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Topic: GATT


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WTO

In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  
  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - Wikipedia
Die Ziele des GATT werden in der Präambel genannt: Die Handels- und Wirtschaftsbeziehungen der Vertragsparteien sollen darauf gerichtet sein, dass sich der Lebensstandard erhöht, Vollbeschäftigung verwirklicht wird, das Niveau des Realeinkommens und der Nachfrage ständig steigt, die "Hilfsquellen der Welt" voll erschlossen werden und die Produktion steigt.
III GATT müssen ausländische und inländische Anbieter grundsätzlich gleich behandelt werden.
Diese Ausnahme wurde unter GATT 1947 häufig angewandt, ist in GATT 1994 jedoch durch ein zusätzliches Übereinkommen stärker reglementiert.
de.wikipedia.org /wiki/GATT   (628 words)

  
 EH.Net Encyclopedia: From GATT to WTO: The Evolution of an Obscure Agency to One Perceived as Obstructing Democracy
GATT was simply a temporary multilateral agreement designed to provide a framework of rules and a forum to negotiate trade barrier reductions among nations.
This meant that the provisions of GATT were binding only insofar as they are not inconsistent with a nation's existing legislation.
As a result, GATT said almost nothing about the effects of trade (whether trade degrades the environment or injures workers) or the conditions of trade (whether disparate systems of regulation, such as consumer, environmental, or labor standards, allow for fair competition).
www.eh.net /encyclopedia/?article=aaronson.gatt   (2421 words)

  
 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (usually abbreviated GATT) functions as the foundation of the WTO trading system, and remains in force, although the 1995 Agreement contains an updated version of it to replace the original 1947 one.
The GATT, as an international agreement, is very similar to a treaty.
In general, each of these agreements bound the members to reduce certain tariffs, with many special-case treatments of individual products, and in many cases with exceptions and modifications for each country.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/GATT   (276 words)

  
 Environmental trade sanctions and the GATT: An Analysis of the Pelly Amendment on Foreign Environmental Practises
In recent cases, GATT Panels have assigned the burden to countries whose trade measures are the subject of the complaint.
Thus, although GATT panels might prefer that the least-GATT- inconsistent approach be used, a panel might defer to the solution chosen by a government given the time-sensitivity involved.
Because the interpretation of GATT Article XX is in flux, the status of the Pelly Amendment remains unclear.
www.highnorth.no /Library/Trade/GATT_WTO/en-tr-sa.htm   (7596 words)

  
 GATT
GATT was the result of an international conference held at Geneva in 1947 to consider a draft charter for the International Trade Organization (ITO).
Technically, GATT was viewed as an agreement under the provisions of US Reciprocal Trade Act of 1934, and hence did not require approval of Congress.
GATT is an executive agreement under the Protocol of Provisional Application.
www.econ.iastate.edu /classes/econ355/choi/gatt.htm   (823 words)

  
 From the GATT to the WTO
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, known as the GATT, is one third of the Bretton Woods system that was created after World War II to ensure a stable trade and economic world environment.
That is, perhaps, why the GATT is often referred to as a UN related body and its documents are sometimes mistakenly referred to as UN documents.
The GATT survived, but remained intact only due to the Protocol of Provisional Application of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade which was concluded in 1947 and which entered into force in 1948.
www.ll.georgetown.edu /intl/guides/gattwto/print.html   (2303 words)

  
 NAFTA and GATT - Intellectual Property Issues
Trade agreements come in many different forms and may range from simple bilateral agreements on a single topic to, for example, the Articles of the Confederation of the United States in the immediate post-colonial period, the form of which was to a significant extent determined by issues of trade between the states.
It may be recalled that under the old version of GATT disputes were referred to a panel and the GATT Council could accept or reject the decision of the panel and on occasion even delay or prevent the panel's findings from being presented to the Council.
The final adoption of GATT even seems to have brought an end to the parliamentary squabbling in Argentina and it seems likely that a new patent law that will include protection for pharmaceutical products will be enacted shortly.
www.ladas.com /BULLETINS/1994/NAFTAGATT.html   (5507 words)

  
 GATT und WTO
Ziel des GATT war die Erhöhung des Lebensstandards, die Förderung der Beschäftigung und des wirtschaftlichen Wachstums durch Intensivierung des internationalen Güteraustauschs.
Außerdem wurde der Weltagrarhandel nicht in das GATT integriert.
Das neue GATT (1994) ist Teil der WTO und regelt den Warenverkehr, wobei Zollsenkungen zwischen 33 % bis 100 % in der letzten GATT-Runde vereinbart wurden.
www.unister.de /Unister/wissen/sf_lexikon/ausgabe_stichwort2619_77.html   (327 words)

  
 Digitally recording GATT for posterity
Two months later, the professor and the librarians traveled to Geneva, and the GATT project was born.
So far, 80 percent of about 2 million GATT documents and hundreds of historic photographs have been scanned at a cost of about $750,000.
Operating on a slim budget, the GATT did not maintain an archive or routinely declassify documents -- ranging from everyday internal correspondence to highly sensitive informal tariff discussions.
news-service.stanford.edu /news/2003/october15/gattstory-1015.html   (1800 words)

  
 A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union --G--
The GATT was established with 23 signatories in 1948, as an adjunct of the UN, for the regulation of international trade.
Technically an agreement rather than a chartered body, the GATT evolved a life of its own, with a secretariat in Geneva and a list of members that by 1995, the last year of its existence, had grown to 128 and accounted for some 90% of world trade.
The GATT rules cover all aspects of trade, including dumping, dispute resolution, retaliation, rules of origin, intellectual property rights and the administration of certain specially permitted discriminatory agreements in such areas as textiles and agriculture.
www.euro-know.org /dictionary/g.html   (3584 words)

  
 The roots of the WTO
Although, in its 47 years, the basic legal text of the GATT remained much as it was in 1948, there were additions in the form of "plurilateral" - voluntary membership - agreements and continual efforts to reduce tariffs.
GATT's success in reducing tariffs to such a low level, combined with a series of economic recessions in the 1970s and early 1980s, drove governments to devise other forms of protection for sectors facing increased overseas competition.
Moreover, GATT lives on as "GATT 1994", the amended and up-dated version of GATT 1947, which is an integral part of the WTO Agreement and which continues to provide the key disciplines affecting international trade in goods.
www.econ.iastate.edu /classes/econ355/choi/wtoroots.htm   (1827 words)

  
 NYU Law - Library, European Union Research
The GATT was the quasi-international organization that existed until 1995 to administer the trade agreement called the GATT 1947.
The GATT 1994 incorporates by reference the GATT 1947 and related official instruments as amended up to the effective date of the WTO agreements.
The GATT Analytical Index does not cover the history of the Uruguay Round GATT in depth; it does not cover the other Uruguay Round agreements at all.
www.law.nyu.edu /library/wtoguide.html   (4483 words)

  
 International Environmental Affairs
What the [GATT] rules do constrain is attempts by one or a small number of countries to influence environmental policies in other countries not by persuasion and negotiation, but by unilateral reductions in access to their markets.
Lauded in trade policy circles, the GATT report, according to The Economist, shows that the GATT is "fighting back" against "often ill-informed criticism from environmentalists, especially in America."[5] The GATTs attack begins with a salvo against the use of trade measures to influence environmental policies in other countries.
While a strong GATT can hope to stop countries from using double standards to beggar their neighbors (for example, no foreign-origin autos made using fossil fuels), it must ultimately be self-interest, rather that GATT rules, that prevents countries from beggaring themselves (for example, no autos of any origin made using fossil fuels).
www.ciesin.org /docs/008-061/008-061.html   (12563 words)

  
 Guardian Unlimited Sport | Special reports | Fresh spin on history as new magician cons Gatt
Warne, naturally, was not to be persuaded to pop over to the nets during the tea interval, so the sponsor made do with Merlyn, the bowling machine that by supposedly replicating his leg-spin is England's secret weapon.
WG had got 152 at the time, unlike Gatt, who was out for four and looked rather more shocked.
All Warne had to do was defeat an Ashes-winning captain and supreme player of spin, a feat he achieved by in-drift and then huge turn from outside leg stump.
sport.guardian.co.uk /ashes2005/story/0,15993,1548269,00.html   (598 words)

  
 iia1a3 - WTA /WTO and GATT Uruguay 1994
During the implementation period, notwithstanding the provisions of the GATT 1994 and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures ("Subsidies Agreement"):
The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of the GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement.
The provisions of the GATT 1994 and of other Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A to the WTO shall apply subject to the provisions of this Agreement.
www.jus.uio.no /lm/wta.1994/iia1a3.html   (6911 words)

  
 GATT-guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Consideration of GATT's relationship to environmental policy is an emerging concern in trade and environmental policy circles.
In 1992, GATT produced "Trade and the Environment," a report that offered GATT's recommendations on the relationship between international trade and environmental measures.
Charnovitz (1992) examines the potential of GATT to limit trade-based implementations in environmental agreements in "GATT and the Environment." In "Free International Trade and Protection of the Environment," Schoenbaum (1992) evaluates the impact of existing GATT provisions and discusses when trade restrictions may be appropriate within environmental agreements.
www.ciesin.org /TG/PI/TRADE/gatt.html   (470 words)

  
 MM -- Ocotober 1994
And opponents of the new GATT were able to throw up obstacles to rapid passage of the agreement, notably by generating concern among state and local officials about how the trade agreement would impact their discretionary powers.
GATT opponents such as Patrick Buchanan and Ross Perot hit the talk shows, portraying the Post deal as the tip of an iceberg and suggesting that the untouchable GATT implementing legislation was an irresistible pork skewer for Clinton and Dingell and friends.
GATT makes it almost imperative for enterprises in the developed world to close down their production, eliminate their employees and move their factories to low-cost labor areas.
www.essential.org /monitor/hyper/mm1094.html   (20036 words)

  
 GATT code of valuation yet to be adopted -DAWN - Business; 25 January, 2005   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
KARACHI, Jan 24: In place of invoice based valuation of imported goods the customs authorities in Pakistan are continuing with notional valuation method to determine the rate and amount of duty liable on imports.
Accordingly the CBR should have adopted the GATT Code of Valuation and should have started assessing the value of imported goods under Article XII of the code on transactional values.
Contrary to this the GATT Code of Valuation which is invoice-based bound the customs officials to impose duties on declared value.
www.dawn.com /2005/01/25/ebr5.htm   (813 words)

  
 Paper: Fifty Years of the GATT/WTO: Lessons from the Past for Strategies for the Future   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The lesson for 1998 and beyond is clear: launch a new liberalizing initiative in the WTO to restart the bicycle as soon as possible.
The Tokyo Round was in fact launched as part of the agreement, insisted upon by the United States, to restore fixed exchange rates among the major countries and terminate the import surcharge that it had instituted in August 1971--the most frontal assault on the principles of the GATT in the history of that institution.
The final key variable in the successful management of the GATT regime was leadership, usually exercised most visibly by the United States.
www.iie.com /publications/papers/bergsten0498.htm   (4942 words)

  
 DSB: INDIA WINS LANDMARK EU-GSP CASE
Paragraph 2(a) of the Enabling Clause calls for the establishment of "nonreciprocal and non-discriminatory preferences" under GSP schemes, while paragraphs 3(a) and 3(c) require that preferences be designed to "facilitate and promote the trade of developing countries" and "respond positively to the development, financial and trade needs of developing countries".
The EC in its submission also argued for an exception from WTO rules on the grounds that it was 'necessary' for protecting human life and health within the EU.
The EC sought to show that the drug-arrangements were necessary for the protection of human life and health and pointed to the link between development and effective drug-control.
www.ictsd.org /weekly/03-11-07/story1.htm   (1224 words)

  
 GATT Trademark Provisions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
GATT has extended this two-year period to three years, effective January 1, 1996.
GATT prohibits registration of marks for wines and spirits when those marks include misleading geographical indications.
Countries other than the United States will be required to change their laws to a) provide to registration of service marks, b) improve protection for marks that are well-known internationally, c) forbid mandatory linking of trademarks, and d) prevent compulsory licensing of marks.
www.patent-it.com /gatttm.html   (289 words)

  
 LLRX.com - Update to WTO/GATT Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In addition to or instead of publishing the agreements in BISD, the agreements and the related official documents may be referred to collectively as the "legal instruments" or the "legal texts" and published together, e.g., The Texts of the Tokyo Round.
GATT 1947 schedules were published at T.I.A.S. See 55 U.N.T.S. 306 for citations to the U.N.T.S. volumes that contain the GATT 1947 schedules.
Even though your reader may not have access to the same source that you cite, all of the sources reproduce the paragraph numbering, so it is advisable to add a pinpoint cite to specific paragraph numbers.
www.llrx.com /features/wto2.htm   (6215 words)

  
 WTO/GATT Research
According to the Preface and Introduction, this is a guide to the interpretation and application of the GATT and a repertoire of GATT practice and drafting history, drawn from official documents.
To this extent, the book acts as a sort of update to the GATT Analytical Index; it does not attempt to provide a history of the Uruguay Round.
Intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the GATT and the WTO.
www.law.nyu.edu /library/wto_gatt.html   (3936 words)

  
 World Trade Organization (WTO)
The WTO transformed the GATT, which focused primarily on tariff and quotas, into a new global commerce agency with the same legal status as the United Nations.
After the WTO ruled that the law violated GATT rules, the U.S. amended the rule, allowing in less clean gasoline.
Rather than reform its practices, Mexico sued the US and succeeded in having the law declared illegal under GATT rules, under the pretext that the way in which a product is produced may not be used as grounds for trade discrimination.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /WTO_MAI/The_WTO.html   (935 words)

  
 Gatt - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Domestic Politics and International Relations in US-Japan Trade Policymaking: The GATT Uruguay Round Agriculture Negotiations (International Political Economy Series)
The Case Against Free Trade: GATT, NAFTA, and the Globalization of Corporate Power (An Earth Island Press Book)
Greening the Gatt: Trade, Environment, and the Future
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /gatt.htm   (98 words)

  
 Free Trade by Any Means: How the Global Free Trade Alliance Enhances America's Overall Trading Strategy
During the 50-plus years under GATT (and later the WTO), trade barriers have been reduced substantially, with a commensurate increase in global economic growth both in developed countries and in developing countries that embraced trade liberalization.
Moreover, the large membership and rules that require adopting changes through consensus mean that negotiations in the WTO are difficult, slow, and often avoid controversial aspects of trade liberalization.
Due to the inclusive nature of the GFTA and given that members, regardless of other factors, are able to join when they meet the same objective standards, the authors feel that the GFTA does not violate Most Favored Nation standards of treating all relevant nations the same.
www.heritage.org /Research/TradeandForeignAid/bg1786.cfm   (3291 words)

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