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Topic: Fundamental tone

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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

Almost every musical tone, whether it is produced by a vibrating string, a vibrating column of air or any other vibrating system, consists of a fundamental tone and a number of the higher-pitched but generally fainter tones known as partial tones or over tones.
It is widely believed that the partial tones produced by all musical instruments are harmonic-that their frequencies are exact whole-number multiples of the frequency of a fundamental tone.
A pure tone from one of the oscillators is then sent through the analyzer, and its frequency is adjusted until it gives a maximum response at the same setting as that of the real partial.
www.zainea.com /piano.htm   (5481 words)

 harmonic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The vibration of the whole string produces the fundamental tone, and the segments produce weaker subsidiary tones.
At most the first 16 tones in such a series can be heard by the human ear; the character or timbre of a fundamental tone is determined by the number of its subsidiary tones heard and their relative intensity.
The subsidiary tones have been loosely called harmonics (as a noun), but they are properly called partials, the fundamental tone being the first partial.
www.bartelby.com /65/ha/harmonic.html   (239 words)

 Electronic sound synthesis - Patent 4085648
In an amplitude/frequency diagram the fundamental tone and the overtones (generic term: component or partial tones) form a pattern in the manner of spectral lines of different heights, which is referred to as the "partial tone structure".
The filter circuit 34 passes the component tones of the first partial tone structure excepting the fundamental tone, and the filter circuit 36 passes the component tones of the second partial tone structure with the exception of the fundamental tone.
The component tones passed by the filter circuit 34 are again required to correspond to a comparatively small volume whilst the component tones passed by the filter circuit 36 are required to correspond to a comparatively large volume.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4085648.html   (3193 words)

 Pedal tone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pedal tones are special notes in the harmonic series of cylindrical-bore brass instruments.
The original fundamental is not raised all the way to the new fundamental pitch, and the original third harmonic becomes the new second harmonic.
Pedal tones are called for occasionally in advanced brass literature, particularly in that of the trombone.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pedal_tone   (291 words)

 Hydrogenaudio Forums > How do you hear tones?
So the sound which has the lower fundamental (the fundamental is the GCD of all the harmonics) has the higher N harmonics before the first common harmonic (which is LCM of the fundamentals of the two sounds).
A fundamental tone hearer interprets the first sound as the 4th and 5th harmonics of the fundamental at 332Hz, a somewhat detuned E2, and mentally reconstitutes the missing fundamental.
After that the fundamental tone hearer interprets the second sound as the 3rd and 4th harmonics of the fundamental at 415Hz, an almost perfect G#2, and mentally reconstitutes the missing fundamental.
www.hydrogenaudio.org /forums/lofiversion/index.php/t40690.html   (4310 words)

 signsofscience   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Tuning forks produce two loud tones, a low pitch note, its fundamental, which is the one it is labeled as producing, and a higher pitch note known as the "clang" tone.
The stem of the tuning fork is an antinode of vibration for the fundamental frequency, it is a node for the clang tone.
The ends of the tines are the antinodes of the fundamental and the clang tone, but as you move down the gap a bit you come to a place which is the node of motion for the clang tone.
www.exo.net /~pauld/images/signs/signsofscience.html   (325 words)

 tone - definition by dict.die.net
Note: Nearly every musical sound is composite, consisting of several simultaneous tones having different rates of vibration according to fixed laws, which depend upon the nature of the vibrating body and the mode of excitation.
The components (of a composite sound) are called partial tones; that one having the lowest rate of vibration is the fundamental tone, and the other partial tones are called harmonics, or overtones.
General or prevailing character or style, as of morals, manners, or sentiment, in reference to a scale of high and low; as, a low tone of morals; a tone of elevated sentiment; a courtly tone of manners.
dict.die.net /tone   (1058 words)

 Sound: Harmonics
In a closed pipe, the wavelength of the fundamental is twice the length of the pipe.
Thus, the fundamental frequency is the velocity of sound in air divided by twice the length of the pipe.
The wavelength of the fundamental is twice the length of the pipe, so the fundamental frequency is the speed of sound in air divided by twice the length of the pipe.
library.thinkquest.org /C005705/English/sound/sound5.htm   (440 words)

The spectrum of body vibration frequencies determines the overtones that carry to your ear and are the substance of timber or "tone".
Overtones can be affected by electronics, but the basic fundamental tone of a musical instrument is generated by the instrument itself and the way it is played.
Fundamental music is made by what you hold in your hands and how you use it..
www.harmosmusic.com /EG/page0/page0.html   (718 words)

 [No title]
Except for (st)ascensionma.csd, which has a "fundamental tone" volume control, balance between fundamental and inharmonic partials is determined by the amplitude controls on the latter, and general loudness by an external (probably preset) master gain control.
The "fundamental tone," present from the start, is faded out part way through the performance, as a point determined by the performer - somewhere in the middle of the composition.
The "fundamental tone" (initial appearance) has long since disappeared when the Mod frequency controls reach their maximum toward the end - a final, stabilizing "plateau." During this concluding passage, all four Amp Mod controls are on, at a less than moderate volume (settings may vary among the controls).
www.arthunkins.com /Ascension.txt   (3346 words)

 Sound Card Performance Test Techtalk Nonlinear Distortion
Please notice the absence of a fundamental tone at 1 KHz, the DC offset at 0 Hz, and the second harmonic at 2 KHz.
Sum and difference tones may have sidebands, and sum tones, and difference tones of their own, depending on which distortion mechanisms are involved, how many different distortion mechanisms exist in the UUT, and how they interact.
Notice the absence of fundamental tones at 19 and 20 KHz; DC offset at 0 Hz, difference tones at 1 and 2 KHz; second harmonics and sidebands in the 37-41 KHz range; and the fourth harmonics and sidebands in the 76-80 KHz range.
www.pcavtech.com /soundcards/techtalk/nlinear   (1690 words)

 Dane Rudhyar - The Magic of Tone and the Art of Music - Chapter 6 - Rudhyar Archival Project
This vocal, instrumental, or elemental tone is a combination of the Sound that descended into (or embodied itself in) the resonant instrumentality and the nature or character of the instrumentality.
This leads to the conclusion that when archaic peoples instinctively organized the tone sequences of their magical chants and mantrams in descending progressions, their sacromagical musical consciousness reflected the process of Sound descending from its unitary source and differentiating into material bodies and instruments and into a few fundamental tones.
These tones constituted the archaic grama — perhaps the legendary Gandhara grama which the seer and musician Narada is said to have heard in the celestial realm.
www.khaldea.com /rudhyar/mt/mt_c6.shtml   (2885 words)

 SRS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Psychoacoustically, when the human ear is presented with specific harmonic frequencies relative to a missing fundamental tone it will fill in the fundamental frequency based on the higher harmonics that are present.
By accentuating the second and higher frequency harmonics of a fundamental tone present in the audio signal, yet outside the range of reproduction by a certain speaker size, TruBass gives the perception of greatly improved bass response.
The brain extrapolates this series of emphasized frequencies to restore the perception of a bass signal in the audio source which is significantly attenuated or lost by the physical limitations of the speaker.
www.srslabs.com /ae-theoryofoperation8272.asp   (1115 words)

 Dane Rudhyar - The Magic of Tone and the Art of Music - Chapter 7 - Rudhyar Archival Project
However, no instrumental or vocal fundamental tone actually produces a complete and endless series of harmonics, and the overtones it produces do not all vibrate with the same intensity.
This tone is intended to communicate the purpose of the originating source in releasing such a creative or transforming power.
The frequency of a combination tone is the difference of the sum of the frequencies of the two loud tones giving rise to them, or of multiples of these frequencies.
www.khaldea.com /rudhyar/mt/mt_c7.shtml   (1655 words)

 The Well Tempered Timpani   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The fundamental is not preferred; it is a dampened, muffled sound and does not produce as pleasing a sound as when the head is struck a few inches from the rim.
The subjective tones (combination and difference tones) which are produced by the beating of the various harmonics of the sound of a musical instrument help to reinforce the pitch of the fundamental frequency.
The beat frequencies between the successive harmonics constitute subjective tones which are at the same frequency as the fundamental and therefore reinforce the sense of pitch of the fundamental note being played.
music.nebrwesleyan.edu /wtt/index.html   (6990 words)

 The Acoustics of Bells
In none of these-with the exception of the bell and, in part, the metal bar-can the pitch of partials be regulated, since the partials are in fixed relationship to the fundamental tone, harmoniously or otherwise.
Our previous reference to a fundamental tone and its natural harmonics, and to amplitude, leads to a final property of sound that is basic to music-timbre, or tone quality.
The fundamental, hum tone, and minor third are dominant in these upper trebles, but the nominal-which in larger bells is strong at impact-makes only slight contribution to their sound.
www.msu.edu /~carillon/batmbook/chapter5.htm   (7709 words)

 Stockhausen's New Morphology of Musical Time, Comparison of Cowell with Stockhausen: C. Koenigsberg December 1991   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
He mentions that the fundamental unit of measuring musical time or duration is the whole note, and that it can be divided up by half, quarter, eight, sixteenth notes, etc., and also by combining these shorter units into so-called "figures".
Corresponding to the tone interval of a major third would be a time-ratio of five against four notes; the minor third would be represented by a ratio of six against five notes, and so on.
The Rhythmicon produced different rhythms which were partials in an overtone series on a rhythmic fundamental (duration), and the pitches produced at each rhythm were the corresponding partials of a pitch series on an audio frequency fundamental.
www.music.princeton.edu /~ckk/smmt/cowell.comparison.6.html   (4500 words)

 essay 1
Points in between the12 fundamental color positions are successively filled as the squared harmonic numbers increase so that as the squared harmonic series approaches infinity the generated analogous color spectrum approaches a continuous frequency range.
The fundamental carrier wave is unchanging which means there must exist an amplitude-modulating wave property that changes over time according to undertone frequencies relative to the frequency of the carrier wave.
The difference tone phenomenon is a physiological/cognitive process that calculates a reverse energy flow from a selection of high frequency tones to the fundamental of those tones and then references that fundamental as the pitch of those tones5,6.
www.spectrummuse.com /essay_1.htm   (5621 words)

 Harmonics: Using Music Theory to Explain How Metaphor Works in Science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Musical harmonics are tones that sound in addition to the fundamental tone when a note is played.
Although one word or one tone does carry unique sounds or meanings, the real focus in my theory of metaphor is on the way that words interact in building and refining scientific theory.
The fundamental sound of individual bells sounding a close succession of notes can be disturbing, for example, because so many irregular harmonic overtones can make it difficult to distinguish the fundamental pitch (“Harmonics,” Sadie).
www.faculty.english.ttu.edu /baake/baakeharmonics.htm   (2013 words)

 Peterson Tuners Forum 2006 - Stretch tuning and the past
Since you can only raise or lower tension in a string, it is not possible to independantly adjust the fundamental tone and the partials, some sort of stretch tuning is necessary to even out the tuning and make the sound more acceptable to the human ear.
Unlike piano and most other stringed instruments, the fundamental tone and overtones of percussion instruments can be tuned separately from each other, so that more "harmonicity" can be achieved within the tone itself and the inharmonicity effect can be removed or at least decreased.
The nineteenth century was a big one for tuning, with the development of the iron-frame piano and the establishment of equal temperament as the tuning standard (around 1850).
www.petersontuners.com /forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=694   (1972 words)

 Pitch paradoxical
Scales may be constructed for stretched tones in an analogous fashion to harmonic tones, to form the basis for new types of music.
Deutsch tritone paradox) in which the judgment of whether one tone is higher than another is confounded because the spectral contents harbour pitch ambiguity.
As confusing as pitch is for a single tone, the difficulties are compounded with multiple tones, multiple voices or instruments.
www.ihear.com /Pitch/paradoxical.html   (1048 words)

 Tone Production on Mallet Instruments
Striking at the nodal point (i.e., the point at which the hole for the cord is drilled through a bar), will yield the minimum amount of fundamental from the bar, and the maximum amount of harmonics.
This diagram shows how the amount of fundamental tone changes along the length of the bar.
If one wishes to have the sound of each mallet yield the same tone, the obvious choice is to strike each mallet in the same spot of the bar.
www.malletjazz.com /lessons/tone_les.html   (574 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
As we explore in Physics 160, musical notes are complex tones consisting of a fundamental frequency and higher harmonics (known as partials) that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.
The pitch of the note is related to the fundamental frequency of the complex tone.
The first tone heard has all the frequencies; the second tone has the fundamental removed but maintains all of the higher harmonics.
physics.mtsu.edu /~wmr/julianna.html   (616 words)

 MU-Physics: Experiment of the Month #41
The difference is in the overtones; the frequencies present in addition to the frequency of the fundamental tone being played.
The overtones are not simple multiples of the fundamental because the vibration pattern of the tuning fork is (roughly) that of a bar, rather than that of a taut string.
The tone-generating tool is then used to produce a tone with the same fundamental, and the same amplitude overtones.
muweb.millersville.edu /~physics/exp.of.the.month/41   (494 words)

It is often used to give a clear pitch to a choral conductor because there is no other 'echo' getting in the way of the required note, so there is less of a risk of the singers picking up the wrong note.
Below you see the overtones we hear when the C (the fundamental) is played.
he timbre or tone colour of a sound depends on the relative loudness at any point in time of a series of harmonics, all of which can be thought of as sine waves.
www.teachnet.ie /amhiggins/sine.html   (461 words)

 Massing of Overtones in Sound Reproduction
These other tones consist mostly of sounds called overtones that are above the pitch of the tone that was produced, but also include less apparent sounds, which are called undertones, that are below the original pitch.
Every sound consists of the actual sound that is produced, called the fundamental, as well as the overtones and undertones; to a large degree, the number of overtones and undertones and their loudness, relative to the fundamental, determines the character of a sound.
When sounds are recorded and played back, all the sounds that emanate from the loudspeaker become fundamentals, even those that are the overtones and undertones of fundamentals in the sounds that were recorded.
www.anstendig.org /Overtones.html   (568 words)

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