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Topic: Galactose


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  Carbohydrates - Glucose
Galactose is more commonly found in the disaccharide, lactose or milk sugar.
Galactose is classified as a monosaccharide, an aldose, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar.
Galactose is defined as the -OH on C # 4 in a upward projection in the chair form,(also upward in the Haworth structure).
www.elmhurst.edu /~chm/vchembook/543galactose.html   (492 words)

  
  Galactose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose.
Galactose is a monosaccharide constituent, together with glucose, of the disaccharide lactose.
The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase, a lactase.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Galactose   (281 words)

  
 European Galactosaemia Society (EGS) - Galactosemia in Europe - Endogenous Galactose Production
The rate of release of galactose from intracellular sources into plasma is assessed in overnight fasted healthy adults and galactosemic patients by galactose turnover measurements in vivo using stable isotope (1-13C)-labelled galactose as substrate and the primed continuous infusion approach ([1-13C]galactose priming i.v., 1 mg/kg body weight; i.v.
Galactose disposal by oxidation - as estimated from the 13C-label enrichment in plasma galactose and expired carbon dioxide - accounted for about 99 percent of whole body galactose disposal.
In addition, about 3 to 10 mg/kg body weight per d of galactose was obviously converted intracellularly to yield galactitol prior to the release into the plasma compartment and subsequent excretion by the kidneys.
www.galactosaemia.com /galactosaemia/endogenous-galactose.html   (703 words)

  
 Galactose   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Galactose is absorbed in the jejunum part of the intestine where it competes with glucose for transport.
Galactose is excreted by the kidneys, using a Glucose transporter.
Galactose is another essential sugar concentrated in the testes, implying that these saccharides are vital in reproduction since it appears to help in the formation of sperm.
www.innvista.com /health/nutrition/essensug/galact.htm   (1231 words)

  
 Galactosemia
Galactosemia is an inherited disorder characterized by an inability of the body to utilize galactose.
Galactose is a type of food sugar found mainly in dairy products, and is produced within the body as well.
However, the form of galactose (bound galactose) found in fruits and vegetables is not usable by the body, and may not contribute to elevated blood gal-1-p.
depts.washington.edu /transmet/gal.html   (1686 words)

  
 European Galactosaemia Society (EGS) - Galactosemia in Europe - Endogenous Galactose Production   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The rate of release of galactose from intracellular sources into plasma is assessed in overnight fasted healthy adults and galactosemic patients by galactose turnover measurements in vivo using stable isotope (1-13C)-labelled galactose as substrate and the primed continuous infusion approach ([1-13C]galactose priming i.v., 1 mg/kg body weight; i.v.
Galactose disposal by oxidation - as estimated from the 13C-label enrichment in plasma galactose and expired carbon dioxide - accounted for about 99 percent of whole body galactose disposal.
In addition, about 3 to 10 mg/kg body weight per d of galactose was obviously converted intracellularly to yield galactitol prior to the release into the plasma compartment and subsequent excretion by the kidneys.
galactosaemia.com /galactosaemia/endogenous-galactose.html   (703 words)

  
 Glucose-galactose malabsorption - Genetics Home Reference
This protein is found mainly in the intestinal tract and, to a lesser extent, in the kidneys, where it is involved in transporting glucose and the structurally similar galactose across cell membranes.
The sodium/glucose cotransporter protein is involved in the process of using energy to move glucose and galactose across the brush border membrane for absorption, a mechanism called active transport.
In addition, the water that normally would have been transported across the brush border with the sugar instead remains in the intestinal tract to be expelled with the stool, resulting in dehydration of the body's tissues and severe diarrhea.
ghr.nlm.nih.gov /condition=glucosegalactosemalabsorption   (878 words)

  
 The yeast galactose genetic switch is mediated by the formation of a Gal4p[ndash]Gal80p[ndash]Gal3p complex
The response of a yeast cell to being challenged with galactose as the sole carbon source is to rapidly activate expression of the GAL genes, by several thousand-fold (Johnston, 1987; Lohr et al., 1995; Reece and Platt, 1997).
In the absence of galactose we are unable to observe Gal1p-mediated activation of Gal4p−Gal80p (Figure 1C, lane 10).
Decreasing the amount of galactose in the transcription reactions reduces the ability of Gal3p to influence the inhibitory activity of Gal80p (Figure 2A lanes 4−10).
www.nature.com /emboj/journal/v17/n14/full/7591108a.html   (3947 words)

  
 ARS | Publication request: CONTRIBUTION OF PLASMA GALACTOSE AND GLUCOSE TO MILK LACTOSE SYNTHESIS DURING GALACTOSE ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The present study was conducted to determine, in lactating women, whether oral galactose is directly incorporated from plasma galactose into glucose and galactose in milk lactose or via conversion of galactose to glucose in the liver.
We observed that 69 ± 6% of glucose and 54 ± 4% of galactose in lactose were derived directly from plasma glucose, whereas 7 ± 2% and 12 ± 2% of glucose and galactose in lactose, respectively, were derived directly from plasma galactose.
We conclude that during ingestion of galactose the contribution from plasma glucose to glucose and galactose in lactose was similar to that of a short-term fasting, but part of the de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose in the breast was replaced by direct uptake of galactose.
ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=150739   (410 words)

  
 GALACTOSEMIA Case Reports Pediatric Oncall
Thus she was diagnosed as Galactosemia and started on galactose free diet (soya milk) with supplementation of Vitamin E, K, A, C and Ureodeoxycholic acid.
The clinical manifestations in infants are due to toxic effects of prolonged exposure to galactose.
In infants with manifestations of toxicity, the galactose free diet results in regression of all symptoms and signs — nausea and vomiting cease, weight gain ensues, liver abnormalities clear, galactosuria and albuminuria clear, and cataracts regress.
www.pediatriconcall.com /fordoctor/casereports/galactosemia.asp   (880 words)

  
 Galactose-dependent reversible interaction of Gal3p with Gal80p in the induction pathway of Gal4p-activated genes of ...
expression of GAL genes in the absence of galactose (9).
of galactose in the presence of ATP (26).
with Gal80p in the absence of galactose (35, 36), causing
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/94/5/1721   (4345 words)

  
 Effect of Galactose Diet Removal on the Progression of Retinal Vessel Changes in Galactose-Fed Dogs -- Kador et al. 43 ...
capillaries incubated in vitro with 30 mM galactose, and this
reductase inhibitors administered from the onset of galactose
of galactose on degeneration of pericytes and retinal capillary
www.iovs.org /cgi/content/full/43/6/1916   (4026 words)

  
 The Gal3p-Gal80p-Gal4p Transcription Switch of Yeast: Gal3p Destabilizes the Gal80p-Gal4p Complex in Response to ...
Both galactose and ATP are required for the Gal80p-Gal3p (Gal1p) interaction (8, 68, 76, 79).
80) and incubated in the absence (lanes 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) or presence (lanes 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of galactose and ATP.
of galactose and ATP in the presence of Gal3p caused a 3.5- to
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/19/11/7828   (8278 words)

  
 AllRefer Health - Galactosemia (Galactokinase Deficiency, Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase Deficiency, ...
Galactosemia is the inability of the body to use (metabolize) the simple sugar galactose (causing the accumulation of galactose 1-phosphate), which then reaches high levels in the body, causing damage to the liver, central nervous system, and various other body systems.
Galactose makes up half of the sugar, called lactose, that is found in milk.
Lactose is called a disaccharide (di meaning 2 and saccharide meaning sugar) since lactose is made up of two sugars, galactose and glucose, bound together.
health.allrefer.com /health/galactosemia-info.html   (528 words)

  
 Role of Snf1p in Regulation of Intracellular Sorting of the Lactose and Galactose Transporter Lac12p in Kluyveromyces ...
Cells were shifted from glucose to galactose (2%) medium for 3.5 h, and the intracellular distribution of Lac12-GFP was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM 510; Carl Zeiss).
Glucose-induced monoubiquitination of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose transporter is sufficient to signal its internalization.
Catabolite inactivation of the galactose transporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in the vacuole.
ec.asm.org /cgi/content/full/4/4/716   (3283 words)

  
 -- Altered metabolism of galactose due to deficient enzyme activity or impaired liver function resulting in elevated ...
Galactose also plays an important role in the formation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans.
Galatactosemia is the altered metabolism of galactose due to deficient enzyme activity or impaired liver function resulting in elevated blood galactose concentration.
Without the GALT enzyme, the infant is unable to metabolize galactose-1-phosphate, and the resulting accumulation leads to injury to the parenchymal cells of the kidney, liver, and brain.
pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu /galactosemia.html   (692 words)

  
 Galactose toxicity in the rat as a model for premature ovarian failure: an experimental approach readdressed -- ...
Galactose toxicity in the rat as a model for premature ovarian failure: an experimental approach readdressed -- Bandyopadhyay et al.
Galactose toxicity in the rat as a model for premature ovarian failure: an experimental approach readdressed
BW of the dams, and an increased incidence of in-utero fetal
humrep.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/18/10/2031   (4121 words)

  
 Biotyping of Penicillium marneffei Reveals Concentration-Dependent Growth Inhibition by Galactose -- Wong et al. 39 ...
The microscopic appearances of yeast cells in the presence of glucose and galactose were compared.
Galactose is normally present in humans at a concentration in serum of less than 5 mg/dl (equivalent to <0.28 mmol/liter or
The metabolic pathways of galactose are remarkably similar among eukaryotes (18).
jcm.asm.org /cgi/content/full/39/4/1416   (2992 words)

  
 The Bacillus subtilis galE Gene Is Essential in the Presence of Glucose and Galactose -- Krispin and Allmansberger 180 ...
Bacillus subtilis is unable to grow by consuming galactose because it is unable to transport it into the cell.
Bacillus subtilis 168 is unable to use sugars such as lactose, galactose, and xylose (11, 18) as its sole carbon source.
Bacteria were resuspended in media containing galactose to an OD of 0.02.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/180/8/2265   (2582 words)

  
 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Galactosemia
Galactosemia is the inability of the body to use (metabolize) the simple sugar galactose (causing the accumulation of galactose 1-phosphate), which then reaches high levels in the body, causing damage to the liver, central nervous system, and various other body systems.
If an infant with galactosemia is given milk, derivatives of galactose build up in the infant's system, causing damage to the liver, brain, kidneys, and eyes.
The presence of "reducing substances" in the infant's urine with normal or low blood sugar while the infant is being fed breast milk or a formula containing lactose.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/000366.htm   (821 words)

  
 The catalytic mechanism of galactose mutarotase -- Thoden et al. 12 (5): 1051 -- Protein Science
Shown in (A) is the observed hydrogen bonding pattern between the wild-type protein and galactose.
Binding of galactose to the D243N or D243A mutant proteins.
Thoden, J.B., Kim, J., Raushel, F.M., and Holden, H.M. Structural and kinetic studies of sugar binding to galactose mutarotase from Lactococcus lactis.
www.proteinscience.org /cgi/content/full/12/5/1051   (3188 words)

  
 Total Galactose Application Notes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Astoria-Pacific SPOTCHECK® Galactose test is used as an aid in screening for Galactosemia, an inherited disorder of galactose metabolism caused by a decreased level of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase enzyme activity in newborns.
When galactose is ingested by an affected newborn, the galactose-1-phosphate accumulates intracellularly and blood and urine levels of galactose become elevated.
The total galactose is then oxidized by NAD in the presence of galactose dehydrogenase to form galactonolactone and NADH.
www.astoria-pacific.com /aptgal.php3   (311 words)

  
 Galactose Consumption Induces Conditioned Flavor Avoidance in Rats -- Sclafani and Williams 129 (9): 1737 -- Journal of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The magnitude of the galactose avoidance was somewhat
intolerance, is not the cause of galactose aversion.
Sclafani, A., Fanzara, L. and Azzara, A. (1999) Conditioned flavor avoidance, preference, and indifference produced by intragastric infusions of galactose, glucose, and fructose in rats.
www.nutrition.org /cgi/content/full/129/9/1737   (3948 words)

  
 Galactose Metabolism by Streptococcus mutans -- Abranches et al. 70 (10): 6047 -- Applied and Environmental Microbiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Panel B indicates that the lacF gene is induced or derepressed by lactose or galactose for UA159 and by lactose for JAM2.
PTS by galactose or its repression by glucose.
Influence of the lactose plasmid on the metabolism of galactose by Streptococcus lactis.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/70/10/6047   (3371 words)

  
 Glucose galactose malabsorption   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Glucose Galactose Malabsorption (GGM) is a rare metabolic disorder caused by a defect in glucose and galactose transport across the intestinal lining.
GGM is characterized by severe diarrhea and dehydration as early as the first day of life and can result in rapid death if lactose (milk sugar), sucrose (table sugar), glucose, and galactose are not removed from the diet.
Normally within the space enclosed by the small intestine (called the lumen), lactose is broken down into glucose and galactose by an enzyme called lactase, while sucrose is broken down into glucose and fructose by an enzyme called sucrase.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.228   (333 words)

  
 Galactose information page. All about galactose and the role it plays in your diet.
Galactose, is not normally found in nature, but is mostly hydrolyzed from the disaccharide lactose, which is found in milk.
Although not very water-soluble, and less sweet than glucose, forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins, which is found in many tissues.
The body can change glucose to galactose in order to enable the mammary glands to produce lactose.
www.anyvitamins.com /galactose-info.htm   (178 words)

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