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Topic: General relativity

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  General relativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In general relativity, phenomena that in classical mechanics are ascribed to the action of the force of gravity (such as free-fall, orbital motion, and spacecraft trajectories) are taken in general relativity to represent inertial motion in a curved spacetime.
General relativity generalizes the geodesic equation and the field equation to the relativistic realm in which trajectories in space are replaced with Fermi-Walker transport along world lines in spacetime.
General relativity was developed by Einstein in a process that began in 1907 with the publication of an article on the influence of gravity and acceleration on the behavior of light in special relativity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/General_relativity   (5386 words)

 General Relativity
General relativity is a theory of gravitation and to understand the background to the theory we have to look at how theories of gravitation developed.
This assumption extends the principle of relativity to the case of uniformly accelerated motion of the reference frame.
The final steps to the theory of general relativity were taken by Einstein and Hilbert at almost the same time.
members.tripod.com /prems/general.html   (1940 words)

 General Relativity
General relativity is also referred to as "The General Theory of Relativity." It was initially presented in a paper by Albert Einstein in 1915.
In the same way, ten years earlier, Einstein proposed The Theory of Special Relativity with the primary thrust of eliminating the concept of a fixed reference frame in favor of relative inertial frames in conjunction with the newly learned fact that the speed of light was a constant when measured in any inertial reference frame.
Although the earth with its low gravitational field is at one end of the spectrum, fl holes predicted by general relativity and observed in space have extremely high gravity and are at the other end of the spectrum.
www.allaboutscience.org /general-relativity-faq.htm   (819 words)

 NOVA | Einstein's Big Idea | Relativity (Lightman Essay) | PBS
The key idea of general relativity, called the equivalence principle, is that gravity pulling in one direction is completely equivalent to an acceleration in the opposite direction.
Many of the predictions of general relativity, such as the bending of starlight by gravity and a tiny shift in the orbit of the planet Mercury, have been quantitatively confirmed by experiment.
General relativity may be the biggest leap of the scientific imagination in history.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/einstein/relativity   (1248 words)

 Early Philosophical Interpretations of General Relativity
A cornerstone of Reichenbach's "logical analysis" of the theory of general relativity is the thesis of "the relativity of geometry", that an arbitrary geometry may be ascribed to spacetime (holding constant the underlying topology) if the laws of physics are correspondingly modified through the introduction of "universal forces".
Relativity theory itself is a shining exemplar of this method for it has shown that the metric of spacetime describes an "objective property" of the world, once the subjective freedom to make coordinate transformations (the coordinating principle of general covariance) is recognized (1920, 86-7; 1965, 90).
Despite the influence of this argument on the subsequent generation of philosophers of science, Reichenbach's analysis of spacetime measurement treatment is plainly inappropriate, manifesting a fallacious tendency to view the generically curved spacetimes of general relativity as stiched together from little bits of flat Minskowski spacetimes.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/genrel-early   (11416 words)

 General Relativity
While special relativity was primarily concerned with submicroscopic physics, general relativity was concerned with the macroscopic effects of gravitation, the realm of astrophysics and cosmology.
Because General Relativity was meant to accommodate all possible situations, describing all the ways space and time are changing at a given point, the mathematics behind it are extremely tedious and difficult.
General Relativity was tested in many ways, one of the most significant of which was finding real-world examples.
leiwen.tripod.com /genrela.htm   (1818 words)

 General Relativity
This is a basic postulate of the Theory of General Relativity.
When "generalized" to include gravitation, the equations of relativity predict that gravity, or the curvature of spacetime by matter, not only stretches or shrinks distances (depending on their direction with respect to the gravitational field) but also w ill appear to slow down or "dilate" the flow of time.
In the decade after its publication in 1916, Einstein's Theory of General Relativity led to a burst of experimental activity in which many of its predictions were vindicated.
archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu /Cyberia/NumRel/GenRelativity.html   (683 words)

 MAGIC throught two MILLENNIA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Clocks 1 and 3 are not moving relative to one another (there is some rotation involved, but their relative position in space does not change with time); thus, as far as Special Relativity is concerned, they keep the same time.
Both Special and General Relativity predict the slowing down of clocks under certain circumstances, and experiments to test the predictions of either theory must take account of the predictions of the other, since the effects of both theories are often present.
General Relativity predicts that clocks in greater gravitational fields will run more slowly than those in weaker gravitational fields; thus an atomic clock in a higher gravitational field will emit light of a lower frequency compared to a clock in a lower gravitational field.
www.upscale.utoronto.ca /GeneralInterest/Key/relgen.htm   (2122 words)

 Curious About Astronomy? The Theory of Relativity
The theory of relativity is perhaps the most successful development in the history of science in terms of its agreement with experimental results and its ability to predict new phenomena - only quantum mechanics can claim to compete with its success.
Einstein's theory immediately explained some of the major problems in the physics and astronomy of his day, and it has continued to explain new developments that were not even hinted at 90 years ago, including the existence of fl holes and recent observations in cosmology.
The theory of relativity is required whenever we study objects that are either (a) moving in a strong gravitational field, or (b) moving near the speed of light.
curious.astro.cornell.edu /relativity.php   (2810 words)

 General Relativity: Einstein: Physics
This paper is a brief introduction to the ideas of Einstein's general theory of relativity, one of the cornerstones of modern physics.
, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is in general not
As we know from special relativity, the time it takes for a sequence of events to occur can be different from the point of view of different observers.
www.ncsu.edu /felder-public/kenny/papers/gr1.html   (7834 words)

 General Relativity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
We know from Special Relativity that rods that are moving relative to us have their lengths contracted along their direction of their motion.
The experimental data confirms that the General Relativity prediction is correct and the Newtonian one is not.
The above figure shows this "advance of the perihelion" predicted by General Relativity, although the advance is not nearly as large as the figure indicates.
www.upscale.utoronto.ca /GeneralInterest/Harrison/GenRel/GenRel.html   (4262 words)

 General Relativity Made Simple
Where general relativity is needed is in the presence of heavy objects or large amounts of energy.
According to general relativity, the shift is 43 degrees per year, which convinced the world the general relativity was a correct theory.
According to general relativity, the sun should make other stars appear to move (this is only an illusion, the stars don't actually move).
www.geocities.com /autotheist/Physics/gr.htm   (409 words)

 General Relativity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The general theory of relativity derives its origin from the need to extend the new space and time concepts of the special theory of relativity from the domain of electric and magnetic phenomena to all of physics and, particularly, to the theory of gravitation.
The difference may be unimportant, for practical reasons, as all of the members of the solar system move at relative speeds far less than 1/1,000of the speed of light; nevertheless, relativistic space-time and Newton's instantaneous action at a distance are fundamentally incompatible.
Though the general theory of relativity is universally accepted as the most satisfactory basis of the gravitational force now known, it has not been completely fused with quantum mechanics, of which the central concept is that energy and angular momentum exist only in finite and discrete lumps, called quanta.
abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/glossary/general_relativity.html   (418 words)

 Special and General Relativity Theory (Albert Einstein)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Spatial relativity, also called Galilean relativity in honour of Galileo who first formulated the concept of relative motion, is often confused with Einstein's theories.
Special Relativity is an extremely elegant construct that deals with things moving near or at the speed of light.
This view of Relativity, that there are different realities, has been picked up unanimously by the public, and hence, has taken on a far greater meaning than that of the original scientific theory, the focus of which was -strictly speaking- on mechanics and electrodynamics.
www.thebigview.com /spacetime/relativity.html   (1531 words)

 Amazon.com: General Relativity: Books: Robert M. Wald   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
There have been many books written on general relativity from both a physical and mathematical viewpoint, but this one stands out as one that is a hybrid between mathematical rigor and physical insight.
In the next chapter, the principle of general covariance is introduced as one that prohibits the existence of perferred vector fields in the laws of physics.
The next chapter is devoted entirely to the Schwarzschild solution, which is used to discuss the four experimental verifications of general relativity, namely the gravitational redshift, the precession of Mercury's orbit, bending of light by the Sun, and the time delay of radar signals.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0226870332?v=glance   (2712 words)

 Gravitation and the General Theory of Relativity
The General Theory of Relativity was Einstein's stupendous effort to remove the restriction on Special Relativity that no accelerations (and therefore no forces) be present, so that he could apply his ideas to the gravitational force.
General Relativity and Newton's gravitational theory make essentially identical predictions as long as the strength of the gravitational field is weak, which is our usual experience.
There is an extra 43 seconds of arc per century in this precession that is predicted by the Theory of General Relativity and observed to occur (recall that a second of arc is 1/3600 of an angular degree).
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr162/lect/cosmology/gravity.html   (794 words)

 General Relativity & Black Holes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Einstein applied his General Theory to the motion of Mercury and found that the somewhat higher gravitational pull as the planet approaches the sun in General Relativity causes Mercury to move a bit further around the sun each time it passes.
In General Relativity gravity is viewed as a curvature of Spacetime so Gravitational Waves are ripples in the fabric of space and time itself.
NASA scientists do not use General Relativity to calculate the paths of spacecraft that are sent to explore the solar system (not because it would be too complicated or difficult, but because it would be a waste of time - Newton was right as far as most things in the Solar System are concerned).
cassfos02.ucsd.edu /public/tutorial/GR.html   (3331 words)

 Unit 57
Before we consider the experimental evidence that is consistent with the General Theory and some of the surprising predictions of the theory, let us briefly consider what has happened to our view of the nature of physical reality as we have taken the cosmic voyage.
The General Theory not only predicts a deflection of light as the light passes near a gravitating body, it also predicts that it should take the light longer to pass through the region near the star.
Both the special and the general theories predict that the axis of a rotating body that is orbiting another body should precess.
astro.physics.sc.edu /selfpacedunits/Unit57.html   (6116 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Physics: Relativity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
General Relativity Simulation Contest - The purpose of this Contest is to prove General Relativity using a (simple) algorithm.
This article is meant for students who have had an exposure to general relativity, but results from general relativity have been derived in the appendices.
Gravity Probe B - Gravity Probe B is the relativity gyroscope experiment being developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two extraordinary, unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
dmoz.org /Science/Physics/Relativity   (704 words)

 Einstein, Albert. 1920. Relativity: The Special and General Theory
The Equality of Inertial and Gravitational Mass as an Argument for the General Postulate of Relativity
The Space-Time Continuum of the General Theory of Relativity Is not a Euclidean Continuum
The Experimental Confirmation of the General Theory of Relativity
www.bartleby.com /173   (321 words)

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