (De Stijl and the Modern Movement)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In architecture, Functionalism meant the elimination of ornament so the building plainly expressed its purpose, and the principle led to the idea of designing buildings from the inside outwards, letting the essential structure dictate the form and therefore its external appearance.
A protege of Louis Sullivan, Wright was a believer in Functionalism, designing houses at the turn of the century in which large open spaces, light and airy, dictated the exterior shape of the structure.
An architectural commission in 1924, the Schroder House in Utrecht, was conceived in terms of straight lines and rectangular planes, materialized in the form of slabs, posts and beams.
www.qdesign.co.nz /designhist_destijl.html   (2868 words)

 Untitled Page
Wright was an advocate of the idea of functionalism, which is a concept based on the rational relationship between the form of an object and its purpose.
He developed an idea of organic architecture and applied it from the 1890s to the 1930s, and he developed six major design principles for it.
This type of architecture was mostly seen in the Midwest and Chicago because the design called for vast, low-lying fields and open terrain.
www.umich.edu /~eng217/student_projects/franklloydwright/bio/styles.html   (415 words)

 Modernism and Modern Church Architecture
If "form follows function" were meant to imply simply that a building should fulfill its function, that is to say, the purpose for which it was built, that would be one thing.
Reinhold, turned their minds to church architecture, they breathed in, as it were, "the spirit of the age": the currents of air that were wafting through all the American schools of architecture – perhaps without even being aware that that was what they were doing.
Reinhold thought about church architecture, it's clear that he thought about it in the categories that had been set by a generation of Modernist architects who, by the time he was writing and lecturing, controlled all the major schools of architecture in America.
basil.stthom.edu /smith/scholar/Modernism_and_Modern_Church_Architecture.html   (4044 words)

 Tribute to Gaboury Website - Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In keeping with the mainstream of architectural study in North America, Gaboury's instruction at the University of Manitoba was primarily influenced by the strict functionalism of the Bauhaus movement.
"In architecture, we're constructing space for human beings," he says, "and when we speak of human beings, we must take into account the distinction between human beings and the other animal forms: consciousness, intellectual capacity, awareness and emotion (though emotion is not restricted to human beings).
Functionalist principles were vital, but spirituality and emotional content were paramount, thus decreeing that all aspects of functionalism were to be considered: the spiritual and emotional as well as the physical.
collections.ic.gc.ca /EtienneGaboury/xsbl/proj21.html   (1572 words)

 CONK! Encyclopedia: Category:Architecture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Architecture is a communicative art that situates human activity within a horizon of possibilities, the art and science of designing buildings.
A wider definition would include within its scope the design of the total built environment, from the macrolevel of urban planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the microlevel of furniture and product design.
For more information, see the article about Architecture.
www.conk.com /search/encyclopedia.cgi?q=Category:Architecture   (89 words)

 Functionalism (architecture) - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Functionalism is the principle that architects should direct their efforts towards the function of buildings, and even define architectural beauty as a product of a functional solution.
Sometimes this has been explained as a simplification of the Vitruvian triad (beauty, commodity and firmness) to eliminate beauty as an autonomous quality of architecture.
In general this resulted in the abandoning of "superficial" ornament in architecture and is associated with the 20th century Modern Movement in architecture.
open-encyclopedia.com /Functionalism_(architecture)   (96 words)

There are two sets of functionalist attitudes and working methods, some relating to how we understand the world (analysis), and some relating to how we change it (design).
The functions of a system are the only source of requirements, from which all structural features are derived.
Functionalism in architecture is often interpreted as demanding austere and emotionally neutral buildings.
www.users.globalnet.co.uk /~rxv/design/functionalism.htm   (1031 words)

The basis for the new architectural movement of the 1920s was the development of new structural and material technologies, which enabled not only a proper visual and functional realization of the Modernist ideas and ideals, but also made the designs suitable for mass-production and international adaptation around the world, hence the term "Internationalism".
The new style of Functionalism was first mentioned in Finland in 1926 when the architect Alvar Aalto wrote about the influence of Le Corbusier on his architecture.
Was instrumental in introducing Functionalism to Viipuri and acted as the Viipuri city architect in 1932-1936.
www.greatgridlock.net /Viipuri/archi.html   (1445 words)

Functionalism (architecture), was a movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that advocated that architecture should be stripped of all ornamentation so as to allow its structure to express its function or purpose.
It was given impetus by Frank Lloyd Wright, who in 1901 originated the famous phrase "form follows function", and by Le Corbusier, who in 1927 stated that "a house is a machine for living".
Danish Functionalism is an offshoot of the German Bauhaus Movement, yet much more longlived than Bauhaus.
arthistory.heindorffhus.dk /frame-Style20-ExpressionismFunctionalism.htm   (425 words)

 Amazon.com: Towards a New Architecture: Books: Le Corbusier   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In it he laid the ground work for Modern Architecture, extolling the virtues of an architecture that was the product of the machine age rather than a pastiche of historical styles.
Le Corbusier would reshape many of his ideas over time, but this book outlines his early view of architecture in the machine age, which led to the quote most often taken from this book, "a house is a machine for living." But, Le Corbusier saw it in much more human terms than his critics have.
architecture is plastic and experiential, but not dogmatized by universality, so stop critcising utopian solutions for lack of ingenuity.
www.amazon.com /Towards-New-Architecture-Corbusier/dp/0486250237   (1805 words)

 Christian Literature and Living   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Now, as most of the architecturally literate readers of this journal are probably already aware, the phrase, "Form follows function," was one of the rallying cries of Modernist architects and "functionalism" one of their most beloved principles of design.
Reinhold, turned their minds to church architecture, they breathed in, as it were, "the spirit of the age": the currents of air that were wafting through all the American schools of architecture - perhaps without even being aware that that was what they were doing.
Reinhold thought about church architecture, it's clear that he thought about it in the categories that had been set by a generation of Modernist architects who, by the time he was writing and lecturing, controlled all the major schools of architecture in America.
www.christianliteratureandliving.com /aug2003/rsmitharchitecture.html   (5704 words)

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