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Topic: Gene conversion

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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  BioMed Central | Full text | Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats
Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.
Inverted paralogous repeats are responsible for the inversion of a portion of the factor VIII gene that causes hemophilia [7].
The first model assumes a random initiation of gene conversion along the sequence followed by branch migration that results in a geometric distribution of converted sequence, with a mean length of 353 bp [19], and is abbreviated as HI994.
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2164/2/11   (4091 words)

 W. Engels, recent paper abstracts
The distribution of conversion tract endpoints was indistinguishable from the distribution of crossover points among the non rearranged male recombinants.
The distribution of conversion tracts was found to be largely unaffected by changes in the length of sequence homology between the broken ends and the template, suggesting that only a short match is required.
The process is similar to gene conversion in its requirement for a homolog that is wild type at the insertion site, and in its reduced frequency when pairing between the homologs is inhibited.
engels.genetics.wisc.edu /abstracts.html   (2975 words)

This performance depends on many nuclear genes, so the use and refinement of language evolved most rapidly in groups of humans in which the variation of the sequence of each nuclear gene (comparing individual with individual in the group) was low and stayed low as generation followed generation.
I suggest that it was a biased form of 'gene conversion', in which mismatched pairs of bases in the heteroduplex segments formed during meiosis are repaired.
The first class comprises the many alleles of the histocompatibility genes, which must be present in the gene pool of a species to ensure its survival in spite of the presence in its environment of any of various parasites.
www.geocities.com /acgyles/minid.html   (1927 words)

 mtRecomGHSeq   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Populations that migrate and migrate again serially dilute diversity to the point that allelic diversity as a template for recombination is reduced to point the affects of gene conversion would be almost undetectable.
But this has to be kept in mind, conversion has an optimal 'similarity' range, which is tradeoff between the number of residues that might be converted, and inhibition of recombination due to seqeunce dissimilarity.
It has been said that conversion happens most frequently on identical sections of DNA, thus the product is unseeable, if a single position is converted it is indistinquishable from a reverse or parallel mutation, therefore we can only detect gene conversion if 2 or more residues are converted.
home.att.net /~DNAPaleoAnth/mtDNAgeneconv.html   (1676 words)

 Gene Conversion Tracts from Double-Strand Break Repair in Mammalian Cells -- Elliott et al. 18 (1): 93 -- Molecular and ...
Gene conversion tracts extending to the last incorporated mutation and mixed conversion tracts (along with the two classes constituting them) are shown for each of the recombinants.
A summary of the gene conversions in the recombinant clones from the three heterologous substrate plasmids is shown in Fig.
gene on the cleaved chromosome and the complementary strand of
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/18/1/93   (6588 words)

 DNA Repair
The genes for two of them are designated CSA and CSB (mutations in them cause an inherited disorder called Cockayne's syndrome).
If the sequence used as a template for repairing a gene by homologous recombination differs slightly from the gene needing repair; that is, is an allele, the repaired gene will acquire the donor sequence.
Gene conversion during meiosis alters the normal mendelian ratios.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/D/DNArepair.html   (1888 words)

 Genetics Glossary GH   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Gene fusions can give rise to hybrid proteins or to the misregulation of the transcription of one gene by the cis regulatory elements (enhancers) of another.
The structure of the gene analyzed at the level of the smallest units of recombination and mutation (nucleotides).
A type of gene conversion that is inferred from the existence of non-identical sister spores in a fungal octad showing a non-Mendelian allele ratio.
helios.bto.ed.ac.uk /bto/glossary/gh.htm   (3201 words)

 Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes : Article : Nature
This finding is readily explained by gene conversion in a C/T chromosome—the ancestral chromosome for this cluster—replacing the C in one arm of palindrome P1 with the T in the other arm.
The inferred kinetics of gene conversion in MSY palindromes is especially striking because the MSY was previously viewed as recombinationally inert under normal circumstances: it was known previously as the non-recombining region, or NRY.
Given the abundance of gene conversion in palindromes, we infer that Y–Y gene conversion has accompanied and shaped the evolution of multi-copy testis gene families in the MSY.
www.nature.com /uidfinder/10.1038/nature01723   (3132 words)

 evidence of stasis
This extra gene is at first inactive, only after undergoing some mutations and becoming ready for new functions does the process of protein degradation begin by which the new gene is eliminated.
Recent studies show that gene conversion is a very common in various genomes, and there is evidence that duplicated genes are homogenized by gene conversion(s).
Actually, an average gene mutates at the rate 10-5 per generation and according to the experiments the frequency of gene conversion is about 10-2 per generation.
krishnascience.com /3_Stasis_2.html   (2300 words)

 Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes : Article : Nature
Fifteen gene and transcript families have been identified in the palindrome arms (none in the spacers), and all seem to be expressed predominantly or exclusively in testes
Similar to the palindrome arms in which they reside, these gene families are characterized by extremely low sequence divergence between the copies found in a single Y chromosome.
This could explain the observation, as reported in the accompanying paper, that intact testis-specific genes tend to be located in palindrome arms whereas non-functional copies of these genes seem to be distributed randomly (see Table 4 in ref. 1).
www.nature.com /nature/journal/v423/n6942/full/nature01723.html   (3132 words)

 Limited contribution of interchromosomal gene conversion to NF1 gene mutation -- Luijten et al. 38 (7): 481 -- Journal ...
The NF1 gene, a tumour suppressor gene, resides on the proximal
Gene conversion requires close contact between the functional gene and the corresponding pseudogene.
The maximum length of the corresponding segments of the functional gene of the NF1 pseudogenes on chromosomes 2 and 14 is denoted by a dashed line.
jmg.bmj.com /cgi/content/full/38/7/481   (1942 words)

 gene conversion
gene conversion A process, often associated with recombination, during which one allele is replicated at the expense of another, leading to non-Mendelian segregation ratios.(From Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture)
They demonstrate how gene conversion was critical for shaping the genetic diversity of this region in humans.
These include gene conversion, recruitment of genes to new functions (responsible for creating the antifreeze glycoproteins that allow fish to live in frigid...
www.mongabay.com /igapo/biotech/gene_conversion.html   (174 words)

 Y chromosome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Over time, genes which were beneficial for males and harmful to (or had no effect on) females either moved to or developed on the Y chromosome.
These harmful mutations continued to damage Y-unique genes until several finally stopped functioning and became genetic junk; this was eventually removed from the Y chromosome.
The extensive use of gene conversion may play a role in the ability of the Y chromosome to edit out genetic mistakes and maintain the integrity of the relatively few genes it carries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Y_chromosome   (1754 words)

 Gene Conversion Is Strongly Induced in Human Cells by Double-strand Breaks and Is Modulated by the Expression of BCL-xL ...
Gene Conversion Is Strongly Induced in Human Cells by Double-strand Breaks and Is Modulated by the Expression of BCL-xL -- Wiese et al.
Gene Conversion Is Strongly Induced in Human Cells by Double-strand Breaks and Is Modulated by the Expression of BCL-x
A, spontaneous gene conversion in TK6-neo and TK6-bcl-x
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/62/5/1279   (3855 words)

 Gene Conversion of Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes in the Mouse Spermatogenesis is a Premeiotic Event -- ...
Gene conversion means an unidirectional transfer of genetic information from one DNA molecule to a homologous counterpart.
Becker, R.S., and Knight, K.L. Somatic diversification of immunoglobulin heavy chain VDJ genes: evidence for somatic gene conversion in rabbits.
Högstrand, K., and Böhme, J. A determination of the frequency of gene conversion in unmanipulated mouse sperm.
www.molbiolcell.org /cgi/content/full/8/12/2511   (3768 words)

 Gene Conversion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Gene conversion is a nonreciprocal transfer of genetic information.
The following figure illustrates the difference between gene conversion and DNA crossover.
An origin of gene conversion is explanined in Figure 8-D-5.
www.web-books.com /MoBio/Free/Ch8D4.htm   (96 words)

 Heterogeneous Macrolide Resistance and Gene Conversion in the Pneumococcus -- Wolter et al. 50 (1): 359 -- ...
Heterogeneous Macrolide Resistance and Gene Conversion in the Pneumococcus -- Wolter et al.
Heterogeneous Macrolide Resistance and Gene Conversion in the Pneumococcus
RecA-mediated gene conversion and aminoglycoside resistance in strains heterozygous for rRNA.
aac.asm.org /cgi/content/full/50/1/359   (1922 words)

 SMN1 - survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric - Genetics Home Reference
The SMN1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called SMN, which stands for "survival of motor neuron." The SMN protein is found throughout the body, with high levels in the spinal cord.
This protein is particularly important for the survival of specialized nerve cells, called motor neurons, located in the spinal cord and the part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord (the brainstem).
The SMN1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 5 at position 13.
ghr.nlm.nih.gov /gene=smn1   (952 words)

 Hot Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
During the meeting it was agreed that a method of naming CNV genes was required and several suggestions were made for how this could be achieved.
The nomenclature of these 'complex' loci has previously been dealt with on a case-by-case basis; however, as more such genes are identified, the HGNC would like to determine if a standard approach would be of benefit to the scientific community.
There are 150-300 copies of ribosomal genes in the human genome that are homogenised by concerted evolution, recombination and gene conversion.
www.gene.ucl.ac.uk /nomenclature/hot_topic_vcn.html   (494 words)

 A Double-Strand Break in a Chromosomal LINE Element Can Be Repaired by Gene Conversion with Various Endogenous LINE ...
The conversion tracts of the 32 gene conversion events that were identified in this study are presented in Table 1.
Rapid amplification of a retrotransposon subfamily is evolving in the mouse genome.
Gene conversion tracts from double-strand break repair in mammalian cells.
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/20/1/54   (4345 words)

 The Effect of Gene Conversion on the Divergence Between Duplicated Genes -- Teshima and Innan 166 (3): 1553 -- Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Gene conversion transfers a DNA fragment from one to the other.
Gene conversion II in Fig 2 consists of a
Gene conversion is simulated assuming the length of the conversion
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/166/3/1553   (3402 words)

 Gene Conversion (Recombination) Mediates Expansions of CTG{middle dot}CAG Repeats -- Jakupciak and Wells 275 (51): ...
pRW4015 and pRW4011), the relative locations of the origin of replication (Ori), the antibiotic resistance gene, and the TRS are identical except that the orientation of the repeat sequence is switched from orientation I to orientation II.
Gene Conversion Is the Recombination Mechanism-- The mechanism of recombination responsible for generating the observed multiple fold expansions was determined.
The gene conversion (recombinational repair) mechanism responsible for the repeat tract expansions is modeled in Fig.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/275/51/40003   (7773 words)

 SMN2 - survival of motor neuron 2, centromeric - Genetics Home Reference
The SMN2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called SMN, which stands for "survival of motor neuron." The SMN protein is found throughout the body, with high levels in the spinal cord.
The full-size SMN protein made from the SMN2 gene is identical to the protein made from a similar gene called SMN1.
The SMN2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 5 at position 13.
ghr.nlm.nih.gov /gene=smn2   (878 words)

 Pathology of Degenerative CNS Diseases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Less than 1% of early onset AD cases are linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 21 (which may explain the appearance of Alzheimer's disease in persons with Down syndrome surviving to middle age) which affects amyloid precursor protein (APP), resulting in fibrillar aggregates of beta-amyloid that is toxic to neurons.
The rare familial forms of Parkinson's disease include an autosomal dominant form with mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene and an autosomal recessive form with mutations in the ubiquitin-protein ligase (parkin) gene.
The agent associated with CJD appears to be a prion protein (PrP), a neuronal cell surface sialoglycoprotein that is encoded by a gene on chromosome 20.
www-medlib.med.utah.edu /WebPath/TUTORIAL/CNS/CNSDG.html   (3226 words)

 Gene Conversion by Synthesis Dependent Strand Annealing
one-half) of gene conversion events should be associated with crossing over of flanking sequences, providing that the resolution enzymes themselves are unbiased.
Greater than 40% of the gene conversions were accompanied by contractions or expansions.
Gene conversion associated with crossing over can be scored as the formation of a chromosomal rearrangement (reciprocal translocation).
www.bio.brandeis.edu /haberlab/jehsite/sdsa.html   (468 words)

 Intronless homing: site-specific endonuclease SegF of bacteriophage T4 mediates localized marker exclusion analogous to ...
that its pattern of inheritance is a consequence of gene conversion
The coconversion of markers in gene 56 (*) is close to 100%.
Jacquier, A. and Dujon, B. An intron-encoded protein is active in a gene conversion process that spreads an intron into a mitochondrial gene.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/16/3/351   (7227 words)

 GeneDx :: Tests :: Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome
Gene conversion mutations involving the pseudogene account for approximately 75% of the alleles associated with SBDS, with 89% of affected individuals carrying one converted allele and 60% carrying two alleles.
Thus, primers have been designed to amplify the region of the gene encompassing the true exon 2-3 region, as opposed to the homologous portion of the pseudogene.
Primers for the remainder of the gene were also designed to specifically amplify only the transcribed gene.
www.genedx.com /services/dis_shw.php   (258 words)

 [No title]
About 95% of the cases of CAH are due to a limited number of mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (21-OH or CYP21 - also known as P450C21B).
Most of the pathogenic CYP21 mutations are found in the pseudogene, hence, it is assumed that gene conversion is a common mutational mechanism in CAH (see below).
CompGene's strategy for molecular diagnosis of CAH first uses a Southern blot analysis with a 21-OH cDNA probe and the restriction endonucleases Taq I and a double digest with Eco RI/Bgl II.
www.compgene.com /cah.htm   (884 words)

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