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# Topic: Fundamental unit

###### In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

 PHYSICAL UNITS - LoveToKnow Article on PHYSICAL UNITS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Units in Mechanics.The quantities to be measured in mechanics (q.v.) are velocity and acceleration, dependent on the units of length and time only, momentum, force, energy or work and power, dependent on the three fundamental units. A correlation of these units of quantity of heat with the fundamental units of mass, length and time attended the recognition of the fact that heat was a form of energy; and their quantitative relationships followed from the experimental determinations of the so-called " mechanical equivalent of heat," i.e. Thirdly, the unit of electromotive force may be defined as equal to the difference of potential between the ends of the unit of resistance when the unit of current flews in it. 78.1911encyclopedia.org /U/UN/UNITS_PHYSICAL.htm   (8315 words)

 Learn more about Fundamental unit in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Units are sometimes also referred to as dimensions although the term is only strictly true of time and space measurements. Traditionally, the accepted fundamental units are mass, length, time, and temperature, but in principle, other fundamental units could be used. The kilogram, meter, second, ampere, Kelvin, mole and candela are the fundamental SI units; other units such as the newton, joule, and volt are called derived units as they can be defined in terms of the fundamental units. www.onlineencyclopedia.org /f/fu/fundamental_unit.html   (322 words)

 [No title] Candle, fundamental unit of luminous intensity, defined as the source intensity of 1/60 centimeter square opening of the standard light source of a glowing cavity with temperature equal to that of solidifying platinum. Kilogram calorie, large calorie, unit of energy, is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water from 1 degree centigrade at a stated temperature. The mean British thermal unit is defined as 1/180 of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water from o oL 32 F to 212 F. One mean B.t.u. www.cs.umbc.edu /~squire/adaclass/unitconv.vu   (1019 words)

 Unit Nature of Matter - Summary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Just as energy was deduced to be composed of fundamental units by Max Planck, as he deduced that E=hv, matter was deduced by the author to be composed of fundamental unit charge units of matter, either a positive unit of matter or one negative a positive unit of matter. Units of matter have unit electrical charge, either positive or negative, because the unit particles of matter are the fundamental units of electrical charge. Quark fractional charge is group ratio mathematics for a group of three unit charge particles with one of the two types of units of matter, positive or negative, being counted in the numerator over the total group in the denominator. www.starlight-pub.com /UnitNatureofMatter/UnitMatterTheory.html   (1595 words)

 Fundamental unit for processing video signals - Patent 4800430   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) wherein the plurality of fundamental processing units are serially connected such that the plurality of second transmission lines of one of the units are respectively connected to the plurality of first transmission lines of the next one of the units. Even when only one fundamental unit according to the present invention is used, the processing on a time axis (to be described in detail hereinafter) can be accomplished by the write means 3, the memory means 4 and the readout means 5. The fundamental units PU3 and PU4 are assigned to a system for processing the video input signal B; that is, for processing the right-hand half of the wipe-synthesized picture. www.freepatentsonline.com /4800430.html   (5541 words)

 Units: SI Fundamental Units The General Conference on Weights and Measures has replaced all but one of the definitions of its base (fundamental) units based on physical objects (such as standard meter sticks or standard kilogram bars) with physical descriptions of the units based on stable properties of the Universe. For example, the second, the base unit of time, is now defined as that period of time in which the waves of radiation emitted by cesium atoms, under specified conditions, display exactly 9 192 631 770 cycles. The meter, the base unit of distance, is defined by stating that the speed of light, a universal physical constant, is exactly 299 792 458 meters per second. www.unc.edu /~rowlett/units/sifundam.html   (612 words)

 The Unit Nature of Matter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Quarks were deduced to have a triplet unit matter substructure from the tripolar charge of the strong force, the associated SU(3) symmtery of the strong force, and the thirds fractions of electrical charge in quarks. Subsequently, neutrinos were deduced to have a doublet unit matter substructure composed of two units of matter, one positive and one negative, which combine to be make the neutral neutrino substructure. The existence of the doublet substructure proves that the units of charged matter are permanent in nature because the negative and positive units of charge reach equilibium and do not destroy each other. www.starlight-pub.com /UnitNatureofMatter/UnitNatureofMatter.html   (668 words)

 Units and Dimensionality Meter, fundamental unit of length, defined as the distance between two o specified lines on a specific bar of platinum-iridium at 0 C at standard atmospheric pressure supported at two neutral points 0.285 meter from the center of the bar. The mean kilogram calorie is defined as 1/100 of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water o o from 0 C to 100 C. The small calorie is the gram calorie equal to 1/1000 of a large calorie. The mean British thermal unit is defined as 1/180 of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water from o o 32 F to 212 F. One mean B.t.u. www.csee.umbc.edu /~squire/reference/units.shtml   (2420 words)

 Candela All the units for measuring and defining light are based on the candela, which is the unit defining the luminous intensity from a small source, in a particular direction. The candela is therefore no longer strictly necessary as a fundamental unit, because it is now defined in terms of a fundamental SI unit. Historically, the engineers' unit of power, the watt, has been separated from the unit of luminous intensity, which is also a form of power, because the eye has a varying sensitivity over the visual spectrum, being relatively insensitive to blue and to red light. www.electro-optical.com /whitepapers/candela.htm   (1466 words)

 Introduction to the Fundamental Physical Constants These quantities, called the fundamental physical constants, and which have specific and universally used symbols, are of such importance that they must be known to as high an accuracy as is possible. The velocity of light (c) and Planck's constant (h) are examples of quantities that occur naturally in the mathematical formulation of certain fundamental physical theories, the former in James Clerk Maxwell's theory of electric and magnetic fields and Albert Einstein's theories of relativity, and the latter in the theory of atomic particles, or quantum theory. For example, the fine-structure constant is the fundamental constant of quantum electrodynamics, the quantum theory of the interaction (mutual influence) among electrons, muons, and photons. physics.nist.gov /cuu/Constants/introduction.html   (1216 words)

 Elementary charge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The elementary charge (symbol e) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. This is a fundamental physical constant and the unit of electric charge in the system of atomic units. Quarks, first posited in the 1960s, were believed to have fractional electric charges (in units of e/3), but only to exist in particles with an integer charge. www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/elementary_charge   (260 words)

 Program MAKPOL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) By automating this process, only the fundamental unit cell need be specified, the other unit cells being generated by translation. In addition, since the geometry of all fundamental unit cells in a polymer are identical, symmetry conditions can be imposed on each unit cell. MAKPOL uses the unit cell supplied by the user to generate all the unit cells used in the cluster unit cells. www.cachesoftware.com /mopac/Mopac2002manual/node363.html   (346 words)

 Neutrino Mass Calculation Speed or momentum is distance divided by time, so if we can find a fundamental "speed" which we can equate with our fundamental distance (the Compton wavelength of the proton), then we will have all terms in our equation, and we will be able to develop a fundamental unit of time from these. The "natural" unit of speed is the speed of light (c), a fundamental constant of nature. Using these units of mass, distance and time, let us imagine a number line where negative numbers represent all distances and positive numbers represent all masses, each expressed in units of time. www.bottomlayer.com /bottom/deutsch/neutrino.html   (1230 words)

 Scientific American: Is time quantized? In other words, is there a fundamental unit of time that could not be divided ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) There are no well-worked-out physics theories incorporating a fundamental unit of time, and there are substantial obstacles to doing so in a way that is compatible with the principles of General Relativity. Although researchers have considered some theories in which there is a strict quantization of time (meaning that all times are an integer multiple of some smallest unit), none that I know of has ever been seriously regarded as a viable theory of reality--at least, not by more people that the original proponent of the theory. In this view, fundamental particles and objects--up to the scale of whole galaxies--can be represented as discrete quantized structures of 3-d time embedded within a general matrix of 3-D time. www.sciam.com /print_version.cfm?articleID=000A03B0-6000-1C71-9EB7809EC588F2D7   (1167 words)

 NOVA Online | Teachers | Classroom Activity | Elegant Universe, The: Einstein's Dream | PBS Some physicists think there is a unit of matter more fundamental than what has been experimentally confirmed to date. This unit is called a string, and is thought by some to be the single building block of nature. Explain to students that the frequencies they produce in their trials are based on several factors—the length of the rope, the tension of the rope during the trial, and the mass per unit length of the rope. www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/teachers/activities/3012_elegant_03.html   (946 words)

 Unit Systems in Electromagnetism In the unit system called CGS (for Centimetres Grams Seconds) force is measured in dynes: the force required to accelerate a mass of one gram at one centimetre per second squared. The units should be of a size that is appropriate for use in science and engineering and in everyday ('customary') use by the wider commercial and public community. The units should be defined in a manner that is both precise and capable of being reproduced anywhere in the world. www.ee.surrey.ac.uk /Workshop/advice/coils/unit_systems   (3404 words)

 Fundamental Unit in zeta[8] The dirichlet unit theorem tells us there is one fundamental unit, along with the 8 roots of 1. In this case the unit is multiplied by a power of y, and it may be inverted. Let g be the fundamental unit outside the unit circle, and let r be its largest coefficient. www.mathreference.com /fld-cyc,u8.html   (504 words)

 Unit Systems unit used to describe the length could be a foot or yard, each of which describes a different physical quantity may be measured using a variety of different units. Units of measurement have been established for use with each of the fundamental dimensions www.tpub.com /content/doe/hdbk1010/css/hdbk1010_20.htm   (188 words)

 The Starcraft Editing Bible - Chapter Two: Fundamental Unit Statistics - Stargraft continued - Camelot Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Mainly, these are used to determine if wireframes will be displayed in the unit if it has passengers (like transports) or if it should display construction/training information when it performs those particular orders (like factory buildings). Some flags require a variable (e.g., a unit) which is the next tick (for example, "Current unit must be [next requirement]"). In English this means: The current unit must be a Terran Marine AND the Mode must be broodwar OR the current unit must not be lifted off. www.campaigncreations.org /starcraft/bible/chap2_sgsections2.shtml   (1425 words)

 Ecosystemic Life Hypothesis When one assumes that the fundamental and distinguishing characteristic of life is the capacity for sustained production - a merger of the two values which my indicator of soil health was to address - then an ecosystemic definition of life is preferable. While this statement and others demonstrate that Rosen considered the fundamental unit of life to be an organism, I think the explanation of this statement and his formal description of the core relation in life still support the ecosystemic life view. Viewing life as a unified whole requiring two complementary functional units, and thus two inter-twined dynamical aspects, ebbs and flows between diversity and stability, bottom-up and top-down control and unit vs assemblage behavior are to be expected. www.calresco.org /fiscus/esl.htm   (5458 words)

 The PAC Hypothesis      The PAC is the fundamental stratigraphic unit The PAC Hypothesis The PAC is the fundamental stratigraphic unit The PAC is the fundamental stratigraphic unit (Anderson and Goodwin, 1990). Anderson, E.J. and Goodwin, P.W. (1990): The significance of meter-scale allocycles in the quest for a fundamental stratigraphic unit.- J. Geol. astro.temple.edu /~andy/Contents/Research/The_Pac_Hypothesis.htm   (840 words)

 Fundamental unit : Fundamental units   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) terms defined : Fundamental unit : Fundamental units All is still licensed under the GNU FDL. Yet, one would suppose that expression; as sculptors are liable to become statuesque from their Dante's "Inferno," is the story of "Ethan Brandt," or "The. www.termsdefined.net /fu/fundamental-units.html   (470 words)

 [No title] Measurement units are delimited by exponents or the period symbol (".") The division slash "/" may appear once in a unit specification. ft/s2 (feet per second squared) ANGLE-MEASURE base unit: deg (degree) :units rad (radian) minute (minute of arc) sec (second of arc) mil (mil of angle) There are 6400 mils in a circle Notes: The Angle-Measure uses degrees as the fundamental unit rather than the SI standard of radians. See http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/binary.html TEMPERATURE-MEASURE base unit: K (degree kelvin) :units F (degree Fahrenheit) C (degree Celsius) or Centigrade R (degree Rankine) Fahrenheit counterpart to Kelvin Note: The temperature measure differs from all the others in that it is linked to a scale with different zero points for various measures. www.isi.edu /isd/LOOM/documentation/unit-definitions.text   (513 words)

 Planck units A system of units needs a set of fundamental units, from which all the other units can be derived. Since these are specialized units that are only intended to be used under extremely narrow situations (this is clear when you look at the definition of the candela), we can make the sweeping generalization that all applications using these units can in fact use the derived units for energy and power (combined with other units). For instance, the Planck equivalent of the candela would just be the power unit; the lumen equivalent would be the power unit times the steradian, and the lux equivalent would be the power unit times the steradian divided by the square of the Planck length. www.alcyone.com /max/writing/essays/planck-units.html   (686 words)

 The fundamental unit of the web (kottke.org) And now it seems that there are several efforts underway to cut the fundamental unit down to the phrase or word. In particular, the shift in the fundamental unit for content on the web is not one of discovery (linking a single word to a search result was obviously possible many years ago) but of a very rough consensus of perception. This entry is part of the kottke.org weblog, of which Book author to her publishing company: your lawsuit is not helping me or my book is the latest entry. www.kottke.org /05/05/web-fundamental-unit   (481 words)

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