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Topic: Gamma radiation

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  Gamma ray - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gamma ray is a term for high-energy electromagnetic radiation produced by nuclear transitions, while X ray is a term for high-energy electromagnetic radiation produced by energy transitions due to accelerating electrons.
Gamma rays are a form of ionizing radiation; they are more penetrating than either alpha or beta radiation (neither of which is electromagnetic radiation), but less ionizing.
Gamma rays from nuclear fallout would probably cause the largest number of casualties in the event of the use of nuclear weapons in a nuclear war.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gamma_ray   (1409 words)

 Ionizing radiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ionizing radiation is a type of particle radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit).
Ionizing radiation is produced by radioactive decay, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, extremely hot objects (thermal or flbody radiation), and accelerated charges (bremsstrahlung or synchrotron radiation).
Of lesser magnitude, members of the public are exposed to radiation from the nuclear fuel cycle, which includes the entire sequence from mining and milling of uranium to the disposal of the used (spent) fuel.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ionizing_radiation   (3098 words)

 AllRefer.com - gamma radiation (Physics) - Encyclopedia
Gamma rays are essentially very energetic X rays; the distinction between the two is not based on their intrinsic nature but rather on their origins.
Gamma radiation is emitted by excited nuclei (see nucleus) or other processes involving subatomic particles; it often accompanies alpha or beta radiation, as a nucleus emitting those particles may be left in an excited (higher-energy) state.
Data from artificial satellites and high-altitude balloons have indicated that a flux of gamma radiation is reaching the earth from outer space, thus opening up the field of research known as gamma-ray astronomy.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/G/gammarad.html   (303 words)

 EPA - Gamma Rays (EPA's Radiation Protection Program: Understanding Radiation)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A gamma ray is a packet of electromagnetic energy--a photon.
Gamma rays (gamma photons) are emitted from the nucleus of some unstable (radioactive) atoms.
A large protion gamma radiation largely passes through the body without interacting with tissue--the body is mostly empty space at the atomic level and gamma rays are vanishingly small in size.
www.epa.gov /radiation/understand/gamma.htm   (1398 words)

 Gamma radiation
Highly-energetic, short-wave electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus of an atom.
In general, alpha and beta decays and always the fission process are accompanied by gamma radiation.
Gamma rays are extremely penetrative and may best be weakened by material of high density (lead) and high atomic number.
www.euronuclear.org /info/encyclopedia/g/gammaradiation.htm   (96 words)

 Gamma Knife / The established Standard of Care
Gamma Knife surgery is unique in that no surgical incision is made to expose the inside of the brain, thereby reducing the risk of surgical complications and eliminating the side effects and dangers of general anethesia.
With the Gamma Knife, a surgical incision is not required; the attendant risks of open neurosurgical procedures (hemorrhage, infection, CSF leakage, etc.) are therefore avoided.
Published reports indicate that the Gamma Knife may be used as an alternative to standard neurosurgical operations or as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of residual or recurrent lesions left unresected by conventional surgery.
www.irsa.org /gamma_knife.html   (752 words)

 Subsurface Gamma Radiation Detection
Because gamma radiation is more penetrating and travels further than alpha or beta radiation, and because most radionuclides produce some gamma radiation, gamma detection is the most common form of radiation detection.
Gamma rays emitted by the radioactive waste are collected and this energy spectrum is analyzed to identify radioactive constituents and their relative concentrations.
Radioactivity, or ionizing radiation, is the spontaneous disintegration of unstable atomic nuclei.
www.cpeo.org /techtree/ttdescript/subgrd.htm   (715 words)

 Radiation Basics - Gamma Radiation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A gamma ray is a packet of electromagnetic energy (photon) emitted by the nucleus of some radionuclides following radioactive decay.
Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, which are massless particles each traveling in a wave-like pattern and moving at the speed of light.
Gamma rays originate from the nucleus of a radionuclide after radioactive decay whereas X-rays are produced when electrons strike a target or when electrons are rearranged within an atom.
www.arpansa.gov.au /basics/gamma.htm   (593 words)

The most common types of radiation are called alpha, beta, and gamma radiation, but there are several other varieties of radioactive decay.
Radioactive decay rates are normally stated in terms of their half-lives, and the half-life of a given nuclear species is related to its radiation risk.
Radiation from nuclear sources is distributed equally in all directions, obeying the inverse square law.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/nuclear/radact.html   (564 words)

 The Mosby Medical Encyclopedia: gamma radiation@ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
gamma radiation, a very high frequency electromagnetic emission from certain radioactive elements that comes from nuclear decay or from nuclear reactions.
Gamma rays are more penetrating than alpha particles and beta radiation.
Gamma radiation can injure, distort, or destroy body cells and tissue, especially cell nuclei, but...
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1P1:28733015&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (137 words)

 gamma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The gamma ray is identical in nature to light or microwaves, but of very high energy.
Gamma rays interact with material by colliding with the electrons in the shells of atoms.
It is important to note that most alpha and beta emitters also emit gamma rays as part of their decay process.
www.physics.isu.edu /radinf/gamma.htm   (188 words)

 Gamma Radiation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Gamma radiation is in addition cost effective in that it eliminates the costly two-step process (ethylene oxide followed by thymol) that was recommended to us for treatment of these materials.
Gamma radiation as a volume sterilant is also more effective than EtO or thymol, which are surface sterilants.
The pilot gamma radiation project was supported by an emergency grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
palimpsest.stanford.edu /byorg/abbey/an/an08/an08-2/an08-201.html   (370 words)

 The Hutchinson Dictionary of Science: gamma radiation@ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Very high-frequency electromagnetic radiation, similar in nature to X-rays but of shorter wavelength, emitted by the nuclei of radioactive substances during decay or by the interactions of high-energy electrons with matter.
Cosmic gamma rays have been identified as coming from pulsars, radio galaxies, and quasars, although they cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere.
Gamma rays are stopped only by direct collision with an atom and are therefore very penetrating; they can, however, be stopped by about 4...
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1P1:28920310&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (168 words)

 Gamma Radiation & X-Rays
Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light.
Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and many centimeters in human tissue.
Gamma radiation or X-rays frequently accompany the emission of alpha and beta radiation.
www.orau.gov /reacts/gamma.htm   (202 words)

 gamma radiation on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Gamma rays are essentially very energetic X rays ; the distinction between the two is not based on their intrinsic nature but rather on their origins.
GAMMA 1: Major Clinical Trial Cites Efficacy and Safety of Gamma Radiation At Nine Months for Treating Reclogged Stents in Coronary Arteries.
Spinacia oleracea L. protects against gamma radiations: a study on glutathione and lipid peroxidation in mouse liver.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/g1/gammarad.asp   (575 words)

 Risk of Salivary Tumors Following Gamma Radiation Exposure - DERT
The blood cells were exposed to a single dose of gamma radiation.
Implication: Although this study was small and needs to be confirmed in larger studies, it does show that exposure to gamma radiation is a likely risk factor for malignant and benign salivary tumors.
Gamma radiation sensitivity and risk of malignant and benign salivary gland tumors: a pilot case-control analysis.
www.niehs.nih.gov /dert/profiles/hilites/2004/saliva.htm   (318 words)

 Zeus - Gamma Radiation Tolerance of Fluoropolymer Tubing
When GAMMA sterilization was developed, Zeus was one of the first fluoropolymer extruders to offer information on this increasingly popular sterilization method.
Gamma Radiation has been discovered to be an effective low-temperature sterilizing method.
Gamma rays are emitted from radioactive materials such as Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137.
www.zeusinc.com /gammaradiation.asp   (328 words)

 Gamma Radiation Measurements on the Lifter by JL Naudin
Gamma Radiation Measurements on the Lifter by JL Naudin
Radiating frequencies of very short wavelengths although theoretically present under vacuum conditions ARE NOT DETECTED when lifter is operated in air.
The frequency of the radiation pressure (in vacuum) is not the same as the frequency of the power supply driving the lifter, and is still present with a pure dc hv supply.
jnaudin.free.fr /html/lftgamma.htm   (679 words)

 Definition of Radiation
The kinds of radiation are electromagnetic (like light) and particulate (i.e., mass given off with the energy of motion).
Gamma radiation and X-rays are examples of electromagnetic radiation.
Beta and alpha radiation are examples of particulate radiation.
www.orau.gov /reacts/define.htm   (284 words)

 UIC - Radiation and Life   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Gamma rays are often emitted with alpha or beta radiation also, as the nucleus decays to a less excited state.
The highest known level of background radiation affecting a substantial population is in Kerala and Madras States in India where some 140,000 people receive doses which average over 15 millisievert per year from gamma radiation in addition to a similar dose from radon.
Radiation protection standards are based on the conservative assumption that the risk is directly proportional to the dose, even at the lowest levels, though there is no evidence of risk at low levels.
www.uic.com.au /ral.htm   (3438 words)

Beta radiation is a stream of beta particles (electrons or positrons) but gamma radiation is not associated with any atomic particle; the photon is only an energy packet.
Cosmic radiation, radioactive isotopes in the soil, fallout from nuclear explosions, fallout from burning coal that contains radium, and medical radiation for diagnosis and treatment are the main sources of everyday radiation.
Cosmic rays include a great variety of radiation, including genres radiation; isotopes in the ground may result in radioactive water, emitted gas and building materials; nuclear fallout includes alpha, beta and gamma radiation, of which gamma radiation is the shortest-lived; and medical radiation is usually with X-rays, but may be done with gamma radiation.
palimpsest.stanford.edu /byorg/abbey/an/an08/an08-2/an08-207.html   (727 words)

 Larson, James Daniel (1965-05-14) Gamma radiation from the alpha particle bombardment of C12. ...
Larson, James Daniel (1965-05-14) Gamma radiation from the alpha particle bombardment of C12.
Radiative widths [Gamma subscript gamma] for ground state radiation from the states at 9.59, 9.85, 11.52 and 12.45 MeV were measured to be 0.022 [plus or minus] 0.005, 0.0059 [plus or minus] 0.0006, 0.66 [plus or minus] 0.09 and 7 [plus or minus] 1 eV, respectively.
Radiative widths for cascade radiation from the 9.85 and 10.36 MeV states through intermediate states of 016 were measured to be 0.0012 [plus or minus] 0.0004 and 0.046 [plus or minus] 0.006 eV, respectively.
etd.caltech.edu /etd/available/etd-09272002-140450   (244 words)

 Gamma-ray Burst FAQ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Gamma ray bursts (GRBs for short) are intense and short (approximately 0.1-100 seconds long) bursts of gamma-ray radiation that occur all over the sky approximately once per day at very large distances from Earth.
Gamma rays are very energetic photons (E>10^5 eV), which represent the most extreme portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (ranging from radio waves at the lowest energies through visible optical light at higher energies, to gamma rays at the highest energies).
If there is more than one gamma ray burst on the same day, the letter a, b, c, etc. are added to the name (for example, the second gamma ray burst on July 4, 1999 is called GRB 990704b).
www.astro.caltech.edu /~ejb/faq.html   (2713 words)

Residents in the area are concerned about possible adverse health effects resulting from exposure to gamma radiation from phosphorus slag that was used in nearby roads, buildings, and homes.
Gamma radiation, or gamma rays, consists of bundles of electromagnetic energy and is the same type of radiation as medical x-rays.
The combined gamma radiation doses from homes and pavement with phosphorus slag measured for residents near the former Stauffer chemical plant are consistent with background and do not pose a health threat to the community.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /NEWS/staufferhc.html   (1078 words)

 Bobby's Radiation Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Chromosomal damage in blood lymphocytes is often used in biological dosimetry for exposure of humans to gamma radiation.
Gamma rays are similar to X rays rays, but X rays generally have lower energy.
Radioactivity: The spontaneous emission of radiation from unstable atoms.
www.lrri.org /radiation/radgloss.htm   (2673 words)

 Gamma-Photon Radiation Detector - Maxim/Dallas
It requires very low-noise circuitry, both because the amount of charge generated by individual gamma photons is extremely small, and because lowering the overall noise level allows the circuit to detect lower-energy gamma photons.
Detector sensitivity, for example (the number of photons detected for a given radiation field) depends on the size of the depletion region, which in turn depends on the area of the diode and the amount of reverse bias applied to it.
To insure that the circuit measures gamma radiation and not light, cover the PIN photodiode with an opaque material.
www.maxim-ic.com /appnotes.cfm/appnote_number/2236   (875 words)

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