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Topic: Fundamental forces

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  Fundamental Forces
Fundamentally, both magnetic and electric forces are manifestations of an exchange force involving the exchange of photons.
The electromagnetic force is a force of infinite range which obeys the inverse square law, and is of the same form as the gravity force.
The discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983 was hailed as a confirmation of the theories which connect the weak force to the electromagnetic force in electroweak unification.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/forces/funfor.html   (1168 words)

 The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature
There are four fundamental forces within all atoms, that dictate interactions between individual particles, and the large-scale behavior of all matter throughout the Universe.
The electromagnetic force controls the behavior of charged particles and plasmas (a plasma is a mixture of equal numbers of positive ions and negative electrons) as, for example, in solar prominences, coronal loops, flares, and other kinds of solar activity.
However, because the nuclear forces have such microscopically short ranges, and matter on the large scale tends to be electrically neutral, gravitation is the force that governs the motion of massive bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.
www.geocities.com /angolano/Astronomy/FundamentalForces.html   (1255 words)

 Four fundamental forces - quantum-world - 19 November 1988 - New Scientist
Physicists say that mass is the source of the force of gravity; putting it another way, mass is the source of a field that maps the strength and direction of the gravitational force at all points in space (and time).
The concept of a field of force was formulated in the 19th century in studies of the forces in electricity and magnetism.
Maxwell's equations describe the field of the electromagnetic force, a force that ranks alongside gravity as one of the fundamental forces of the Universe.
www.newscientist.com /channel/fundamentals/quantum-world/mg12016390.100   (0 words)

 Fundamental Physical Forces - Picture - MSN Encarta
Modern physics has established that four fundamental forces, varying greatly in their strength, are at work behind an everyday scene like this.
Although it dominates the universe on the large scale, gravitation is the weakest of the four forces.
The light, heat, and other radiations that flood from the sun are produced ultimately by the so-called weak nuclear force, which is a short-range force acting between subatomic particles.
uk.encarta.msn.com /media_121635433_761553206_-1_1/Fundamental_Physical_Forces.html   (154 words)

 Theory: Fundamental Particles (SLAC VVC)
Today, quarks and leptons, and their antiparticles, are candidates for being the fundamental building blocks from which all else is made.
In the modern theory, known as the Standard Model there are 12 fundamental matter particle types and their corresponding antiparticles.
In addition, there are gluons, photons, and W and Z bosons, the force carrier particles that are responsible for strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions respectively.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/fundamental.html   (526 words)

 Physics > Fundamental Forces
The strong force is transferred by gluons and it acts on particles that carry "color charge", i.e.
Most particle physicists perceive the existence of different forces each with separate theories to describe them to be inelegant and believe that all of the forces can be described in a general theory of everything.
Also of note is that all four of these forces are conservative forces which is to say that the effect of the force on an object moving from one point to another is independent of the path of the object.
www.physics.teleactivities.net /forces/index.html   (624 words)

 Fundamental Forces   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The four presently known fundamental forces are electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and gravitation.
The strong force and the weak force respectively interact with nuclear and subnuclear constituents within the atomic nucleus.
Thus in addition to the four known forces there may be other fundamental forces and interactions which are presently unknown, undefined, and undescribed by science.
www.cox-internet.com /hermital/book/holopara1-3.htm   (1179 words)

 The Fundamental Forces
The four fundamental forces are gravity, electromagnetism, strong, and weak nuclear forces.
The four fundamental forces are: gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force.
The strong nuclear force is the strongest of the fundamental forces.
www.caosclub.org /members/caosho53.html   (2800 words)

 The Four Fundamental Forces
The strong force is by far the strongest of the forces, followed by the electromagnetic force, the weak force, and finally the extremely feeble gravitational force.
The electromagnetic force is actually second in effective strength only to the strong force, but it is listed out of order here because it, like gravity, is more familiar to most people.
The weak nuclear force is one of the less familiar fundamental forces.
library.thinkquest.org /27930/forces.htm   (1049 words)

 The Fundamental Forces of Nature
The four fundamental forces all play central roles in making the Universe what it is today, but with respect to the large-scale issues that are of interest to cosmology it is gravitation that is most important.
This is because of two of its basic properties that set it apart from the other forces: (1) it is long-ranged and thus can act over cosmological distances, and (2) it always supplies an attractive force between any two pieces of matter in the Universe.
Only when the temperature dropped did these forces separate from each other, with the strong force separating first and then at a still lower temperature the electromagnetic and weak forces separating to leave us with the 4 distinct forces that we see in our present Universe.
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr162/lect/cosmology/forces.html   (630 words)

 The Fundamental Forces & Light   (Site not responding. Last check: )
When body A exerts a force on body B, body B exerts an equal and opposite force on body A. Often stated as the Law of Action and Reaction, the Third Law is responsible for Conservation of Momentum and is the Principle that makes Rocket Flight possible.
Despite the fact that Gravity is the weakest of the fundamental forces, because it is a purely attractive, long-range force, we will see that Gravity dominates many areas of astronomy.
The forces which prevent you from falling through the floor or your chair, the forces that are exerted when you push an object, (friction, etc.) are all examples of the electromagnetic force in action.
cassfos02.ucsd.edu /public/tutorial/Forces.html   (0 words)

 Fundamental Forces, MegForce.com: Physics, Order of the Forces, Fundamental Particle, Unifying Theory
Through the interactions of charged fundamental particles and the movement of these charges within the fields of other nearby charges, different fundamental forces are formed.
It must be understood that these are the fundamental forces and not the common subatomic forces that all readers are familiar with.
As external MEG forces confine and place 'C' particles under greater pressure by a reduction of their free space, the C's are forced to vibrate at higher frequencies relative to the total of the external MEG forces applied.
www.2xtreme.net /~boris/forces.htm   (2014 words)

 Fundamental Particles and Forces
Newton's theory was a unification of terrestrial forces with extraterrestrial forces, a recognition that the same force governs both the laws of heaven and the laws of earth.
When it was recognized in the 1930's that the nucleus of the atom consisted of protons and neutrons, physicists hypothesized a strong force in the nucleus that acts to bind protons and neutrons together in spite of the great electromagnetic repulsion between the positively charged protons.
Finally the weak force was unified with the electromagnetic force, yielding the electroweak theory, and the strong force was explained by quantum chromodynamics, or QCD.
www.integralscience.org /particles.html   (973 words)

 Environmental Decision Making, Science, and Technology
Gravitation and electromagnetism are the two forces with which we will be primarily concerned, as these are the two forces that operate at the macroscopic level of environmental systems.
The strong nuclear force is the strongest of the forces.
Every force that we experience belongs to one of these four categories, even when the connection is hard to see.
telstar.ote.cmu.edu /environ/m3/s3/06forces.shtml   (1093 words)

 Foundations of Scientific Knowledge - Fundamental Forces
The strong and weak forces work at only very small distances of less than a trillionth of a centimeter, and typically play their role inside the nucleus of an atom.
Gravity is an attractional force between all matter with mass in the universe.
By comparing the two force values that we calculated from the two protons, the electromagnetic repulsion is 1,235,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (1.235e36) times greater than the gravitational attraction.
mike.gamerack.com /science/forces1.php   (673 words)

 gravity concept from the Astronomy knowledge base   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The other three fundamental forces are the electromagnetic force and two kinds of nuclear forces.
The weakest of the four natural forces (the other three being the electromagnetic and the two nuclear interactive forces), its real nature is still not fully understood.
In Newtonian physics, the universal, mutual, attraction of all massive objects for one another; its force is directly proportional to the mass of each object, and decreases by the square of the distance separating the objects involved.
www.site.uottawa.ca:4321 /astronomy/gravity.html   (388 words)

 Force   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Commonly experienced as a "push" or "pull," force is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction.
The study of forces in equilibrium is statics; that of forces and motion is dynamics.
The gravitational force and the electromagnetic force have an infinite range.
www.neutron.anl.gov /hyper-physics/force.html   (169 words)

 230 Tutor: Newton's Laws Part II
The weak force governs beta decay and related phenomena in which neutrinos are created and annihilated, and is quite distinct from the other three.
Contact forces are normally macroscopic manifestations of one of the four fundamental forces.
For example, the force of the table on the object is fundamentally electromagnetic in nature -- atoms in the object do not want to occupy the same space as atoms in the table due to repulsive electromagnetic forces.
science.palomar.edu /physics/Physics230/Tutor/Tutor09.html   (1076 words)

There are for example, the forces that keep the cells together to build up the human body, and there is the gravitational force that keeps us on the ground and the moon in orbit around the earth.
Since there were only two basic forces known in the beginning of the 20th century, gravitation and electromagnetism, and it was seen that electromagnetism is responsible for the forces in the atom, it was natural to believe that it was also responsible for the forces keeping the nucleus together.
The Strong Nuclear Force is an attractive force between protons and neutrons that keep the nucleus together and the Weak Nuclear Force is responsible for the radioactive decay of certain nuclei.
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/physics/articles/brink/index.html   (4635 words)

 NOVA Online | Teachers | Classroom Activity | Elegant Universe, The: Einstein's Dream | PBS
Particles, which undergo a number of interactions, are acted upon by four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force.
Matter particles and force carrier particles are part of the Standard Model, which provides a detailed catalog of many of the particles that comprise the universe.
The nuclear forces that hold the nucleus of an atom together, at nuclear distances, are usually stronger than the electric forces that would make it fly apart.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/teachers/activities/3012_elegant_02.html   (783 words)

 Four Fundamental Interaction   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The strong force, which we generally call the nuclear force, is actually the force that binds quarks together to form baryons (3 quarks) and mesons (a quark and an anti-quark).
The force that holds nucleons together to form an atomic nucleus can be thought to be a residual interaction between quarks inside each individual nucleon.
The range of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces is infinite, while that of the strong and weak forces is very short.
www.lbl.gov /abc/wallchart/chapters/04/0.html   (764 words)

 Confirmation of the Unification of Two Fundamental Forces
Fundamental forces of nature include the electromagnetic force, which involves interaction between particle charges; and the weak force, which causes radioactive beta decay and is key to solar energy production, making possible the evolution of life on Earth.
Once thought to be separate, these forces were unified in the electroweak theory, an important part of the Standard Model, physicists' current theory of matter and the forces of nature.
The Stanford experiment was cited in the Nobel literature as important confirmation of the unified electroweak interaction, a theory that contributed to the intense development of particle physics in the 1970s.
www.er.doe.gov /Sub/Accomplishments/Decades_Discovery/33.html   (327 words)

 Theory: Forces and Interactions (SLAC VVC)
Strong interactions, responsible for forces between quarks and gluons and nuclear binding.
Gravitational interactions, responsible for forces between any two objects due to their energy (which, of course, includes their mass).
Forces between particles can be described in terms of static (unchanging) force fields and exchanges of force carrier particles between the affected particles.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/interactions.html   (276 words)

 Fundamental Forces
Each of the myriads of forces currently known is either one of the three (3) fundamental forces or a combination of some of the four (4) fundamental forces.
The fundamental forces of nature are listed in the diagram below, along with some of their roles or application in explaining the physical universe.
In the atom, the attractive force between the nucleus and the swirling electron is "balanced" by the centrifugal force.
www.phys.subr.edu /physics/course/tutorials/explunit.htm   (1312 words)

 Wikinfo | Fundamental force   (Site not responding. Last check: )
It is the force between charged particles, such as the force between two electrons, or the force between two current carrying wires.
The strong force is transferred by gluons and it acts on particles that carry "color charge", i.e.
Most particle physicists perceive the existence of different forces each with separate theories to describe them to be inelegant and believe that all of the forces can be described in a general theory of everything.
wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Fundamental_force   (738 words)

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