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Topic: Gulag

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Istvan Toth /1926-1982/ was convicted by the 40th Red Army Court in his own country on the basis of Soviet civil law.
My father's sentence was 25 years at corrective hard labor in the Soviet Gulag-in a gold mine of the infamous Kolyma region which became a synonym of brutality, violence and trampled destinies.
Some prison gangs were given tacit approval by the guards to terrorize, rape, beat and dehumanize other prisoners.
www.gulag.hu /index_eng.htm   (422 words)

  Anne Applebaum -- Gulag: A History Intro
Even more broadly, ";Gulag" has come to mean the Soviet repressive system itself, the set of procedures that prisoners once called the "meat-grinder": the arrests, the interrogations, the transport in unheated cattle cars, the forced labor, the destruction of families, the years spent in exile, the early and unnecessary deaths.
The Gulag had antecedents in Czarist Russia, in the forced-labor brigades that operated in Siberia from the seventeenth century to the beginning of the twentieth.
Properly speaking, the Gulag belongs to the history of the Soviet Union; to the international as well as the Russian history of prisons and exile; and to the particular intellectual climate of continental Europe in the mid-twentieth century, which also produced the Nazi concentration camps in Germany.
www.anneapplebaum.com /gulag/intro.html   (9506 words)

 The GULAG   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
The GULAG, whose camps were located mainly in remote regions of Siberia and the Far North, made significant contributions to the Soviet economy in the period of Joseph Stalin.
GULAG prisoners constructed the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the Moscow-Volga Canal, the Baikal-Amur main railroad line, numerous hydroelectric stations, and strategic roads and industrial enterprises in remote regions.
GULAG manpower was also used for much of the country's lumbering and for the mining of coal, copper, and gold.
www.ibiblio.org /pjones/russian/Gulag.html   (297 words)

 Wikinfo | Gulag
Gulag (from the Russian Главное Управление Лагерей, "Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerey", "The Chief Directorate of Collective Labor Camps") was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service (the NKVD and later on the KGB) that dealt with concentration camps.
The Gulag was a natural extension of earlier labor camps (katorgas) operated in Siberia as part of penal system in Imperial Russia.
The Gulag as such was first established in the late 1920s, and some parts of it exist up until the present day.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Gulag   (1360 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps: Books: Anne Applebaum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Gulag is the only major history in any language to draw together the mass of memoirs and writings on the Soviet camps that have been published in Russia and the West.
Gulag shows how the massive camp network, which eventually stretched across all of the Soviet Union?s twelve time zones and saw some eighteen million people pass through it, became a country within a country: a separate civilization with its own laws, customs, literature, folklore, slang and morality.
The 'Gulag' itself has become an almost iconic term of oppression and dictatorial power in studies of twentieth century Russia, and what the reader witnesses in Applebaum's book, is the dragging of this Soviet holocaust into the light for all to see.
www.amazon.co.uk /Gulag-History-Soviet-Anne-Applebaum/dp/0140283102   (1944 words)

 A searching look at terror of the gulag
How many gulags there were is still a matter of scholarly dispute - compounded by the fact that camps could be subdivided into hundreds of subcamps, some of them spread out over hundreds of kilometers.
Adjacent to "GULAG" at the 808 Gallery is "Faces of Resistance," an exhibit of 48 photographs of dissenters in the human rights movement in the 1970s.
The gulag is more than fact - it represents a complex of "unconfronted memories," said "Territories" curator Svetlana Boym, the Curt Hugo Reisinger Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures at Harvard and a professor of comparative literature.
www.news.harvard.edu /gazette/2006/11.02/01-gulag.html   (1526 words)

 Gulag   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
The legal base and the guidance for the creation of the Gulag system was a secret decree of Sovnarkom of July 11 1929 about penal labor (see its wikisource reference), that duplicated the corresponding appendix to the minutes of Politburo meeting of June 27, 1929.
During World War II, Gulag populations declined sharply, owing to mass "releases" of hundreds of thousands of prisoners who were conscripted and sent directly to the front lines, but mainly due to a steep rise in mortality in 1942–43.
Officially Gulag was terminated by the MVD order 20 of January 25, 1960, as the MVD itself was officially eliminated by the order 44-16 of Presidium of Supreme Council of the USSR, to reemerge as the KGB.
gulag.iqnaut.net   (2958 words)

 Michael Ledeen on Anne Applebaum's Gulag on National Review Online
Tens of millions of people were herded animal-like away from civil society, into the Gulag archipelago, where they were brutalized by their overlords, their mates, and sometimes even by their relatives.
Gulag rests primarily upon the documentary evidence, but there is a lot of anecdotal material that was gathered in years of interviews, and of course from a considerable body of autobiographical literature.
But to tell the story of the Gulag at any moment from the rise of Stalin to the end of the Cold War was to lay down a moral and political challenge to the West, and to force men and women of good faith to fight against the Soviet Empire.
www.nationalreview.com /ledeen/ledeen050603.asp   (1131 words)

 Amazon.com: Gulag: A History: Books: Anne Applebaum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
The Gulag came into being as a result of the Communist elite's burning desire for purges of remaining vestiges of bourgeoisie aspects of Soviet culture, and its consequent need for some deep dark hole to stick unlucky cultural offenders into to remove them semi-permanently from the forefront of the Soviet society.
By the peak years of Gulag culture in the 1950s, the archipelago stretched into all twelve of the U.S. R.'s time zones, although it was largely concentrated in the northernmost and least livable aspects of the country's vast geographical areas.
The "Gulag," where upwards of 30 million largely innocent people were insanely targeted by Stalin and his henchmen as political "conspirators." They were then seized, jailed for little or no reason, and then either executed or forced to live and work under some of the most abominable conditions on record.
www.amazon.com /Gulag-History-Anne-Applebaum/dp/0767900561   (2216 words)

 Gulag - Uncyclopedia
Gulag plays an important political and social role in Russia, as feeding criminals and political dissenters the wonderful pastry derived from the seeds of the gulag plant calms their weary souls, and makes them generally more easy-going.
If it weren't for the yearly gulag harvest and the government's generous rationing of the plant, it is often theorized that the Russian Government would have had no choice but to send hundreds of thousands to forced labour camps.
Though the growing supply of gulag made the product more accessible, the plant would quickly rot when taken out of its frigid environs and thus was available only in specific locales and to the upper classes of Russia and neighbouring nations by special efforts of transportation.
uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Gulag   (476 words)

 Anne Applebaum -- Gulag: A History
GULAG: A History is a narrative account of the origins and development of the Soviet concentration camps, from Lenin to Gorbachev.
Applebaum's book weighs in heavily in support of Solzhenitsyn on almost every point, and her account is backed not only by a careful use of the vast memoir literature but also by a thorough mining of the long-closed Soviet archives.
In a new book, "Gulag: A History" (Doubleday; $35), Anne Applebaum, an op-ed columnist at the Washington Post, provides an ambitious and well-documented survey of the forced-labor system from its inception until its elimination under Gorbachev.
www.anneapplebaum.com /gulag/gulag.html   (395 words)

 The New Yorker : critics : books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
As Applebaum writes, Gulag prisoners made everything from missiles to “mechanical rabbits playing drums.” At Stalin’s order, prisoners even built preposterous public-works projects: rail lines that cut through the forest and then were abandoned when Stalin died; dams to reverse the direction of rivers; canals that proved useless.
"Gulag: A History” is structured in three parts: the origins of the camps; the experience of the zeks (prisoners), from arrest until death or release; and then a history of the decline of the “camp-industrial complex” until its final collapse, under Gorbachev.
The slang of the Gulag eventually became the slang of the entire Soviet Union; the rich vocabulary of Russian obscenity developed mainly in the camps.
www.newyorker.com /critics/books/?030414crbo_books   (3846 words)

 Doubleday Books | Gulag by Anne Applebaum
The Gulag entered the world’s historical consciousness in 1972, with the publication of Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s epic oral history of the Soviet camps, The Gulag Archipelago.
She concludes by examining the disturbing question why the Gulag has remained relatively obscure, in the historical memory of both the former Soviet Union and the West.
Gulag: A History will immediately be recognized as a landmark work of historical scholarship and an indelible contribution to the complex, ongoing, necessary quest for truth.
www.randomhouse.com /doubleday/catalog/display.pperl?0767900561   (948 words)

 Flashback: David Pryce-Jones on Anne Applebaum's Gulag on National Review Online
Gulag is an acronym for the Russian phrase meaning Main Camp Administration, or — in more direct language — the system of concentration and labor camps that was an essential feature of the Soviet Union.
Anne Applebaum is tentative about the number of people who passed through Gulag, but comes up with a ballpark figure of 28.7 million: almost half the population of France, and rather more than the total population of Iraq.
But he maintained a primitive preconception that in Gulag he was getting something for nothing, and he was not to be deflected by rational considerations.
www.nationalreview.com /flashback/applebaum200404060918.asp   (1681 words)

 Gitmo is No Gulag
But one thing’s certain: When Amnesty International’s Secretary General Irene Zubeida Khan called the Guantanamo Bay detention facility the “Gulag of our times” (reportedly adding, “Ironic that this should happen as we mark the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz”), her words sprung from either deep ignorance or deliberate deception.
Gulag (from “Main Directorate of Camps” in Russian) was an extermination machine.
In Stalin’s Russia, top generals, prominent poets, writers, scientists and engineers were shot or died in the Gulag, or were saved at the last moment to provide slave labor for the state.
www.heritage.org /Press/Commentary/ed061605c.cfm   (823 words)

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