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Topic: Gasoline


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  C&EN: WHAT'S THAT STUFF? GASOLINE
In a nutshell, gasoline is a mixture of C
Gasoline in the U.S. is usually blended from straight run gasoline, reformate, alkylate, and some butane.
Gasoline has to be volatile enough to vaporize and mix with air to burn, but one problem is that the vapor pressure can go up or down with a change in temperature or with altitude.
pubs.acs.org /cen/whatstuff/stuff/8308gasoline.html   (869 words)

  
 Gasoline FAQ - Part 2 of 4
Gasoline Middle Distillates USA 338.6 246.3 Canada 26.8 26.1 Western Europe 163.2 266.8 Japan 60.2 92.2 Total World 820.4 1029.0 The USA consumption of gasoline increased from 294.4 (1982) to 335.6 (1989) then dipped to 324.2 (1991), and has continued to rise since then to reach 338.6 million tonnes in 1994.
Gasoline volatility is being reduced as modern engines, with their fuel injection and management systems, can automatically compensate for some of the changes in ambient conditions - such as altitude and air temperature, resulting in acceptable driveability using less volatile fuel.
Reduced gasoline volatility and composition changes, along with cleanliness additives and engine management systems, can help minimise cold start emissions, but currently the most effective technique appears to be rapid, deliberate heating of the catalyst, and the new generation of low thermal inertia "fast light-up" catalysts reduce the problem, but further research is necessary [76,82].
www.faqs.org /faqs/autos/gasoline-faq/part2   (6491 words)

  
  ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline
Gasoline is a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons containing straight, branched, and cycloalkanes, which contain 5 to 18 carbons, olefins (alkenes), and aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes.
Gasoline is not as readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract as from the respiratory tract.
Gasoline is a mild skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant and a CNS depressant in acute exposures.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /MHMI/mmg72.html   (4335 words)

  
  Gasoline - MSN Encarta
It is produced by the fractional distillation of petroleum; by condensation or adsorption from natural gas; by thermal or catalytic decomposition of petroleum or its fractions; by the hydrogenation of producer gas or coal; or by the polymerization of hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight.
Gasoline produced by the direct distillation of crude petroleum is known as straight-run gasoline.
High-grade gasoline can be produced by a process known as hydrofining, that is, the hydrogenation of refined petroleum oils under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst such as molybdenum oxide.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761559518   (778 words)

  
  Gasoline - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gasoline, also called petrol, is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzenes to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines.
Overall a typical gasoline is predominantly a mixture of paraffins (alkanes), naphthenes (cycloalkanes), aromatics and olefins (alkenes).
Gasoline is rather volatile (meaning it readily evaporates), requiring that storage tanks on land and in vehicles be properly sealed.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gasoline   (3494 words)

  
 Automotive Gasoline FAQ
Because sulfur in gasoline inhibited the octane-enhancing effect of the alkyl lead, the sulfur content of the thermally-cracked refinery streams for gasolines was restricted.
Gasoline volatility is being reduced as modern engines, with their fuel injection and management systems, can automatically compensate for some of the changes in ambient conditions - such as altitude and air temperature, resulting in acceptable driveability using less volatile fuel.
Reduced gasoline volatility and composition changes, along with cleanliness additives and engine management systems, can help minimise cold start emissions, but currently the most effective technique appears to be rapid, deliberate heating of the catalyst, and the new generation of low thermal inertia "fast light-up" catalysts reduce the problem, but further research is necessary [53].
www.turborick.com /gsxr1127/gasoline.html   (18516 words)

  
 HighBeam Encyclopedia - gasoline
Gasoline intended for use in engines is rated by octane number, an index of quality that reflects the ability of the fuel to resist detonation and burn evenly when subjected to high pressures and temperatures inside an engine.
Reformulated gasoline (RFG), introduced in Jan., 1995, is mandated in areas where toxins in the air are a constant problem; it contains oxygen-rich chemicals in lesser concentrations than the winter oxygenated gasoline and is formulated to reduce certain toxic chemicals found in conventional and winter oxygenated fuels.
Gasoline tax as a corrective tax: estimates for the United States, 1970-1991.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/g1/gasoline.asp   (0 words)

  
 Gasoline
Gasoline is a complex mixture of over 500 hydrocarbons that may have between 5 to 12 carbons.
Gasoline is most often produced by the fractional distillation of crude oil.
The yield of gasoline may be doubled by converting higher or lower boiling point fractions into hydrocarbons in the gasoline range.
www.elmhurst.edu /~chm/vchembook/514gasoline.html   (413 words)

  
 How gasoline is made - Background, Raw materials, The manufacturing process of gasoline, Byproducts/waste
Gasoline is a volatile, flammable liquid obtained from the refinement of petroleum, or crude oil.
Gasoline, though widely used in many applications today, is destined to become a fuel of the past because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource.
Because gasoline is produced from a limited supply of petroleum, scientists are looking for clean, renewable sources of energy to power machines of the future.
www.madehow.com /Volume-2/Gasoline.html   (1721 words)

  
 Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4
Because sulfur in gasoline inhibited the octane-enhancing effect of the alkyl lead, the sulfur content of the thermally-cracked refinery streams for gasolines was restricted.
From 1970 until 1990 gasolines were slowly changed as lead was phased out, lead levels plummetted, octanes initially decreased, and then remained 2-5 numbers lower, vapour pressures continued to increase, and sulfur and olefins remained constant, while aromatics increased.
The higher boiling fractions of the gasoline have significant effects on the emission levels of undesirable hydrocarbons and aldehydes, and a reduction of 40C in the final boiling point will reduce the levels of benzene, butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde by 25%, and will reduce HC emissions by 20% [44].
www.faqs.org /faqs/autos/gasoline-faq/part1   (7004 words)

  
 Gasoline   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The EIA expects gasoline consumption in the United States to be 1.2 percent higher this summer compared to last summer.
Gasoline demand in the United States has been growing less than in developing nations, but Americans remain the world’s largest gasoline consumers, with usage expected to average more than 390 million gallons a day in 2007.
Gasoline inventories in general are expected to remain tight throughout the summer driving season.
www.conocophillips.com /newsroom/other_resources/energyanswers/gasoline.htm   (2471 words)

  
 Consumer Information: Cleaner-Burning Gasoline: An Update
California’s cleaner-burning gasoline regulation is one of the cornerstones of the state’s efforts to reduce air pollution and attain healthful air quality for all Californians.
Cleaner-burning gasoline reduces smog-forming emissions from motor vehicles by 15 percent and reduces cancer risk from exposure to motor vehicle toxics by about 40 percent.
Gasoline production costs are one of a number of factors that determine gasoline prices at any given time.
www.arb.ca.gov /fuels/gasoline/cbgupdat.htm   (0 words)

  
 CRB Fundamentals
Gasoline is a complex mixture of hundreds of lighter liquid hydrocarbons and is used chiefly as a fuel for internal-combustion engines.
The NYMEX gasoline futures contract calls for the delivery of 1,000 barrels (42,000 gallons) of unleaded gasoline in the New York harbor and is priced in terms of dollars and cents per gallon.
Gasoline stocks in September 2003 were tight at 145 million barrels, down from 162 million in 2002 and 2001.
www.crbtrader.com /fund/articles/gasoline.asp   (580 words)

  
 Gasoline
Gasoline vapors are heavier than air, they flow invisibly along the ground and can ignite from a flame, hot surface, or static electricity causing a shattering explosion.
Fill the tanks of gasoline powered equipment such as power mowers, when the engines are turned OFF and cold.
Reports also describe fires that resulted while portable gasoline containers were being filled in trunks and passenger compartments of vehicles, when carpeting acted ad an insulator.
www.esdjournal.com /static/pei/Gasoline.htm   (680 words)

  
 A Primer On Gasoline Prices
Gasoline is delivered from oil refineries mainly through pipelines to a massive distribution chain serving 168,987 retail gasoline stations throughout the United States.
Gasoline price increases in recent years have been due in part to OPEC crude oil production cuts, turmoil in key oil producing countries, and problems with petroleum infrastructure (e.g., refineries and pipelines) within the United States.
Gasoline without MTBE is more expensive to produce and requires refineries to change the way they produce and distribute gasoline.
www.eia.doe.gov /pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/primer_on_gasoline_prices/html/petbro.html   (2464 words)

  
 Facts On Fuel
The cost of gasoline at the pump is actually the cost of crude oil plus the cost of refining plus the cost of distribution plus...
Gasoline prices are driven by the realities of global supply and demand for crude oil.
Gasoline is refined from crude oil produced both here in the US and abroad.
factsonfuel.org /gasoline/index.html   (1500 words)

  
 American Petroleum Institute - Gasoline   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Gasoline has become a partner in creating and sustaining the lifestyle of American families.
Reformulated gasoline is a new, cleaner-burning gasoline that helps reduce smog and other air emissions in cities that need the help.
There is a “basic recipe” for gasoline, since it must be used in a variety of vehicles with a broad range of engine types and operating conditions.
api-ec.api.org /environ/index.cfm?bitmask=001003008001000000   (0 words)

  
 Gasoline   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Consumption of gasoline and other oil products is growing around the world, especially in rapidly developing countries such as India and China, which is now the world’s second largest energy user.
Gasoline also appears to be a bargain when you consider what it takes to create it.
Gasoline, however, is different from many other commodities in that consumers cannot easily substitute a less expensive product.
conocophillips.com /newsroom/other_resources/energyanswers/gasoline.htm   (0 words)

  
 Gasoline | Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) | US EPA
MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) is a chemical compound that is manufactured by the chemical reaction of methanol and isobutylene.
RFG is oxygenated gasoline (minimum of 2 percent oxygen by weight) that is specially blended to have fewer polluting compounds than conventional gasoline.
The use of RFG compared to conventional gasoline has resulted in annual reductions of smog-forming pollutants (volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides) and toxics (such as benzene).
www.epa.gov /mtbe/gas.htm   (624 words)

  
 Gasoline
Gasoline demand in the U.S. reached a record high in the first quarter of this year, which has reduced inventories.
WASHINGTON – Rising gasoline prices are a burden on U.S. consumers but they should not be viewed in isolation from the U.S. energy situation and should not lead to federal price controls that could hurt consumers, API Chief Economist John Felmy told a House panel.
There is a “basic recipe” for gasoline, since it must be used in a variety of vehicles with a broad range of engine types and operating conditions.
www.api.org /aboutoilgas/gasoline/index.cfm   (794 words)

  
 USATODAY.com - Most Americans aren't likely to make big cuts in gasoline use   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Americans are unlikely to slice their gasoline use despite high fuel prices — a striking notion viewed against the current clamor for fuel-efficient cars, the buzz about alternatives to gasoline and the anger about sending our petro dollars to hostile but oil-rich countries.
Average gasoline prices range from the equivalent of $6.32 a gallon in France to $7.07 in the Netherlands, according to a survey earlier this month by EIA.
Europeans assume the conservation ethic is correct and universal, and are shocked both by Americans' definition of $3 gasoline as expensive, and by fuel-thirsty vehicles.
www.usatoday.com /money/industries/energy/2006-05-15-conserve-usat_x.htm   (1678 words)

  
 Gasoline Simulation Gallery
The software we are using is the parallel SPH tree-code "Gasoline" developed at the University of Washington, "N-body Shop" by James Wadsley, Joachim Stadel and Tom Quinn.
These Gasoline simulations are the first to demonstrate that framentation of a gas disk around a young star can produce giant gas planets.
It was run using the Gasoline parallel SPH and N-Body code (Wadsley, Stadel and Quinn) with 512 cubed 17 billion solar mass dark matter particles and 512 cubed gas particles.
imp.mcmaster.ca /images   (0 words)

  
 Competition Bureau - Consumer Fact Sheet on Gasoline Prices
It is not the Bureau's mandate to conduct ongoing economic research and analysis of developments in the petroleum sector of the economy.
Given the commodity characteristics of gasoline, commonly published wholesale prices among competitors is a normal practice and insufficient to raise suspicion of conspiracy.
In gasoline retailing, the constant cycle of price changes in a market is actually a sign that the market is competitive.
www.competitionbureau.gc.ca /internet/index.cfm?itemid=1906&lg=e   (0 words)

  
 Why have 9/10 cent gasoline pricing? - Why not volume correct retail sales of gasoline for temperature?
Anyone over 70 years of age might recall when a trip to the service station involved the hand pumping of gasoline by the attendant into a glass cylinder mounted high on the pump to facilitate gravity flow of the requested volume of gasoline into the fuel tank once it was released.
The energy content of a gallon of gasoline purchased by a motorist in Nome, Alaska in January could, theoretically, be as much as 8-10% greater that that of a gallon of gasoline purchased by a motorist in Phoenix, Arizona in July.
Gasoline purchases with a temperature outside the range of 52º F to 68º F, uncorrected for temperature, exceed the allowable dispenser error.
www.users.qwest.net /~taaaz/AZgas.html   (0 words)

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