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Topic: Gender gap

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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  Gender gap - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Though some gender gaps are controversial, they are not to be confused with sexist stereotypes.
A classic example of a gender gap is the supposed difference in pay between men and women for the same job responsibilities.
Some gender gaps favoring females are opposed by masculists.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gender_gap   (631 words)

 Gender Wage Gap
This has served to widen the gender gap because female workers continue to have less labor market experience, on average, than male workers, and are, on average, in lower-paying occupations.
Although no such studies of the effect of policies on the gender pay ratio exist, it is clear that a role for these policy changes cannot be ruled out in both the increase in the gender pay ratio and the other changes that have served to increase the gender pay ratio.
Gender discrimination may take a variety of forms, from practices that reduce the chances that a woman is hired to differences in pay for men and women who work side by side doing the same tasks equally well.
clinton4.nara.gov /WH/EOP/CEA/html/gendergap.html   (4478 words)

 Facts on women candidates and elected officials
Gender gaps among voters were evident in most of the races this year, including the presidential contest as well as Senate, House and gubernatorial elections.
The gender gap in the 2000 presidential race was of the same magnitude as the 11 percentage point gender gap in the 1996 presidential race and much larger than the 4 percentage point gender gap evident in the 1992 presidential race.
A 14 percentage point gender gap was apparent in her race, although a majority of men (51%) as well as women (65%) voted for her.
www.cawp.rutgers.edu /Facts/Elections/gg2000.html   (700 words)

 Facts on women candidates and elected officials
The gender gap remained a notable factor in the 2004 presidential election, according to an analysis of exit poll data by the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University.
The gender gap is evident in almost all segments of the electorate.
The gender gap in voting refers to the difference in the percentage of women and the percentage of men voting for a given candidate.
www.cawp.rutgers.edu /Facts5.html   (543 words)

 Gender Gap, by Claudia Goldin: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
It is not surprising, therefore, that conventional methods of explaining the decrease in the gender gap in earnings—those that rely on changing composition of the female work force by education, potential job experience, occupational skill, and industry—can account for, at most, 20 percent of the increase.
Just as the stability of the earnings gap between 1950 and 1980 was probably due to the large influx of inexperienced women into the labor force, the narrowing of the gap in the eighties may owe to the fact that female participation rates are now exceedingly high.
Whether or not the gap will continue to narrow and eventually disappear is uncertain, and probably depends on the gender gap in time spent in child care and in the home.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/GenderGap.html   (1677 words)

 The Gender Gap in Pension Wealth
To a large extent, the gender gap in pension coverage (which is fairly small to begin with) results from the preponderance of women in low-paying jobs, not differential treatment of women and men with similar job characteristics.
Gender differences in pension wealth on the current job among covered full-time wage and salary workers at midlife are much larger than the observed differences in pension coverage.
The portion of the gender gap in pension wealth that is due to differences in characteristics is said to be the "explained" portion, because that part of the gender gap might be eliminated if men and women had identical observable characteristics.
www.urban.org /Template.cfm?NavMenuID=24&template=/TaggedContent/ViewPublication.cfm&PublicationID=7241   (4311 words)

 Gender gap -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Though some gender gaps are controversial, they are not to be confused with (A man with a chauvinistic belief in the inferiority of women) sexist (A conventional or formulaic conception or image) stereotypes.
Women live slightly longer than men in most countries (a notable exception is (A mountainous landlocked country in central Asia; bordered by Iran to the west and Russia to the north and Pakistan to the east and south) Afghanistan).
Automobile insurance companies charge more for teenage boys than their female counterparts, but this gender gap has narrowed gradually through out the years.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/g/ge/gender_gap.htm   (462 words)

 Gender issues
Gender is defined by the American Heritage Dictionary as "classification of sex." According to this same source, bias is defined as "preference or inclination that inhibits impartiality; prejudice" (American Heritage Dictionary,1983).
Gender bias in technology refers to preference for or favoring of one sex over the other in computer use and/or access, software use and/or manufacturing, and Internet use and content.
Gender bias in the world has its origins in numerous places and it is reinforced in just as many ways.
lrs.ed.uiuc.edu /wp/access/gender.html   (4088 words)

 Welcome to Votes for Women 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Defined as the difference between the proportion of women and the proportion of men voting for the winning candidate, the gender gap was 7 percentage points in 2004, with 48% of women versus 55% of men voting to re-elect President Bush.
The gender gap this year is consistent with other presidential elections, with an average gender gap of 7.7 percentage points from 1980 to 2000.
However, the 2004 gender gap is smaller than the 10-point gap in the 2000 election, when 43% of women versus 53% of men voted for George W. Bush.
www.votesforwomen2004.org /gender.htm   (1901 words)

 Gender Gap   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Similarly, the gender gap is a story designed to convey the idea that a "women's vote" exists in American politics.
Bonk (1988) clearly documents that the term "gender gap" was a deliberate creation of the leaders of the women's movement and forcefully "sold" in "an intensive and continuous effort to give reporters information and documentation on the women's vote" (90).
It is true that there was a substantial gender gap in presidential voting in the 1996 election, with women casting their votes for Clinton in significantly greater numbers than men.
www.ksg.harvard.edu /prg/greenb/gengap.htm   (5747 words)

 News: gender gap in sport
The gender gap in performance reached its nadir (minimum) in the 70s for the 800 m and in the 80s for the other events except the marathon..
The single most powerful explanation for the growth of the gender gap in running is that the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs has declined as a result of this testing program, and that drug use, including anabolic steroid use, has previously benefited female performers more than males.
We conclude that the fall and rise of the gender performance gap in running is largely a consequence of the rise and fall in the illegal use of performance enhancing drugs from the 60s to the 90s.
www.sportsci.org /news/news9705/gengap.html   (1816 words)

 Gender gap myths and legends - The Washington Times: Editorials/OP-ED - December 19, 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
According to the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University, the gender gap is defined as "the difference between the proportion of women and the proportion of men voting for the winning candidate." In his narrow 1976 victory, Jimmy Carter received 50 percent of the votes of both men and women.
Thus, in the last seven presidential campaigns (beginning with the 1980 election when the gender gap was first detected), Republicans have: 1) won five times; 2) lost twice; 3) received more women's votes in three of the elections than their Democratic counterparts got; and 4) won two other campaigns despite receiving fewer women's votes.
Examining the gender phenomenon a bit closer, one cannot help but conclude that removing the racial component from the supposedly Democratic-favoring gender gap explains why the concept deserves to be so discredited.
www.washtimes.com /op-ed/20041218-100132-6503r.htm   (1266 words)

 Ms. Magazine Election 2004 | Why the Gender Gap Matters
Magnifying women’s voting clout is the gender gap — the measurable difference in the way women and men vote for candidates and in the way they view political issues.
The gender gap — first identified by yours truly in 1980 — was initially dismissed in importance by the pundits.
The gender gap is fueled by issues such as women’s rights, abortion rights, human services (education, health care, Social Security), war and gun control.
www.msmagazine.com /fall2004/gendergap.asp   (832 words)

 Feminist Daily News 11/8/2000: Gender Gap Decisive in Election 2000   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The gender gap - the difference between the voting patterns of men and women - proved decisive in presidential, Congressional, and statewide races.
The largest gender gap was in the Delaware race in which Gore won 64% of women's votes, compared with 44% of men's.
The gender gap is fueled by issues such as abortion rights, gun control, military spending, women's rights, and human services.
www.feminist.org /news/newsbyte/uswirestory.asp?id=4507   (548 words)

 U.S. Newswire : Releases : "Gender Gap Persists in the 2004 Election..."   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
NEW BRUNSWICK, N.J., Nov. 5 /U.S. Newswire/ -- The gender gap remained a notable factor in the 2004 presidential election, according to an analysis of exit poll data by the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University.
Defined as the difference between the proportion of women and the proportion of men voting for the winning candidate, the gender gap was 7 percentage points in 2004, with 48 percent of women versus 55 percent of men voting to re-elect President Bush.
However, the 2004 gender gap is smaller than the 10-point gap in the 2000 election, when 43 percent of women versus 53 percent of men voted for George W. Bush.
releases.usnewswire.com /GetRelease.asp?id=39445   (455 words)

 Gender Gap   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
From: SDR@truman.edu, Steven Reschly Suggestion for a discussion starter: One of the most significant factors in the 1996 U.S. General Election was the so-called "Gender Gap." The final gap, in figures I have seen, was 16 points--54% of female voters voted for Clinton and 38% for Dole.
That gap was not much noticed at the time--not at all noticed by historians--and occurred at a time when women's voter registration and turnout was lower.
The gap was first noticed by Reagan pollster Richard Wirthlin in l979, picked up by Abzug after the l980 election, and then "named" by a Washington Post reporter in l982.
webpub.alleg.edu /employee/a/acarr/gap.html   (2886 words)

 [No title]
And the gap is still significant in the college-aged population: For every 100 young men earning BAs, 133 young women do.
But with a complex subject like gender and achievement it is difficult to identify where the problem begins.
Many researchers believe that in spite of their many intellectual strengths, boys as a group are at a definite disadvantage in the typical early elementary school curriculum.
teacher.scholastic.com /products/instructor/Mar04_gendergap.htm   (1356 words)

 Regional Economist -- Economic Background Article
Many believe that the wage gap is a good measure of the extent of gender wage discrimination, which occurs when men and women are not paid equal wages for substantially equal work.
This study was relied upon in a recent analysis of the gender wage gap by the President's Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), which was subsequently cited by Director Garza in her statement to Congress.
Perhaps the gender wage gap is most useful as an indicator of changes in the underlying expectations and social norms that drive men's and women's career and workforce decisions, which themselves may be affected by other types of gender discrimination.
www.stlouisfed.org /publications/re/2000/d/pages/economic-backgnd.html   (1277 words)

 PAI: Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Educating Girls: Gender Gaps and Gains analyzes girls participation in primary and secondary education in 87 developing countries, 29 developed countries, and 16 former Soviet and Yugoslav republics.
This gender gap is smaller than the difference between the total number of boys and girls enrolled in school.
The study measures the gender gap only in those countries with a significant difference between girls and boys enrollment rates; some countries reflected in the global totals are also excluded from the study owing to inadequate data.
www.populationaction.org /resources/publications/educating_girls/ggap_find06.htm   (315 words)

 Wired News: Computing the Geek Gender Gap   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The widening gap in women's interest in computing careers could be a reaction to the survey's use of the term 'programmer,' Fisher said.
The gender gap in computing confidence also exists among the group of women who would appear to be the most secure in their technical skills: computer science majors.
According to researchers at the Carnegie Mellon Project on Gender and Computer Science who analyzed four years of interviews with male and female computer science majors, female students tend to underestimate their abilities far more than male students.
www.wired.com /news/print/0,1294,41399,00.html   (1046 words)

 Gender Gap
As for innate differences in ability, much scholarship addresses gender variations in test scores and their predictive power for subsequent college studies, career choices, or professional performance for boys or girls.
Their final chapter, included in the briefing materials, concludes that "gender differences in neither average nor high achievement in mathematics explain young men's higher likelihood of majoring in [science and engineering] fields in college relative to young women."
There were extensive reports on the research findings about the basis for gender differences in mathematics skill -- and whether those differences are innate or social constructions, fixed or mutable, apparent in other countries or cultures, or consequential.
www.harvard-magazine.com /on-line/030555.html   (1593 words)

 Feminist Daily News 11/1/2004: Experts Clarify the Gender Gap
The gender gap is the measurable difference in the way women and men vote and perceive issues; it is not the differences among women.
The gender gap was first discovered in 1980 by Eleanor Smeal, president of the Feminist Majority Foundation and then-president of the National Organization for Women, and she has popularized its usage in election and polling analyses to enhance women’s voting clout.
Moreover, in 16 of the 21 states Gore won in electoral votes, his victory was because of the gender gap and women’s votes.
www.feminist.org /news/newsbyte/uswirestory.asp?id=8721   (422 words)

 [No title]
This shows that the association of jobs with gender (e.g., grammar school teachers, nurses and secretaries are women; soldiers, farmers and auto mechanics are men) is simply the product of culturally relative, man-made choices which can be undone by conscious choice and should be undone if injustice is the result.
At first glance, the controversy seems to be evidence of a gender gap, a gulf of misunderstanding between men and women.
The doctrine gap, though not a true gender gap, does appear to be something of a generation gap.
www.ewtn.com /library/ISSUES/GENDGAP.TXT   (3499 words)

 USATODAY.com - 'Til politics do us part: Gender gap widens   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
A modest gender gap among Americans who don't have college educations balloons for those with a college degree or more.
Bush's "compassionate conservative" appeal in 2000 was targeted to white-collar women worried about the impact of his agenda on the vulnerable, though a record gender gap indicates he had limited success.
For those who had taken some college courses but not graduated, that gender gap grew to 15 percentage points.
www.usatoday.com /news/nation/2003-12-17-gendergap-cover_x.htm   (1707 words)

 News - Dwindling Gender Gap Sparks Entrepreneurial Spirit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Chamlou, the World Bank's lead coordinator on gender for the Middle East and North Africa region, says—contrary to popular belief—women in the region have been successful in bridging the gender gap in education and health.
The region as a whole has spent significantly more than other regions in the world on health and education—so women are now living longer and the gender gap in education has closed dramatically.
The participation of women in the workforce in the MENA region is among the lowest in the world—making it one of the key gender challenges for the region.
web.worldbank.org /WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20365536~pagePK:34370~piPK:42768~theSitePK:4607,00.html   (853 words)

 CBC News Indepth: Gender Gap
The gender gap in literacy is significant; it's growing, and some boys may never catch up.
On average in developed countries, the gender gap is around 15 per cent.
So the gender gap in reading is greater than the gap for math problem solving ever was.
www.cbc.ca /news/background/gendergap   (1731 words)

 Gender Wage Gap -- Male-Female Pay Difference
Other commentators state confidently that the gap does not reflect discrimination, but other factors, such as the high wages of a few white men, and gendered patterns of occupational and educational choice and work experience.
However, there is no evidence that the gender gap in wages closes at higher levels of education.
For example, the gap widened in the 1960s, closed a little in the 1980s, and widened slightly in the late 1990s.
www.womensmedia.com /new/Lips-Hilary-gender-wage-gap.shtml   (1317 words)

 Gender and Society: A Matter of Nature or Nurture?
Unlike sex, which is a biological concept, gender is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow.
Matters of gender are scattered throughout these pages, including gender differences in household duties, in in voting during the 1996 Presidential election, and in suicide rates cross-nationally.
Gender biases and stereotypes are amply reinforced in the mass media.
www.trinity.edu /~mkearl/gender.html   (1813 words)

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