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Topic: Gall wasp

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In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

  Gall wasp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gall wasps (Cynipidae), also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea.
The reproduction of the gall wasp is partly pure two-sex propagation, partly pure parthenogenesis, in which a male is completely unnecessary.
The host plants and the size and shape of the galls are specific to the majority of gall wasps, whereas about 70% of the known species live in various types of oak tree.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gall_wasp   (755 words)

 Gall Wasp: pictures, information, classification and more   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Gall Wasp, common name for a group of stinging wasps that parasitize plants, causing the plants to form a variety of strangely shaped and colored galls.
Gall wasps are found throughout the world, but most occur in northern temperate regions.
Gall wasps should not be confused with gall midges, a family of gall-making flies.
www.everythingabout.net /articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/wasps/gall_wasp   (463 words)

 Nature Trivia, Galls
Galls are abnormal, vegetative growths that are usually formed as a response by plants to the action of fungus, mites, or insects such as wasps, aphids, and true bugs.  Galls can be formed in the leaves, petioles (stem) of leaves, twigs, buds, or on the roots.
Wool-sower galls (left photo) are 1 1/2 inch to 2 inch long woolly twig galls with reddish seed-like grains.  Woolly oak leaf galls (pictured right) are similar in appearance to a dense wad of light brown wool attached to the midvein of the leaf (although occasionally are found on the lateral veins).
Round galls formed on the main stem or branches of pine trees (the primary host) are evidence of the presence of the eastern gall rust disease, which is caused by the fungus Cronartium quercuum f.
www.hsu.edu /content.aspx?id=2151   (640 words)

 Plant Galls
A saucer gall on the leaf of a scrub oak (Quercus cornelius-mulleri) caused by the gall wasp Andricus gigas.
Red cone galls from the leaf of a valley oak (Quercus lobata) caused by the gall wasp Andricus kingii.
sawflies, gall wasps and beetles) or by the feeding of early larval stages (e.g.
waynesword.palomar.edu /pljuly99.htm   (4214 words)

 gall wasp
Most gall wasps form galls, though a few live within the galls formed by other species; these are called inquilines.
These gall wasps usually reproduce asexually; the females are about 4 mm/0.2 in long; parts of their abdomens and legs are yellow-red, while the rest of the body is fl.
The galls are a mass of reddish filaments within which are found a number of sealed chambers enclosing larvae.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0063651.html   (383 words)

 Galls on Oak - Penn State Entomology Department Fact Sheet
Both the horned oak gall wasp and the gouty oak gall wasp are known to occur from southern Canada to Georgia.
Galls are abnormal plant growth or swellings comprised of plant tissue.
Galls generally are aesthetically objectionable to homeowners who find them unattractive and fear that galls will cause damage to the health of their oak trees.
www.ento.psu.edu /extension/factsheets/gallsOnOak.htm   (658 words)

 Gall Wasps
Gall wasps are very small and all but a few species are less than 5mm (1/4 inch) in length.
About 80% of the gall wasps produce galls specifically on oak trees while about 60% of all known insect galls occur in the oak family and 30% occur in the daisy, rose and willow families.
Gall wasp galls typically have an outer wall, a spongy fiber layer and a hard, seed-like structure inside of which the gall wasp grub develops.
entomology.unl.edu /ornamentals/pestprofiles/gallwasps.htm   (799 words)

 Fredrik Ronquist: Questions and Answers
The large size of the venom gland in gall wasps suggests that the female may also inject compounds that are important for gall formation when they lay their eggs.
A: According to a fascinating study of a Canadian rose gall wasp and its inquiline by Dr Joseph D. Shorthouse, published in the 70's, the inquiline female stabbs the gall-inducing larva to death with her ovipositor.
For gall wasps and their relatives, there are also fossil specimens that you can place in the phylogenies to help you date different parts of the tree.
www.csit.fsu.edu /~ronquist/questions_answers.html   (2332 words)

 North Carolina Pest News
Roly-poly galls are caused by larvae of a gall wasp in the genus Dryocosmus.
Various sorts of knot galls, horned galls, potato galls, and gouty galls on the leaves and twigs of oaks are caused by gall wasps in the genus Callirhytis.
With pests such as the gouty oak gall wasp, it is not possible to control the stem gall generation, perhaps because the tissue surrounding the larvae is so disrupted by the influence of the larvae that the tissue does not translocate the pesticide to the larvae in large enough quantities to kill them.
ipm.ncsu.edu /current_ipm/00PestNews/00News3/ornament.html   (1641 words)

 Cynipid wasp gall   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Iredell County, NC Galls are modified plant tissue, often highly elaborate, species-distinctive and host-specific, that develop in response to infection or infestation by particular organisms.
The mode of gall formation varies among the arthropod gall-makers, but something is injected or secreted by the feeding stage(s) that stimulates the gall to develop.
Galls can be found on any part of the tree (including roots), but most occur on the stems or leaves.
www.ces.ncsu.edu /depts/ent/clinic/Bugofwk/970653/cynipid.htm   (429 words)

 Entomology notes 2
Each gall is distinct from the other; its form and size depending upon the kind of plant, the type of gall-maker and where it makes its home on the plant.
Felt, a renowned expert on galls, referring to their beauty, once stated "...the fresh well developed creamy-white, pink spotted gall of the wool sower is one of the most beautiful of natural objects, while the delicately colored cypress 'flower galls'...suggest an attractive spray of dainty flowers".
Galls are found all year long and those with woody tissues such as those on stems require no preparation other than labeling and displaying them.
insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu /MES/notes/entonotes2.html   (916 words)

 Gall wasps   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The mealy oak gall wasp asexual generation produces galls that are spherical, 1/8 to 1 inch in diameter and appear on twigs and branches of live oak in late summer and early fall.
Galls on trees are also caused by other insects, such as certain aphid species, flies, phylloxera, psyllids, thrips, and mites.
Adult mealy oak gall wasps emerge from galls of the asexual generation during December.
hortipm.tamu.edu /pestprofiles/other/gallwasp/gallwasp.html   (165 words)

 Paper Wasp: pictures, information, classification and more   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Most paper wasps measure about 2 cm (0.75 in) long and are fl, brown, or reddish in color with yellow markings.
Plant and wood fibers are collected by the wasps, mixed with saliva, and chewed into a papier-mâché-like material that is formed into the thin cells of the nest.
In most temperate species of paper wasps, colonies are founded by one female who dominates the colony and lays most of the eggs.
www.everythingabout.net /articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/wasps/paper_wasp   (565 words)

 Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp Found on American Chestnut Trees
In 1963, gall wasp was reported to be threatening the chestnut industry of Japan and Korea.
Galls develop in 7 to 14 days and often contain portions of developing leaves, stems, petioles, and flowers.
Spread of the gall wasp occurs as a result of movement of infested twigs or shoots, or by flight of the adults.
www.caes.state.ct.us /FactSheetFiles/PlantPathology/fspp040f.htm   (568 words)

 The Oak Apple Gall Wasp   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The oak apple gall wasp is identified by its gall.
A gall is an abnormal growth on a plant.
These gall wasps cannot sting, so they don't bother us people and since they don't really bother trees either, galls are just something interesting to learn about.
allfreeessays.com /student/The_Oak_Apple_Gall_Wasp.html   (195 words)

 Galls on Oaks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Galls are so closely associated with oaks that many of the early botanical drawings included them as a normal part of plant anatomy.
Galls are formed by the interaction of insect produced enzymes and plant hormones.
With exceptions of Horned- oak gall and gouty gall, galls are harmless.
www.agnr.umd.edu /ipmnet/5-4art2.htm   (277 words)

Many gall wasps develop for 2 or 3 years in woody galls on the twigs of oaks.
Gall wasp galls typically have an outer wall, a spongy fiber layer and a hard, seedlike structure inside of which the gall wasp grub develops.
Roly-poly galls are caused by gall wasps in the genus Andricus and are called roly-poly galls because the wasp grub develops in a seedlike shell and nutritive layer structure loose inside the hollow gall.
www.ces.ncsu.edu /depts/ent/notes/O&T/trees/note05/note05.html   (767 words)

 Gall Flowers In Figs
In fact, the symbiotic wasps live at the Wayne's Word headquarters in a caprifig that produces three crops of inedible figs (syconia) each year, including a wasp-bearing, overwintering mamme crop that remains on the bare branches when the tree is devoid of leaves.
The torymid larvae may be seed predators, parasites of fig wasp (agaonid) larvae, or inquilines coexisting with, but not necessarily harmful to the fig or its symbiotic wasp.
The presence of nonpollinator, bogus fig wasps and natural pollinator wasps in the same syconium is a complex and perplexing coevolutionary problem in fig biology.
waynesword.palomar.edu /gallfig.htm   (2505 words)

 North Carolina Pest News
The wool sower gall is a distinct and unusual plant growth induced by the secretions of the grubs of a tiny gall wasp.
Gall wasps invariably have alternation of generations in which one generation develops in one type of gall (leaf gall) and their children develop in another type (stem gall).
Wasps of each alternate generation are slightly different is size, and the galls of each generation are enormously different from the parents.
ipm.ncsu.edu /current_ipm/99PestNews/99News4/ornament.html   (1189 words)

 TFS Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Because of the unusual size and shape of the horned oak gall and the gouty oak gall, they attract the attention of landowners and homeowners who are concerned about what causes the galls and what harm or damage they will do to oak trees.
The wasps that cause horned oak gall and gouty oak gall are commonly called cynipid gall wasps (family Cynipidae, genus Callirhytis).
By midsummer, the larvae in the leaf galls have matured and pupated.
txforestservice.tamu.edu /shared/article.asp?DocumentID=381&mc=forest   (772 words)

 Hieracium gall wasp
The hieracium gall wasp is native to northern Europe and it was first imported from Switzerland by Landcare Research, in conjunction with the Hieracium Control Trust, in 1997.
These fleshy, green galls are the most obvious sign that gall wasps are present in an area and the best time to look for them is in late summer.
Stolon growth is reduced in galled plants and this reduces their ability to spread vegetatively by producing daughter plants at the tips.
www.landcareresearch.co.nz /research/biosecurity/weeds/hieracium/Hieraciumgallwasp.asp   (382 words)

 American Chestnut Foundation - Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The gall wasp was referred to in a brief, welcome statement of the minutes of our 1999 annual meeting at Atwood Lake, Ohio.
The gall wasp, a native of Korea and Japan, entered this country in Georgia in 1974 from Asia.
In 1993 galls were observed on native American chestnut in Georgia at the southern end of the Appalachian Trail.
www.acf.org /wildlife_12.htm   (307 words)

 The Questionable Authority Archive: Applications of Evolution 1 - The Erythrina Gall Wasp
At the same time, the gall wasp has now found itself in an environment where it has lots of access to a number of species that it can use, and which completely lacks any of it's normal predators.
In fact, the wild success of the gall wasp is one of the reasons that we can tell that it is an invasive, rather than a previously undiscovered native.
The wasps are loving life right now, but they are actually not in a situation that bodes well for their long-term success in Hawaii - if the current trend continues, they will fall victim to their own success.
thequestionableauthority.blogspot.com /2005/08/applications-of-evolution-1-erythrina.html   (1865 words)

 issg Database: Ecology of Quadrastichus erythrinae
The Erythrina gall wasp measures a mere 1.5 mm and may be spread easily via infected leaves from infected Erythrina specimens.
The erythrina gall wasp infests Erythrina species, of which there are approximately 110 different species around the world (mostly in tropical regions).
The wasp larvae, which develop within plant tissue induce the formation of galls in the leaflets and petioles.
www.issg.org /database/species/ecology.asp?si=965&fr=1&sts=   (954 words)

 Les Jones: Oak Apple Gall Wasp (Amphibolips confluenta)
I've seen hundreds of oak apple galls, but they've been old galls that were brown, dry, and papery, with a small hole where the adult wasp bored its way out.
It might be worthwhile to point out that the gall wasp is a tiny thing that most people would mistake for a gnat, if they noticed it at all.
Galls are formed by a live plant, typically as a reaction to chemicals injected by an insect along with an egg.
www.lesjones.com /posts/002031.shtml   (800 words)

 Oak Apple Gall Wasp
Oak Apple Gall Wasps are usually identified by their gall.
Female wasps burrow into the soil at the base of the tree and inject eggs into the roots.
Wasp larvae hatch and munch on the roots for over a year before becoming pupae (resting stage).
www.fcps.k12.va.us /StratfordLandingES/Ecology/mpages/oak_apple_gall_wasp.htm   (447 words)

 Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp Found in N.E. Ohio
The source of the infestation is unknown, but it was most likely a mail-order seedling chestnut that had gall wasp eggs deposited in the dormant buds.
The gall wasp spread quickly throughout Georgia, where it was accidentally introduced, wiping out the state's fledgling chestnut industry.
Oriental gall wasp laying eggs in bud of Chinese chestnut.
www.icserv.com /nnga/chstwasp.htm   (347 words)

 Gall-Making Insects and Mites
Galls are the result of the abnormal growth of plant cells.
The two generations of the mealy oak gall wasp are described below as an ex-ample of a common gall-making insect.
Common terms used to describe galls are blis-ter galls, bud galls, bullet galls, erineum galls, flower galls, fruit galls, leaf galls, leaf spots, oak apples, pouch galls, roly-poly galls, root galls, rosette galls and stem or twig galls.
entowww.tamu.edu /extension/bulletins/L-1299.html   (1115 words)

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