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Topic: Gene expression

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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  Cell-Specific Gene Expression
For example, expression of the insulin gene in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans can be monitored by measuring the level of insulin in the blood.
With gene splicing, the promoter of a gene whose expression you wish to monitor can be coupled to the coding sequence of a chosen "reporter" gene.
This is done by fusing the gene for GFP to the gene whose expression you are interested in.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/R/ReporterGenes.html   (1046 words)

  Gene expression - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a gene's DNA sequence is converted into the structures and functions of a cell.
An inducible gene is a gene whose expression is either responsive to environmental change or dependent on the position of the cell cycle.
Genes have sometimes been regarded as nodes in a network, with inputs being proteins such as transcription factors, and outputs being the level of gene expression.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gene_expression   (736 words)

 Control of Gene Expression
As with the majority of prokaryotic genes, initiation is controlled by two DNA sequence elements that are approximately 35 bases and 10 bases, respectively, upstream of the site of transcriptional initiation and as such are identified as the -35 and -10 positions.
Since the activity of the trp repressor is enhanced in the presence of tryptophan, the rate of expression of the trp operon is graded in response to the level of tryptophan in the cell.
The tructural genes of the operon responsible for tryptophan biosynthesis are trpE, D, C, B and A.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html   (3248 words)

 Control of Gene Expression
The coordination of each of them is needed to ensure the predictability of gene expression patterns and the homeostasis that is required for the survival of the organism.
Research dealing with the control of gene expression is often focussed on the initiation of transcription or translation; however, it is recognized that many other processes such as signal transduction, protein trafficking and protein folding are vital for controlling the patterns of expression observed for any gene.
Despite the narrow base of gene expression technology being practiced the potential for exploiting unexplored yet fundamental processes involved in control of gene expression is enormous.
res2.agr.ca /ecorc/section2/expression_e.htm   (386 words)

 DIMACS Workshop on Analysis of Gene Expression Data
Normalization, (to enable comparisons between chips), is performed by scaling the gene expression levels of one chip to a control microarray, to a control target intensity, or to another color standard (in the case of printed microarrays).
The expression level of each gene can be used as a feature influencing the clustering or classification of clinical samples, but usually a clustering or classification rule is biologically plausible, comprehensible and robust only if it is based on a relatively small number of informative features.
Classified gene expression data consists of tissue samples (for which expression profiles are measured) that are labeled as belonging to certain classes (such as tumor or normal, particular kinds of tumors, phase, differentiation stage, etc).
dimacs.rutgers.edu /Workshops/GeneExpression/abstracts.html   (6025 words)

 Gene Expression [M.Tevfik DORAK]
Genes are transcribed from 5' to the 3' of the sense/coding strand by RNA polymerase II.
Conversely, genes are often turned off by the condensation of chromatin surrounding a particular gene, and the inhibition of RNA polymerase and transcription factor binding.
Myotonic dystrophy is a disease caused by the expansion of the triplet repeats in the 3' UTR of a protein kinase gene, DMPK.
members.tripod.com /~dorakmt/genetics/notes04.html   (6181 words)

 Pharmaceutical Gene expression & protein expression glossary
Gene expression profiling has the potential to be used for differentiating types of cancer (and other diseases) that appear identical to pathologists today.
A shift in gene expression that occurs when cells are transferred from a rich medium to a poorer medium, or when cells in a rich medium grow and deplete their medium of nutrients.
Gene shaving differs from hierarchical clustering and other widely used methods for analyzing gene expression studies in that genes may belong to more than one cluster, and the clustering may be supervised by an outcome measure.
www.genomicglossaries.com /content/ex_bio.asp   (7399 words)

 Gene Control
The operon model of prokaryotic gene regulation was proposed by Fancois Jacob and Jacques Monod.
The resistance genes appear to operate by either breaking down the antibiotics or by circumventing the block the antibiotic places on a key bacterial metabolic pathway.
Genes incorporated in a complex transposon are known as jumping genes since they can move about on the chromosome (even from chromosome to chromosome).
www.emc.maricopa.edu /faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookGENCTRL.html   (2832 words)

 Gene Expression and Regulation
The regulated expression of genes is critical for all forms of life to effectively survive and thrive in their environment.
Gene expression may change in response to physical signals from the environment, interactions between species, and signals within an organism.
The approaches to study gene expression and regulation vary from the atomic level to the molecular level to the population level, and this depth of examination is reflected in the research groups composing this area of the MSU Genetics Program.
www.ns.msu.edu /genetics/ResearchAreas/geneexpression.htm   (749 words)

 Gene Expression Profiling
The correlation of transcript profiles, probe clustering, and expression patterns in a particular tissue or developmental stage may help to assign biological relevance to many of the unknown genes.
SAGE analyses have already been used to study gene expression in plant systems.12-13 Among the high-throughput, comprehensive technological methods used to analyze transcript expression levels, array-based hybridization and SAGE are currently the most common approaches.
Genes for many of these transcripts are in the phytochrome signaling and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, both of which were previously described as UV-inducible.
www.noble.org /medicago/GEP.html   (778 words)

 ISMB 2001 Poster Abstracts: Gene Expression
Genes that have a similar expression profile, are hypothesized to have a higher probability of being coregulated.
Gene expression data produced by DNA microarray technology can be processed through unsupervised machine learning methods, using clustering algorithms to group together similar expression patterns corresponding to different tissues in order to separate cancerous from normal samples.
The sensitivity upon the different genes is determined by the absolute value of the partial derivative of the output with respect to the gene expressions, averaged over samples and ANN models.
ismb01.cbs.dtu.dk /GeneExpression.html   (17687 words)

 Gene Expression [M.Tevfik DORAK]
Genes are transcribed from 5' to the 3' of the sense/coding strand by RNA polymerase II.
Genes that show random allelic inactivation include olfactory receptor genes, and the various genes encoding antigen receptors on lymphocytes (immunoglobulin genes, T cell receptor genes and NK receptor genes (see NK Cell Receptors)).
Such noise (random gene expression levels) can be generated by (1) variability among microarrays, (2) variability in RNA labelling and hybridisation methods, and perhaps most importantly, (3) biological variability among samples.
www.dorak.info /genetics/notes04.html   (6165 words)

 --Gene Expression - The Jackson Laboratory
Statistical analysis of a gene expression microarray experiment with replication
Gene expression technology has seduced the genomics community with its power and promise to unravel the genetic program.
Our first priority will be to establish baseline quality measures for expression data and then to develop a flexible storage and retrieval system.
www.jax.org /staff/churchill/labsite/research/expression/index.html   (363 words)

 AMG Lecture 15
Assuming that the reporter gene assays will be performed under conditions where the steady-state levels of mRNA and protein are directly correlated, reporter genes must also meet several other criteria if they are going to be reliable and useful for promoter mapping studies.
This bacterial enzyme is one of the most versatile reporter genes available because b-gal enzyme activity can both be measured in cell extracts using a spectroscopic assay that detects cleavage of ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-b-D-galactopyranoside), and by histocytochemical methods that measure the appearance of a blue precipitate produced from the cleavage of X-gal.
For many types of gene expression assays, it is possible to transfect cell lines with an appropriate reporter gene, and then collect the data 24-48 hours later.
www.biochem.arizona.edu /classes/bioc471/pages/Lecture15/Lecture15.html   (2689 words)

 Gene Expression Analysis
To allow comparison of genes from one filter to the next, it is often useful to spike the labeling reaction with some foreign RNA or DNA that is not normally in the RNA population.
In this case, ratio to the control genes is used to determine signal strength for each gene spot on the array.
Now compare each gene vector in the data set to each of these random vectors and place the gene into that node to which the gene is most similar.
www.dartmouth.edu /~cbbc/courses/bio68/notes/GeneExpression.html   (3360 words)

 Roche NimbleGen | Gene Expression | Product Info
NimbleGen microarrays and services for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes are the gene expression platform of choice as evidenced by a growing list of scientific publications.
Currently all arrays on a gene expression multiplex array have identical designs.
Gene calls are generated using the Robust Multichip Average (RMA) algorithm.
www.nimblegen.com /products/exp   (2192 words)

In eukaryotes, this requires — at least for protein-encoding genes — that the nucleosomes in front of the advancing RNA polymerase (RNAP II) be removed.
DNA transcription of the genes for mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA produces large precursor molecules ("primary transcripts") that must be processed within the nucleus to produce the functional molecules for export to the cytosol.
In decoding the open reading frame of a gene for a known protein, one usually encounters periodic stretches of DNA calling for amino acids that do not occur in the actual protein product of that gene.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Transcription.html   (2241 words)

 Gene expression definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Gene expression: The translation of information encoded in a gene into protein or RNA.
Expressed genes include genes that are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) and then translated into protein, as well as genes that are transcribed into types of RNA such as transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that are not translated into protein.
Gene expression is a highly specific process in which a gene is switched on at a certain time and "speaks out."
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3564   (201 words)

 Roche NimbleGen | Gene Expression | Product Info
For gene expression analysis, long oligos (60mer) provide superior signal-to-noise ratio, increased sensitivity, specificity, and discrimination, particularly in complex eukaryotic genomes.
Developed in collaboration with DNASTAR, ArrayStarâ„¢ v2.0 expression analysis software enables easy and effective analysis of gene expression levels on a genome-wide basis.
NimbleGen provides gene expression values in calls file that can be conveniently imported into multiple gene expression analysis software such as ArrayStar (DNAStar).
www.nimblegen.com /products/exp/index.html   (2192 words)

 Science Functional Genomics Resources: Gene Expression
The burgeoning field of gene expression and microarrays has spawned an immense number of online resources and Web sites.
Microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) Society -- International organisation of biologists, computer scientists, and data analysts that aims to facilitate the sharing of microarray data generated by functional genomics and proteomics experiments
Gene expression analysis tool, based on pattern-matching algorithm Tieresias, from the IBM Bioinformatics and Pattern Discovery Group
www.sciencemag.org /feature/plus/sfg/resources/res_expression.dtl   (820 words)

 NIDA Genetics Workgroup: Gene Expression
Microarray Gene Expression Data Society - MGED Society The Microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) Society is an international organisation of biologists, computer scientists, and data analysts that aims to facilitate the sharing of microarray data generated by functional genomics and proteomics experiments.
G ene E xpression O mnibus (GEO) - is a high-throughput gene expression / molecular abundance data repository, as well as a curated, online resource for gene expression data browsing, query and retrieval.
This project aims to be a quantitative and comprehensive atlas of gene expression in mouse development.
www.nida.nih.gov /about/organization/Genetics/geneexpression/index.html   (406 words)

 Gene Expression
The couple produced 11 embryos, of which five were found to be free from the gene.
We know, for example, the genes which control variation in skin color to a first approximation at this point.
It also seems that we've zeroed in on the primary gene responsible for eye color variation.
www.scienceblogs.com /gnxp   (1607 words)

 Gene Expression
The Gene Expression Group at SHGC studies a number of interesting human phenotypes and complex diseases at the level of gene expression.
Analysis of gene expression changes in human brains associated with major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia
Study of natural variation and genetic influence of gene expression in cell lines from genetically related people such as twins, sibs, and parents
www-shgc.stanford.edu /expression/index.html   (135 words)

 TaqMan® Gene Expression Assay Solutions
Over 800,000 pre-designed TaqMan® Assays for quantitative gene expression in 9 species, learn more or search for assays
TaqMan® Custom Arrays are ideal for microarray validation or other large-scale studies, learn more or customize an array with inventoried TaqMan Gene Expression Assays
TaqMan® Gene Signature Arrays are economical, pre-configured arrays containing TaqMan Gene Expression Assay sets
marketing.appliedbiosystems.com /mk/get/0905_ALLGENE_LANDING?isource=fr_E_Gemini_Microsite   (243 words)

 Geneservice Ltd - Contract Research - Gene Expression
RNA profiling for identifying novel and/or validating known genes that are expressed in a particular cell type, at a given time or under a certain condition.
The TaqMan® Low Density Arrays enable researchers to carry out medium-scale gene expression studies by performing 384 simultaneous real-time PCR reactions on the same array.
This methodology allows profiling tens of thousands of genes with subsequent screening for molecular or cellular phenotypes in a co-ordinated set of experiments.
www.geneservice.co.uk /services/geneexpression   (102 words)

 MGI_3.51 - Gene Expression Menu
Search for references on gene expression during development, including genes and ages analyzed and assays used.
Search for detailed gene expression assay results using a choice of search parameters.
Search for genes expressed in some anatomical structures and/or developmental stages but not in others.
www.informatics.jax.org /menus/expression_menu.shtml   (114 words)

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